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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



THIRTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL CONVENTION 



OF THE 



American Railway Engineering 
Association 



HELD AT THE 



PALMER HOUSE, CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 
March 16. 17 and 18. 1937 



VOLUME 38 



Copyright, 1937, by 

AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION 

CHICAGO 



BOARD OF DIRECTION 



President 
A. R. Wilson, Engineer Bridges and Buildings, Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Pa. 

First Vice-President 
J. C. Irwin, Valuation Engineer, Boston & Albany Railroad (N.Y.C.R.R.), Boston, Mass. 

Second Vice-President 
F. E. Morrow, Chief Engineer, Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad, Chicago. 

Past-Presidents 

L. W. Baldwin, Chief Executive Officer, Missouri Pacific Lines, St. Louis, Mo. 

John V. Neubert, Chief Engineer Maintenance of Way, New York Central System, New 

York City. 
W. P. WiXTSEE, Chief Engineer, Norfolk & Western Railway, Roanoke, Va. 
John E. Armstrong, Assistant Chief Engineer, Canadian Pacific Railway, Montreal, Que., 

Canada. 
Robert H. Ford, Assistant Chief Engineer, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 

Chicago. 

Treasurer 
A. F. Blaess, Chief Engineer, Illinois Central System, Chicago. 

Secretary 

E. H. Fritch, 59 East Van Buren Street, Chicago. 

Frank McNellis, Assistant Secretary and Assistant Treasurer, Chicago. 

Directors 

R. C. Bardwell, Superintendent Water Supply, Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, Richmond, 

Va. 
W. J. Burton, Assistant to Chief Engineer, Missouri Pacific Railroad, St. Louis, Mo. 
*E. L. Crugar, Chief Engineer, Wabash Railway, St. Louis, Mo. 
Ralph Budd, President, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Chicago. 
Bernard Blum, Chief Engineer, Northern Pacific Railway, St. Paul, Minn. 
William T. Dorrance, Assistant to Chief Engineer, New York, New Haven & Hartford 

Railroad, New Haven, Conn. 
H. R. Clarke, Engineer Maintenance of Way, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 

Chicago. 

F. L. C. Bond, General Manager, Central Region, Canadian National Railways, Toronto, 

Ont., Canada. 
W. M. Post, Assistant Chief Signal Engineer, Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Died, March 2, 1937. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



BUSINESS SESSION 

Page 

BUSINESS SESSION 11 

Introductory Remarks by the President 11 

President's Address 11 

Reports of Secretary and of Treasurer 16, 31 

Financial Statement 30 

Condensed Report of Convention 32 

Report of Tellers 37 

ADDRESS BY THOS. H. MACDONALD 48 

ADDRESS OF HONORABLE HAROLD B. WELLS 

"Th% Best Philosophy of Life" 54 

COMMITTEE REPORTS 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON YARDS AND TERMINALS 65 

Hump Yards 65 

Features to be Considered in the Design of Gravity or Hump Classification 

Yards or in the Equipping of Such Yards with Retarders 66 

Expediting of Freight Car Movements Through Yards 67 

Scales Used in Railway Service 67 

Proposed Specifications for the Manufacture and Installation of Two-Section, 

Knife-Edge Railway Track Scales 68 

Bibliography on Subjects Pertaining to Yards and Terminals Appearing in 

Current Periodicals 82 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 90 

Charles Patterson McCausland, A Memoir 92 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WATER SERVICE, FIRE PROTECTION 

AND SANITATION 93 

Relation of Railway Fire Protection to Municipal and Privately-Owned 

Waterworks 94 

Use of Phosphates in Water Treatment 97 

Cause of and Remedy for Pitting and Corrosion of Locomotive Boiler Tubes 
and Sheets, with Special Reference to Status of Embrittlement 

Investigations 101 

Methods for Analysis of Chemicals Used in Water Treatment 102 

Progress Being Made by Federal or State Authorities on Regulations Pertain- 
ing to Railway Sanitation 105 

Determination of and Means for Reduction of Water Waste 106 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 110 

3 



Table of Contents 



Page 
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON MAINTENANCE OF WAY WORK 

EQUIPMENT lis 

Electric Tie Tampers 115 

Use and Adaptability of Crawler-Type Tractors in Maintenance of Way Work 120 

Machines for Laying Rail and Their Auxiliary Equipment 122 

Track Welding Equipment 128 

Power Bolt Tighteners 131 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 133 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON SHOPS AND LOCOMOTIVE TERMINALS.. 137 
Adaptation of Enginehouses, Shops and Engine Terminal Layouts for Handling 

Oil-Electric Locomotives and Rail Cars 137 

Power Plants 138 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 139 

« 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WATERWAYS AND HARBORS 141 

Warehouse Piers, Coal Piers, Car Float Piers and Others on the Great Lakes 

and Seacoast 142 

Size and Depth of Slips Required for Various Traffic Conditions, Including 

Cost of Construction and Maintenance 152 

What is Navigable Water in Fact ? 155 

REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON COMPLETE ROADWAY AND 

TRACK STRUCTURE 161 

Progress Report 161 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ROADWAY 163 

Physical Properties of Earth Materials 164 

Specifications for Cast Iron Culvert Pipe 167 

Roadway Drainage 173 

Roadway Protection, Particularly Concrete Slab Roadbed 173 

Signs, Particularly Roadway Signs Required 179 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WOOD BRIDGES AND TRESTLES 183 

Design of Wood Trestles for Heavy Loading 183 

Bearing Power of Wood Piles, with Recommendation as to Methods of 

Determination 184 

Recommended Relationships Between the Energy of Hammer and the Weight 

or Mass of Pile for Proper Driving, to Include Concrete Piles 184 

Improved Design of Timber Structures to Give Longer Life with Lower Cost 

of Maintenance 185 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM GENERAL CONTRACT FORMS. 187 

Shelby S. Roberts, A Memoir 187 

Form of Agreement for Cab Stand and Baggage Transfer Privileges 188 



Table of Contents 



Page 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON BALLAST 191 

Revision of Manual 191 

Specifications for Stone Ballast 192 

Proper Depth of Ballast— Los Angeles Testing Machine 195 

Design of Ballast Sections in Line with Present-Day Requirements 202 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON SIGNALS AND INTERLOCKING 205 

Developments in Railway Signaling 205 

Principal Current Activities of the Signal Section, AAR, by Synopsis, Sup- 
plemented with List and References by Number of Adopted Speci- 
fications, Designs and Principles of Signaling Practice 211 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RAIL 215 

Revision of Manual 216 

w-^urther Research, Including Details of Mill Practice and Manufacture as they 
Affect Rail Quality and Rail Failures, Giving Special Attention to 
Transverse Fissure Failures, Collaborating with Rail Manufacturers' 

Technical Committee 217 

Rail Failure Statistics for 1935 218 

Transverse Fissure Statistics 224 

AAR Detector Car 2}-2 

Cause and Prevention of Rail Battering and Methods of Reconditioning Rail 

Ends, Fastenings, and Frogs in Track 232 

Rail Lengths in Excess of 39 Feet 233 

Continuous Welding of Rail 247 

Service Tests of Various Types of Joint Bars 247 

Effect of Contour of the Head of Rail Sections on the Wear 24Q 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 252 

Earl Stimson, A Memoir 254 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON HIGHWAYS 255 

Revision of Manual 256 

Highway-Railroad Grade Crossing Signs 256-262 

Design and Specifications for Highway Crossings at Grade Over Railway 

Tracks, Both Steam and Electric 263 

Specifications for the Construction of Pre-Cast Concrete Slab Crossings.. 263 

"Gates-Not- Working" and "Watchman-Not-On-Duty" Signs 265-270 

Barrier Type of Grade Crossing Protection, Including Automatic Gates 271 

Requisites for Automatic Gates 271 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 272 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON BUILDINGS 273 

Revision of Manual 274 

Specifications for Railway Buildings 275 

Reinforced Brick Masonry Chimney 277 

Cement Grouted Macadam Platforms, Floors, Pavements and Pavement 

Bases 282 



Table of Contents 



Report of Commtttee on Buildings (Continued) Page 

Influence of the Design of Buildings on Fire Insurance Rates 288 

Different Tjpes of Paint and their Economical Selection 291 

Design of Small Cold Storage Plants for Railway Use 293 

Stockpens 296 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 299 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON IRON AND STEEL STRUCTURES 301 

Application of and Specifications for Fusion Welding and Gas Cutting of 

Steel Structures, Collaborating with ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel.. 302 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 307 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WOOD PRESERVATION 309 

Service Test Records for Treated Ties 309 

Piling Used for Marine Construction -. 334 

Destruction by Termites and Possible Ways of Prevention 346 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 349 

Frank Cummings Shepherd, A Memoir 352 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LABOR 355 

Analysis of Operations of Railways That Have Made Marked Progress in 

Reduction of Labor Required in Maintenance of Way Work 356 

Organization of Forces and Methods of Performing Maintenance of Way Work 364 

Economies in Labor to be Effected Through Increased Capital Expenditures... 370 
Economies in Track Labor to be Effected in the Maintenance of Joints by 

Welding and the Use of Reformed Bars 373 

Effect of Higher Speeds on the Labor Cost of Track Maintenance 375 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 378 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY OPERATION... 381 

Methods for Obtaining a More Intensive Use of Existing Railway Facilities . . 382 
Methods or Formulae for the Solution of Special Problems Relating to More 

Economical and Efficient Railway Operation (withdrawn) 389 

Method of Determining the Effect of a Moderate Change in Traffic Density 

Upon the Operating Ratio of a Railway 403 

Train Resistance as Affected by Weight of Rail 409 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS OF RAILWAY LOCATION.... 421 

Revision of Manual 421 

Steam Locomotives 421, 423 

Power 423 

Electric Locomotives 423 

Form for Calculating the Tractive Effort and Horsepower Output of 

Typical Electric Locomotives — Direct Current 426 

Single Phase Alternating Current 428 

Motor Generator Locomotive 429 

REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON ECONOMICS OF BRIDGES AND 

TRESTLES 433 

Progress Report 433 



Table of Contents 7 



Page 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON MASONRY 437 

Revision of Manual 438 

Specifications and Principles of Design of Plain and Reinforced Concrete 438 

Progress in the Science and Art of Concrete Manufacture 446 

Specifications for Foundations 448 

General Specifications for Soil Testing for Railway Foundations 448 

Proposed Specifications for Placing Concrete by Pumping 449 

Review of ASTM Specification C76-3ST for Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe 450 

Rating of Existing Reinforced Concrete Structures 451 

Frederick E. Schall, A Memoir 452 

Z. H. Sikes, A Memoir 452 

REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON IMPACT 453 

Progress Report 453 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 454 

REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON STRESSES IN RAILROAD TRACK 455 

Progress Report 455 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ELECTRICITY 457 

Summary of Reports of Electrical Section 457 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON STANDARDIZATION 461 

American Standards Association 462 

Canadian Engineering Standards Association 464 

Tabulation of Specifications and Recommended Practices as Contained in the 
Manual and Supplemental Bulletins, Which are Presented for Uniform 

Practice on all Railroads 466 

Standards Approved by American Standards Association 469 

American Standards Association Technical Projects on Which the Association 

of American Railroads is Now Cooperating 471 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TRACK 475 

Revision of Manual 476 

Errata and Revisions of Plans Since Latest Issue Included in Appendix E 

of Trackwork Plans 477 

Report on Design of Railbound Frog Castings 478 

Fastenings for Continuous Welding of Rail 493 

Extract of Report on "Welding Rails Together in Track" 498 

Plans and Specifications for Track Tools 501 

Plans for Switches, Frogs, Crossings, Slip Switches, etc., and Track Construction 

in Paved Streets 503 

Design of Tie Plates for RE Rail Sections as Developed 504 

Determination of the Limiting Relative Positions of the Abutting Rails of 

Fbced and Drawspans of Bridges and Proper Tolerances 508 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 509 

Revised Designs for Cut Track Spikes 510 

5/8 Inch Raised Throat Track Spike 511 

9/16 Inch Raised Throat Track Spike 512 



Table of Contents 



Page 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TIES 513 

Extent of Adherence to Standard Specifications 514 

Substitutes for Wood Ties 514 

Best Practice From the Manufacture of the Tie to its Installation in Track.. 516 

Effect of Different Kinds of Ballast on Life of Ties 521 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 522 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RECORDS AND ACCOUNTS S2S 

Revision of Manual 526 

Progress Profile 527 

Bibliography on Subjects Pertaining to Records and Accounts 526 

Office and Drafting Room Practice 5.^0 

Recommended Practices to be Followed with Respect to Maintenance of Way 

Accounts and Statistical Requirements 553 

Construction Reports and Records 554 

Methods and Forms for Gathering Data for Keeping Up to Date the Property 
Records of Railways with Respect to Valuation, Accounting, 

Depreciation and Other Requirements 568 

Valuation 568 

Accounting and Depreciation 575 

Methods for Avoiding Duplication of Effort and for Simplifying and Co- 
ordinating Work Under the Requirements of the Interstate Commerce 

Commission 576 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RULES AND ORGANIZATION 577 

Revision of Manual 577 

Rules for Maintenance of Bridges — Wood Structures 584 

Rules for Fire Protection 585 

Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee 587 

REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON WATERPROOFING OF RAILWAY 

STRUCTURES 591 

Progress Report 591 



Table of Contents 



DISCUSSIONS 

Page 
Clearances 36 

Standardization 593 

Yards and Terminals 594 

Shops and Locomotive Terminals 595 

Uniform General Contract Forms 595 

Waterproofing of Railway Structures 597 

Electricity 598 

Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 609 

Waterways and Harbors 613 

Roadway 614 

Ballast 621 

Wood Bridges and Trestles 624 

Iron and Steel Structures 629 

Impact 630 

Economics of Bridges and Trestles 633 

Highways 634 

Rail 635 

Third Progress Report on Investigation of Steel Rails, by H. F. Moore 645 

Stresses in Railroad Track 674 

Signals and Interlocking 682 

Records and Accounts 685 

Economics of Railway Operation 691 

Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 695 

Economics of Railway Labor 697 

Ties 703 

Economics of Railway Location 705 

Rules and Organization 707 

Track 710 

Masonry 715 

Buildings 730 

Wood Preservation ,,.,,,, 735 



BUSINESS SESSION 



PROCEEDINGS 



The object of this Association is the advancement of knowledge pertaining to the scientific 

and economic location, construction and maintenance of Railways. 

Its action is not binding upon its members. 



TUESDAY, MARCH 16, 1937 

MORNING SESSION 

The Thirty-eighth Annual Convention of the American Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation was called to order in the Grand Ball Room of the Palmer House, Chicago, 
Illinois, by the President, Mr. A. R. Wilson, Engineer Bridges and Buildings, Pennsylvania 
Railroad. 

The President: — The meeting will please come to order. This is the Thirty-eighth 
Annual Meeting of the American Railway Engineering Association. It is now declared 
open for business. This meeting is also the annual meeting of the Construction and 
Maintenance Section, Division IV — Engineering, Association of American Railroads, the 
meetings being concurrent. 

The first order of business is the reading of the Minutes of the last annual meeting. 
Inasmuch as these Minutes have been printed and a copy furnished to each member, 
unless there is objection, the reading of the Minutes will be dispensed with. As there 
is no objection, the Minutes stand approved as printed. 

Will the Board of Direction please come to the platform ? The next order of business 
is the President's Address. 

ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT A. R. WILSON 

Fellow-Members : 

I rise to address this Convention with the same sense of pride and pleasure that I 
have felt during the last twelve months in representing a body of men who stand for 
the highest type of efficient and honest work, both in principle and practice. 

In 1900 this Association was organized. With the "March of Time" we are now 
holding our Thirty-eighth Annual Convention. 

Logicians tell us people traveling the trail of life will reach their goals successfully 
if they establish well-defined guide-marks early in life. This is equally applicable to an 
organization. The small group of railroad men who met and organized this Association 
had a big vision of its possibilities. Their judgment and foresight have been justified 
many times. 

This Association having as its object the advancement of knowledge pertaining to 
the scientific and economic location, construction, operation and maintenance of railways; 
and with its plan of organization and method of operating it; there are few if any 
organizations in existence today which function more successfully or accomplish greater 
results than the American Railway Engineering Association. 

The principal reason for the existence of this Association is the assistance which, by 
the concerted action of its membership, it can give to the individual railway engineer 
and to the railways. Insofar as it has fulfilled this purpose it has prospered. As long 
as it is the most efficient agency for securing required engineering information and results 
it will continue to prosper, for it will be supported, not only by its own membership, 
but by the railways which reap the benefits of the work it does. 

11 



12 Business Session 



To follow its work through the annual Proceedings gives one a most comprehensive 
idea of the improvement in the art of manufacturing transportation, and at the same 
time shows clearly what has been done to simplify practice, to standardize materials and 
structures, all of which tends to the maximum of efficiency in the personnel and economy 
to the railroad. 

The "Manual of Recommended Practices" 

In the early years of the Association's existence it was decided to assemble in one 
volume the recommended definitions, specifications and principles of practice for railway 
engineering and maintenance of way work; special care being observed that only such 
matter be included as had been carefully considered by the Association prior to its adop- 
tion at the annual conventions. 

Two years ago your Board, recognizing that the 1929 Manual and supplements should 
be thoroughly reviewed and revised, authorized such work to be undertaken. A special 
committee was appointed and the employing on full time of an editor under the general 
direction of the Manual Committee. Today we see the results — a volume of inestimable 
value, covering railroad engineering, the Association should regard it as its proudest 
achievement. 

The Engineer 

Everything created and built by man first took shape in the form of an "idea"; 
a great engineering development — a fine work of art, a large office building, a national 
transportation system, each had their beginning in an "idea." There seems to be a 
growing consciousness on the part of the public and their leaders in public affairs that 
engineering is playing and will continue to play, an increasingly important part in the 
activities of the modern world. All sorts of wild notions are brought forward as reve- 
lations of the short and direct route to new and greater opportunity. But as these have 
successively failed to produce the wished-for result or as saner thought has demonstrated 
their fallacy, the idea has become more widespread that, after all, technical knowledge 
and methods have played a major part in the stupendous advances of the last century. 

Calmer minds, however, realize that, after all, it is not the scientist but the Engineer 
who makes available to mankind the increasing technical as well as scientific knowledge 
which is such an important factor in modern life. Science, in short, is knowledge — 
knowledge of the world in which we live — but knowledge is, in itself, of secondary im- 
portance today. Rather, progress depends on our ability to apply and use knowledge 
as a tool with which man can increase his control over his environment and thus make 
the world a better, safer place in which to live. 

The belief that it is even more difficult to apply knowledge than to discover it, 
is slowly gaining headway. Time was when the discovery of any useful truth was almost 
immediately reflected in improvements in life or living. Today this is no longer true — 
we know far more than we are able to apply. It is the man who has developed the 
technique of applying knowledge to the material needs of man who is in demand — the 
Engineer. 

The scope of engineering today is difficult to define simply because the viewpoint 
and methods of the Engineer are being constantly applied to a wider and wider field. 
It has become almost impossible to write a definition of engineering that will be broad 
enough to include all engineering activities and yet be explicit enough to constitute a 
real definition. 

Apparently the tide is turning. The Engineer is being called upon to aid in design- 
ing public policies and programs as well as public works. He has no mysterious and 
magic formula to suggest, but he has a viewpoint which is fundamental to the sane 



President's Address 13 



solution of any problem and a technique that reduces, as far as is humanly possible, 
the risk of making costly errors or mistakes. These should be valuable assets to a nation, 
state, or community as well as to private enterprise. They require a careful, honest, 
unbiased attempt to see, appraise, and evaluate all angles of a problem and similarly 
honest and painstaking planning to meet these needs. The Engineer realizes that public 
problems, unlike many private ones, involve not single but often many interests. That 
these interests are all entitled to consideration goes without saying, and the final answer 
must be framed to meet the sometimes conflicting demands of various social, political, 
and economic forces. The public interest requires, however, that the final answer to these 
problems shall be the best that modern standards and methods can devise. The view- 
point and the method must be those of the Engineer. 

Throughout the ages, the Engineer's principal stock-in-trade has been his reputation 
for absolute honesty and care in searching out, analyzing and appraising the basic facts 
and economic values of those enterprises in the field of his professional activities. When 
he has recommended a work, he has staked his reputation and standing on its feasibility 
and soundness. 

There is the old story of the Engineer who was asked by an intelligent female 
whether Engineers could move Pike's Peak to the middle of the Sahara Desert. The 
answer was, "Yes, but why do it?" The late General Carty, Chief Engineer of the New 
York Telephone Company, always asked his assistants three questions about any project 
submitted to him for approval: "Why do it this way? Why do it at all? Why do 
it now?" 

A bridge may fail physically through errors in structural design or judgment, or it 
may fail economically through similar errors of economic analysis or judgment. Either 
failure is an engineering disaster. There are, thus, many completed works which are 
technically perfect, but which are complete engineering failures. Some of these mistakes 
are unavoidable and they occur in connection with private as well as public undertakings. 

In a large measure, progress in engineering is marked by the reduction of engineering 
technique to a science. Beginning about the time of our Civil War, Engineers began to 
compute stresses from loads, to test materials, and to proportion structural parts to meet 
the stresses which analysis showed they would be subjected to. This development was 
supported, as it led to economy. 

Research 

Standardization may discourage research, but research is bound to aid standardiza- 
tion — our progress may be retarded by reducing our ideas and mind to a standard. 
Research and more research "promotes knowledge of the properties of the materials and 
methods of engineering." This knowledge must be obtained before sound specifications 
can be promulgated and before sound practices can be recommended. 

Research in the Civil Engineer's field has shown remarkable activity and achievement 
during the past year. 

Work has been carried on by various agencies and Universities, such as the National 
Bureau of Standards, Portland Cement Association, Watertown Arsenal, Iowa State 
College, Lehigh University, Columbia University and University of Illinois, which include 
fatigue tests on heat treated wire as used in cable wire for bridge structure; further 
developing the chemistry of metals, method of manufacture, heat treatment, resistance to 
fatigue and corrosion. It would seem that we are now or soon will be faced with the 
necessity of using less material for our design, this placing a premium on technical skill 
and ingenuity, thus requiring more reliable data on the properties of materials. 



14 Business Session 



Recently great improvements have been made in filler metal for welds. Not only 
has the ductility been increased by using heavily coated electrode, but filler metals now 
available produce welds that equal or exceed the base metal in other physical properties. 

The international conference at Harvard last June revealed the wide extent of 
practical interest in the new science of soil mechanics — this new science making a powerful 
impression on engineering practices during the past year. Every large construction 
enterprise concerned with the earth as a foundation or a construction material relies on 
soil laboratory guidance. 

Under the direction of the Rail Committee, the tests at the University of Illinois 
contributed information as to the prevention of fissures in rails, shown to be due to 
"shatter cracks" in the head of the rail. The Association of American Railroads has, 
with the rail interests, appropriated an additional sum to extend this work until January 
1, 1939. 

However, research should not be satisfied merely to remedy existing difficulties, but 
should constantly strive to develop new ideas, better devices and improved methods, while 
keeping fully informed of the new facts revealed by other industries. Research should 
back away from things at hand and should take a view of transportation as a whole. 

To be of maximum value, all research activities in railroading must be coordinated 
with one major objective in view; an objective which keeps constantly in mind the place 
of the railroad in the transportation fabric of the country. All past studies, technical, 
social and economic, must be carefully analyzed, and new developments planned to suit 
the constantly changing conditions, but with the main objective in mind. 

This Association cannot fail when its members join in a common endeavor to pro- 
mulgate specifications and recommend practices, and whose membership is composed of 
men schooled in railroad engineering and having at their command the results of research. 

In closing I wish to say that the service of your President during the past year has 
been a service of delight and profit to him, and this and whatever success we have had 
is due to that generous support and cooperation and to the loyal and efficient work con- 
fidently forecast of you as I stood here a year ago and which I now find fulfilled by 
you; and, for this, I thank you (Applause.) 

The President: — ^The next order of business is the report of the Secretary and of 
the Treasurer. Will the Secretary please present these reports? 



Business Session IS 



Secretary E. H. Fritch: — Mr. President and Members: — The reports of the Secre- 
tary and of the Treasurer appear in Bulletin 394, beginning at page 99. As these two 
reports have not been in your hands a sufficient length of time to give opportunity for 
reviewing them, they will be briefly abstracted. 

In the Secretary's report, the first item dealt with is Finances. The financial con- 
dition of your Association, as will be noted from the Financial Statement for the calendar 
year 1936, is quite satisfactory. The Excess of Receipts over Ordinary Expenditures 
was $3,592.00. 

The expenditures for account of the Manual revision work, being an extraordinary 
expenditure, was $9,611.86. 

The General Balance Sheet shows interest-bearing investments of $67,310.64. 

Membership. — During the year, the Board Committee on Membership has given 
active study to the problem of increasing the membership. Various methods have been 
proposed, such as the selection of a "keyman" on each road, who would be expected to 
canvass the situation on his particular railroad to develop and discover eligible prospects. 
Such persons would be contacted by the Membership Committee and invitations to 
become affiliated with the organization extended, supported by appropriate literature. 
Another avenue of approach to the problem is the medium of the standing and special 
committees. This method has been tried in the past with gratifying success. The possi- 
bilities of other means will also receive attention during the current year, and it is hoped 
will result in substantial additions to the membership rolls. 

The Association has suffered the loss of thirty loyal and faithful members during 
the year. Among our departed associates were a number who were outstanding in their 
efforts to promote its welfare and interest. Among the most active may be cited the 
following: Earl Stimson, S. S. Roberts, Edward H. Lee, John Brunner, Edward L. 
Crugar, Onward Bates, F. E. Schall, C. P. McCausland. 

Publications. — The new Manual has been issued and is available for distribution. 
The current issue in an innovation, in that it is in looseleaf form as distinguished from 
the rigid bound form heretofore employed. A special staff has been engaged during the 
past two years in compiling the data for the new issue. 

General. — Contact has been maintained with other organizations in the study of 
problems of mutual concern. 

Boiler Feedwater Studies. — An allowance of fifteen thousand dollars for a two- 
year period for conducting boiler feedwater studies has been made by the AAR. These 
studies are being carried on under the supervision of a Joint Committee, on which the 
AREA is represented. 

Continuous Welding of Rail. — A special investigation has been authorized by the 
AAR in relation to continuous welding of rails. An allowance of ten thousand dollars 
has been set aside for this purpose. 

Track Scales. — In cooperation with the Traffic Department, the Engineering Divi- 
sion has supervised the issuing of comprehensive pamphlet on track scales. Five thou- 
sand copies have been made available of this important publication. 

Civn, Engineering Research. — Reference is made to the "Plan of Procedure — Civil 
Engineering Research," proposed by the Engineering Division. The plan has been pre- 
sented to the proper officers of the AAR. It is understood that it has been approved 
in principle by the Board of Directors. 

Appointment of Assistant Treasurer. — At the Board meeting on March 12th, 
1936, President Wilson called attention to the desirability of designating an Assistant 
Treasurer, and proposed Mr. Frank McNeills, the Assistant Secretary, for this duty. 
The appointment of Mr. McNeills was duly ratified by the Board of Direction. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 

March 1, 1937. 



To the Members: 

This report is a summary of the activities, projects, and services performed by your 
Association during the past year, grouped under appropriate headings. 

FINANCES 

The Financial Statement for the calendar year ending December 31, 1936, as shown 
on another page, discloses the following facts: 

The Budget for 1936, as approved by the Board of Direction, called for an allow- 
ance of $26,314.00 for Ordinary or Current Expenditures. 

The Actual Expenditures, as shown by the Financial Statement, were $25,050.11. 

The Estimated Receipts for 1936, as submitted with the Budget, were $26,400.00. 

The Actual Receipts, as indicated in the Financial Statement, were $28,643.06. 

The Excess of Receipts Over Ordinary Disbursements were $3,592.95. 

At the Board meeting of March 14, 1935, it was voted to employ assistance for the 
Manual revision work. A special appropriation of $5,000.00 for this purpose was made 
by the Board for the balance of the year 1935. The expenditures chargeable to this 
work to December 31, 1935, were $4,799.49. 

On December 5, 1935, the Board voted to appropriate the sum of $5,000.00 for 
contmuing the Manual revision work in 1936. 

The expenditures for Manual revision work during 1936 were $9,611.86, including 
binders and paper stock. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Present Status. — The number of members on the rolls as of March 1, 1936, totalled 
1910. The additions during the year were 127; the losses by death, resignations and 
dropped were HI. The total membership as of March 1, 1937, is 1926. 

The Membership Committee of the Board has given active consideration to the 
question of increasing the membership during the year. Several avenues of approach 
have been proposed, among them (1) the selection of a "keyman" on each railroad; 
(2) the medium of the standing committees; (3) the general membership, and (4) the 
Board of Direction. These various methods will be given further consideration and the 
possibilities explored for accomplishing the desired results. 

Increased membership will have the effect of stimulating the Association's activities 
by supplying new workers on committees, extending the usefulness of the Association's 
work by its wider dissemination and application, and in providing additional financial 
support. 

It has been the experience in the past that a suggestion from a member is frequently 
all that is required to secure a desirable addition to the membership. 

Among the benefits of membership are (1) participation in a great work; (2) oppor- 
tunities for contact with others engaged in similar lines of work, and thus keeping abreast 

16 



Report of Secretary 17 

of developments; (3) new members bring new thoughts, new ideas, new points of view; 
also, they bring new problems, resulting in desirable expansion of association work. 

Deceased Members. — Elsewhere in this report is a roster of members who have 
passed away since the last annual meeting. It is with deep regret that we record the 
loss of our departed associates. Their contributions to its work and activities have been 
material factors in making the Association an effective force in railway affairs. It b 
quite fitting and proper that special mention be made of those deceased members who 
were outstanding in the affairs of the Association: 

Earl Stimson, Chief Engineer Maintenance, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad — Past- 

President; Past-Chairman, Engineering Division; Chairman, Rail Committee; former 

Chairman, Committee on Wood Preservation; member Committee on Stresses in 
Railroad Track. 

S. S. Roberts, former Assistant Director, Bureau of Finance, Interstate Commerce 
Commission ; Chief Section of Securities, ICC ; Past-Director of the AREA ; in railway 
service, Illinois Central and Louisville and Nashville; Professor of Railway Civil Engi- 
neering, University of Illinois; member of AREA Committee on Wood Bridges and 
Trestles, Track, Yards and Terminals, Economics of Railway Location, Ties, Uniform 
General Contract Forms. 

Edward H. Lee, retired President, Chicago and Western Indiana Railroad — Charter 
Member of the AREA; member of Board of Direction, 1918-1920; Vice-President, 
1921-2; President, 1923; Chairman, Engineering Division, 1923; served on Committee 
on Uniform General Contract Forms, 1908-1921, six years as Chairman. 

John Brunner, Metallurgical Engineer, Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation — ^mem- 
ber of AREA since 1902; for sLx years member Committee on Iron and Steel Structures; 
member Committee on Stresses in Railroad Track from its formation; member Rail 
Manufacturers' Technical Committee, cooperating with AREA Rail Committee in the 
transverse fissure investigation. 

Edward L. Crugar, Chief Engineer, Wabash Railway; member of Board of Direc- 
tion, AREA; member Nominating Committee; member Committee on Ties. 

Frederick E. Schall, former Bridge Engineer of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. 
Served on several committees of the AREA and participated actively in discussions on 
the floor of conventions. 

Onward Bates, retired Consulting Engineer — Charter Member; active in AREA 
committee-work in early years of organization. 

C. P. McCausland, Engineer of Surveys, Western Maryland Railroad — a loyal and 
hardworking member of Committee on Yards and Terminals. 



18 



Business Session 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MEMBERSHIP 

United States and Possessions 



Alabama 8 

Arizona ^ 

Arkansas 13 

California 49 

Colorado IS 

Connecticut 21 

Delaware 1 

District of Columbia 31 

Florida 12 

Georgia 27 

Hawaii 1 

Idaho 1 

Illinois 291 

Indiana 32 

Iowa 19 

Kansas 32 

Kentucky 27 

Louisiana 16 

Maine 9 

Maryland 35 

Massachusetts 42 

Michigan 43 

Minnesota 64 

Mississippi 6 

Missouri 114 

Montana 7 



Nebraska 22 

New Hampshire 4 

New Jersey 34 

New Mexico 1 

New York 162 

North CaroHna 17 

North Dakota 2 

Ohio 147 

Oklahoma 8 

Oregon 6 

Pennsylvania 152 

Porto Rico 1 

Rhode Island 3 

South Carolina 1 

South Dakota 1 

Tennessee 19 

Texas 72 

Utah 5 

Vermont 8 

Virginia 85 

Washington 17 

West Virginia 19 

Wisconsin 13 



1718 



Other Countries 



Canada 106 

Japan 22 

Mexico 14 

Brazil 8 

India 7 

Australia 6 

China 6 

Argentine 5 

England 5 

Central America S 

Union Sov. Soc. Rep 4 

Cuba 3 



Manchukuo . . . . 

Africa 

Czecho-Slovakia 

Scotland 

Switzerland . . . . 

Bolivia 

Columbia 

France 

Germany 

Siam 



208 



Report of Secretary 19 



Beccaseb 0Ltmhtt% 



Porter Allen 
Chief Engineer Maintenance of Way, Pennsylvania Railroad 

Joseph Bancroft 

President, Huntingdon and Broad Top Mountain Railroad 

W. K. Barnard 
Consulting Engineer 

Onward Bates 
Consulting Engineer 

J. J. Baxter 

Assistant Chief Engineer, Wabash Railway 

John Brunner 

Manager, Department of Metallurgy, Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corp iration 

Frank Buckley 
Assistant Engineer, Kenya and Uganda Railways 

W. B. Causey 
Vice-President, M. E. White Company 

G. C. Cleveland 
Consulting Engineer, New York Central Railroad, West of Buffalo 

S. E. Coombs 
Special Engineer, New York Central Railroad 

Edward L. Crugar 
Chief Engineer, Wabash Railway 

R. P. Graham 
Engineer Maintenance of Way, Pennsylvania Railroad 

Ralph Jones 

Assistant Superintendent, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 

C. W. Landgraf 
Water Chemist, Illinois Central System 

Edward H. Lee 

President (Retired), Chicago and Western Indiana Railroad 



20 BusinessSession 



JBccea^eb Mtmheti 



C. p. McCausland 

Engineer "f Surveys, Western Maryland Railroad 

E. H. Olson 

Assistant Engineer, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 

S. S. Roberts 

Assistant Director, Bureau of Finance, Interstate Commerce Commission 

J. S. Ruff 

Division Engineer, New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad 

D. B. Rush 

President, Rush-Roberts Engineering Company 

Frederick E. Schall 
Consulting Bridge Engineer, Lehigh Valley Railroad 

Z. H. SiKES 
Assistant Engineer Structures, New York Central Railroad 

T. L. Simmons 

Chief Engineer, Board of Railroad Commissioners for Canada 

L. L. Sparrow 
Engineer of Statistics, Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 

Earl Stimson 
Chief Engineer Maintenance, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 

H. Stringfellow 
Executive Representative, Missouri Pacific Railroad 

F. J. Taylor 

District Engineer (Retired), Northern Pacific Railway 

J. G. Tedei^s 
Assistant Engineer, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 

A. E. Wallace 

Vice-President and General Manager, Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railway 

S. N. Williams 
Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering, Cornell College 



Report of Secretary 21 



COMMITTEE-WORK 

Outline of Work. — In the "President's Message," promulgated on April 1, 1936, 
an important and timely change was made in the customary assignment relative to future 
committee-work. In lieu of the perennial instruction "Outline of work for the ensuing 
year," that assignment now reads "Outline of complete field of work of this Committee." 
The object being to return to the early practice of the Association of having for each 
committee a complete skeleton of its field of work to guide it. The outline of work 
promulgated in 1900 contained such schedules for the original fourteen committees. 

List of Subjects Reported on by Committees. — The following is a reference 
to the studies made and reported on by the respective standing and special committees 
during the year: 

Roadway Bulletin 390 

Physical Properties of Earth Materials • 

Specifications for Cast Iron Culvert Pipe 

Roadway Drainage 

Roadway Protection, Particularly Concrete Slab Roadbed 

."■Jgns, Particularly Roadway Signs Required 

Ballast Bulletin 390 

Specifications for Stone Ballast 

Proper Depth of Ballast; Los Angeles Testing Machine 

Design cf Ballast Sections in Line with Present-Day Requirements 

Ties Bulletin 393 

Extent I f Adherence to Standard Specifications 

Substitutes for Wood Ties 

Best Practice from the Manufacture of the Tie to its Installation in Track 

Effect of Different Kinds of Ballast on Life of Ties 

Rail Bulletin 391 

Mill Practice 

Rail Failure Statistics for 1935 

Transverse Fissure Statistics 

Cause and Prevention of Rail Battering 

Rail Lengths in Excess of 39 Feet 

Continuous Welding of Rail 

Service Tests of Various Types of Joint Bars 

Effect of Contour of the Head of Rail Sections on the Wear 

112-lb. RE Rail Section (revised) 

Track Bulletin 393 

Design of Ra!lbound Frog Castings 

Fastenings for Continuous Welding i f Rail 

Extracts of Report on "Welding Rails Together in Track" 

Plans and Specifications for Track Tools 

Plans for Switches, Frogs, Crossings, Slip Switches, etc.. and Track Construction in 

Paved Streets 
Design of Tie Plates for RE Rail Sections 
Determination < f the Limiting Relative Positions of the Abutting Rails of Fixed and 

Drawspans of Bridges and Proper Tolerances 
Revised Designs for Cut Track Spikes 

Buildings Bulletin 391 

Freight Houses; Roofings 

Specifications for Railway Buildings 

Different Types of Paint and their Economical Selection — Exposure Record 

Design of Small Cold Storage Plants for Railway Use 

Stcckpens 

Wood Bridges and Trestles Bulletin 390 

Design of Wood Trestles for Heavy Loading 

Bearing Power of Wood Piles 

Recommended Relationships Between the Energy of Hammer and the Weight or Mass 

of Pile for Proper Driving, Including Concrete Piles 
Improved Design of Timber Structures to Give Longer Life, with Lower Cost of 

Maintenance 



22 Business Session 



Masonry Bulletin 392 

Specifications and Princ'ples of Design of Plain and Reinforced Concrete 

Progres> in the Science and Art of Concrete Manufacture 

Specifications for Foundations 

I'll p >Md Specifications for Placing Concrete by Pumping 

Review . f ASTAl Specification C76-35T for Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe 

Ra:ing of Existing Reinforced Concrete Structures 

Highways Bulletin 391 

90 Degree Sheet Steel Crossing Sign Assembly for Suspension Over Highway and Details 
Design and Specifications for Highway Crossings at Grade Over Railway Tracks, Both 

Steam and Electric 
■'Gates-Not-VVurking" and "Watchmen-Not-On-Duty" Signs 
Barrier Type of Grade Crossing Protection, Including Automatic Gates 

Signals and Interlocking Bulletin 390 

Developments in Railway Signaling 
4 Principal Current Activities of the Signal Section, AAR 

Records and Accounts Bulletin 393 

Progress Profile 

Biblijgraphy on Subjects Pertaining to Records and Accounts 

Office and Drafting Room Practice 

Recommended Practices to be Followed with Respect to Maintenance of Way Accounts 

and Statistical Requirements 
Construction Reports and Rec rds 
Methods and Forms for Gathering Data for Keeping Up to Date the Property Records 

of Railways with Respect to Valuation, Accounting, Depreciation and other 

Requirements 
Methods for Avoiding Duplication of Effort and for Simplifying and Coordinating 

Work Under the Requirements of the Interstate Commerce Commission 

Rules and Organization Bulletin 393 

Rules for Maintenance of Bridges — Wood Structures 
Rules f r Fire Protection 

Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation Bulletin 389 

Relation of Railway Fire Protection to Municipal and Privately-Owned Waterworks 

Use of Pho phates in Water Treatment 

Cause of and Remedy for Pitting and Corrosion of Locomotive Boiler Tubes and Sheets 

— Status of Embrittlement Investigations 
Methods for Analysis of Chemicals Used in Water Treatment 
Progress in Federal or State Regulations Relative to Railway Sanitation 
Determination of and Means for Reduction of Water Waste 

Yards and Terminals Bulletin 389 

Hump Yards 

The Expediting of Freight Car Movements Through Yards 

Scales Used in Railway Service 

Proposed Specifications for the Manufacture and Installation of Two-Section 
Knife-Edge Railway Track Scales 
Bibliography on Subjects Relating to Yards and Terminals 

Iron and Steel Structures Bulletin 391 

Application of and Specifications for Fusion Welding and Gas Cutting to 
Steel Structures 



i 



Economics of Railway Location Bulletin 

Steam Locomotives 
Electric Loc motives 

Forms for Calculating the Tractive Effort and Horsepower Output of Typical Loco- 
LocimotWe"''"*^' Current; Single Phase Alternating Current, and Motor Generator 



392 



Report of Secretary 2^ 

Wood Preservation Bulletin 391 

Service Test Records for Treated Ties 
Piling Used for Marine Constructi m 
Destruction by Termites and Possible Ways of Prevention 

Electricity Bulletin 392 

Synopsis of Reports of the Electrical Section. AAR 

Uniform General Contract Forms Bulletin 390 

Form of Agreement for Cab Stand and Baggage Transfer Privileges 

Economics of Railway Operation Bulletin 392 

Methods for Obtaining a More Intensive Use of Existing Railway Facilities 

Methods or Formulae for the Solution of Special Problems Relating to More Econom- 
ical and Efficient Railway Operation 

Method of Determining the Effect of a Moderate Change in Traffic Density Upon the 
Operating Ratio of a Railway 

Train Resistance as Affected by Weight of Rail 

Economics of Railway Labor Bulletin 391 

Analysis of Operations of Railways thit have made Marked Progress in Reduction of 

Labor Required in Maintenance of Way Work 
OgTnizati)n of Forces and Methods of Performing Maintenance of Way Work 
Economies in Labor t > be Effected Through Increased Capital Expenditures 
Economies in Track Labor to be Effected in the Maintenance of Joints by Welding 

and the Use of Reformed Bars 
Effect of Higher Speeds on the Labor Cost of Track Maintenance 

Shops and Locomotive Terminals Bulletin 389 

Adaptation of Engine Houses, Shops and Engine Terminal Layouts for Handling Oil- 
Electric Locomotives and Rail Cars 
Power Plants 

Waterways and Harbors Bulletin 389 

Warehouse Piers. Coal Piers. Car Fl lat Piers 

Size and Depth of Slips Required for Various Traffic Conditions 

What is Navigable Water in Fact 

Standardization Bulletin 393 

American Standards Association 

Canadian Engineering Standards Association 

Tabulation of Specifirati n-^ and Recommended Practices as Contained in the Manual 
and Supplemental Bulletins, Which are Presented for Uniform Practice on all 
Railroads 

Standards Approved by the American Standards Association 

American Standards Association Technical Projects on Which the Association of Amer- 
ican Railroads is Cooperating 

Maintenance of Way Work Equipment Bulletin 389 

Electric Tie Tampers 

Use and Adaptability of Crawler-Type Tractors 

Rail Laying Machines and Auxiliary Equipment 

Track Welding Equipment 

Power Bolt Tighteners 

Waterproofing of Railway Structures Bulletin 393 

Progress Report 

Stresses in Railroad Track Bulletin 392 

Progress Report 

Impact Bulletin 392 

Tests of Short Steel Spans with Open Floor, Together with Effect of Inequalities of 
Track and Effect of Rough Wheels on Such Track 



24 BusinessSession 



PUBLICATIONS 

The "Manual of the American Railway Engineering Association."— In the 

early years of the Association it was decided to assemble in one volume the recommended 
definitions of terms, plans, designs and specifications for material and workmanship, and 
principles of practice for Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way work, adopted 
by the Association at its annual meetings after due consideration of the reports sub- 
mitted by the standing and special committees. Owing to the importance and weight 
that should justly be attributed to the deliberate and carefully expressed opinions and 
judgments of an organization comprising prominent railway officials and specialists in 
the various classes of work and duties connected with the location, construction, main- 
tenance and operation of railways, and the influence that such publication would un- 
doubtedly have on railway engineering, maintenance and operation, special care was 
observed that only such matter be included in the Manual as had been carefully and 
sufficiently considered by the Association prior to its adoption at the annual conventions 
as to warrant its publication in this Manual as the practice recommended by the 
Association. 

The seventh revised Manual has been issued, and is now available for distribution. 
The current edition is in looseleaf form, a change from the rigid bound book form here- 
tofore used. The work of assembling and rearranging the material has engaged the 
attention of a special staff for approximately two years. The revised Manual of 1936 
consists of 1772 pages. During the past two years the several standing and special 
committees have critically reviewed the material for which they are sponsors, with the 
view of reconciling discrepancies, deleting obsolete matter, eliminating duplication, and 
otherwise perfecting their respective chapters. The resulting product is an achievement 
in which the Association may well take pride. 

Proceedings. — Volume 37 was issued during the year. It contains the reports and 
discussions thereon and also monographs contributed by the members. 

Bulletins. — The usual number of Bulletins were issued during the year. Members 
are reminded that this publication is available as a suitable medium for issuing appro- 
priate papers on subjects relating to railway engineering, maintenance and operation. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Cooperation with Technical Organizations. — The Association is continuing 
collaboration with other technical organizations in the study of problems of mutual 
concern. The advantages of such collaboration are manifold and are of distmct benefit 
to the participating associations. A list of the associations with which we are cooperating 
is given below: 

American Society of Civil Engineers 
American Society for Testing Materials 
American Standards Association 
American Transit Association 
Association of American Railroads: 

Mechanical Division 

Motor Transport Division 

Electrical Section 

Signal Section 

Central Committee on Lumber Standards 
Chemical Warfare Service, U.S. Army 
Edison Electric Institute 



Report of Secretary 25 



Joint Committee on Automatic Train Control 

Highway Research Board, National Research Council 

Joint Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 

Joint Committee on Grade Crossing Protection 

Joint Committee on Railway Sanitation 

Manganese Track Society 

National Scalemen's Association 

Portland Cement Association 

Rail Manufacturers' Technical Committee 

University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station 

AAR Representative on American Standards Association. — ^The term of 
Mr. J. C. Irwin as AAR Representative on American Standards Association expired on 
December 31, 1936. Mr. A. R. Wilson, Engineer Bridges and Buildings, Pennsylvania 
Railroad, has been elected by the General Committee of the Engineering Division to 
succeed Mr. Irwin as the AAR Representative on ASA for the term of three years ending 
with December 31, 1939. 

Representative on Central Committee on Lumber Standards. — In response 
to a request from the former American Railway Association, Mr. W. E. Hawley, at that 
time Assistant Engineer of the Duluth, Missabe and Northern Railway, was appointed as 
ARA Representative on the Central Committee on Lumber Standards, cooperating with 
the U. S. Department of Commerce, effective September 15, 1922. Mr. Hawley repre- 
sented not only the railroad industry, but also the engineers, functioning as Vice- 
Chairman. Recently, the Department of Commerce decided to expand the personnel 
of the Committee to include representation from associations not hitherto connected 
with the Committee. Mr. Hawley will continue his service on the Central Committee 
on Lumber Standards, as representing the railroads. 

Boiler Feedw^ater Studies. — The Association of American Railroads appropriated 
the sum of fifteen thousand dollars for a two-year period for conducting boiler feed- 
water studies. This project is sponsored officially by the American Railway Engineering 
Association; the American Waterworks Association; the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, Edison Electric Institute, American Society for Testing Materials, the Amer- 
ican Boiler Manufacturers Association, and the United States Navy. The studies are 
being conducted at the New Brunswick, N. J., Station of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, 
under the auspices of the Joint Research Committee on Boiler Feedwater Studies. 

Research on Metallurgical Properties in Firebox Steel. — The Water Service 
Committee presented a recommendation to the Board of Direction that the Mechanical 
Division be urged to carry out research work on metallurgical properties in firebox steel, 
with particular reference to factors affecting age hardening and corrosion fatigue, either 
of which occasionally cause cracking in boiler plate, cause of which is frequently 
attributed incorrectly to the quality of the water used. 

Continuous Welding of Rail. — Among the requests for appropriations submitted 
to the Association of American Railroads on behalf of the Engineering Division is a 
recommendation for a special investigation in connection with continuous welding of 
rails. In support of the request for an appropriation of ten thousand dollars for making 
this study, it is pointed out that a great many installations of rail welds have been made 
in this and other countries. The study will involve (principally in the laboratory) the 
strength of welded rail joints, beginning with a study of specimens of rails welded by 
different processes. Physical tests, metallographic tests, and perhaps some chemical 
analyses will be made. The physical tests will include tensile, torsion, impact and fatigue 
tests of specimens. This study will be followed by drop tests, bend tests, and roUing 



26 Business Session 



load tests of full-size welded joints in rails. Field tests will be made, and close contact 
maintained with the Committee on Stresses in Railroad Track, in order that laboratory 
tests can be correlated with experience. 

Physical Properties of Earth Materials. — The first international conference on 
Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering was held at Harvard University, June 22- 
26, 1936. The Association was represented by two delegates. The purpose of the con- 
ference was to (1) make a survey of investigations in progress in the various soil me- 
chanics laboratories; (2) to collect information on recent developments in earth and 
foundation engineering; (3) to compare and coordinate experiences and the result of 
research ; (4) to initiate closer cooperation for the purpose of advancing scientific methods 
of earth and foundation engineering. The 1936 conference will be followed by others, 
from which will flow benefits in the direction of coordination and practicability from the 
interchange of ideas in the field of soil mechanics and foundations. 

Damage to Track and Structures from Brine Drippings. — Vice-President 
J. M. Symes, of the Operations and Maintenance Department, AAR, has requested the 
AREA to take the necessary action by the appointment of a committee or reappointment 
of a former committee to reopen this subject, in collaboration with the Mechaniral 
Division. This subject has been studied and reported on by committees of the AREA, 
reports having been made in 1909, 1911, 1933, and 1934. The Committee on Track has 
been instructed to contact the Mechanical Division. 

Track Scales. — At the instance of the Weighing Committee of the Traffic Depart- 
ment, AAR, the question of republishing the present track scales specifications and rules 
to replace a similar publication issued in 1920, was considered. Upon review of the 
present scales material, as prepared by the Engineering Division, the Weighing Committee 
suggested a few minor changes, and recommended that the revised version be made 
available for the Traffic and Operations and Maintenance Departments. Authority was 
given to have 5000 copies of the pamphlet printed. It contains: Rules for the Loca- 
tion, Maintenance, Operation and Testing of Railway Track Scales; Specifications for 
the Manufacture and Installation of Four-Section, and Two-Section, Knife-Edge Railway 
Track Scales; Specifications for the Manufacture and Installation of Motor Truck and 
Other SimDar Scales for Railway Service; Tolerances for Large- Capacity Automatic- 
Indicating Scales; and Specifications for Overhauling and Repair of Large-Capacity 
Scales. 

Standardization of Specifications for Motor Truck and Other Similar 
Scales.— The Board of Direction has voted to present to the American Standards Asso- 
ciation for standardization as an "American Standard" the Specifications for the Manu- 
facture and Installation of Motor Truck, Built-in, Self-Contained and Portable Scales 
for Railway Service — 1936. 

Revision of Specifications for Grain-Weighing Scales. — Authority has been 
given the Engineering Division to undertake the revision of the various scale specifica- 
tions relating to the weighing of grain, collaborating with the several groups originally 
concerned with their preparation. 

Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Protection. — Advice has been received 
that the application for the approval of AAR Bulletin No. 2 — Railroad-Highway Grade 
Crossing Protection, as "American Standard," by American Standards Association, has 
been approved. This project was submitted to the ASA by AAR Joint Committee on 
Grade Crossing Protection. 

Rail Flange Lubricators. — The possibility of more extended use of rail flange 
lubricators as a means of reducing railroad operating costs has been suggested. The 
question has been referred to the Track Committee for exploration. This Committee 
made a report in 1931, shown in the Proceedings, Vol. 32, at page 160. 



Report of Secretary 27 

Transportation Bills Introduced in Congress. — At the current session of Con- 
gress, bills have been introduced, their object being "To promote the safety of employees 
and travelers upon common carriers engaged in interstate commerce by railroads by 
compelling such carriers to maintain tracks, bridges and appurtenances thereto in safe 
and suitable condition." Similar bills were introduced in the preceding session of Con- 
gress, but did not get beyond the preliminary stage. At that time, at the request of the 
Association of American Railroads, representative Engineers charged with the responsi- 
bility of maintenance of track, bridges and appurtenances thereto, formed a committee 
for the study of the provisions of these bills. The personnel of this special committee 
was as follows: Robert Paries, Chairman; R. B. Ball, John V. Neubert, W. P. Wiltsee, 
H. R. Clarke, W. H. Kirkbride, L. H. Bond, Earl Stimson (deceased), E. H. Fritch, 
Secretary of the Committee. 

The special committee held several meetings in Washington and prepared data for 
use in possible hearings before Congressional committees. It is felt that the enactment 
of this proposed legislation is unwarranted and would place an unnecessary burden upon 
railroads. 

Important Meeting of Committee XI — Records and Accounts. — A signifi- 
cant development in the affairs of Committee XI transpired at a meeting held in Boston 
on August 5th and 6th, 1936. Mr. E. H. Bunnell, Vice-President of the Department of 
Finance, Accounting, Taxation and Valuation, Association of American Railroads, was 
present by invitation. Mr. Bunnell called attention to the present organization of the 
railroads with respect to the valuation question, and stated that since the formation of 
the AAR, all activities are centered in the Washington office and that it is desirable for 
railroads to act in unison as a matter of policy in their studies and research work; he 
also stated that there was an advisory committee appointed by him, consisting of three 
engineers, three accounting officers, and three attorneys. The viewpoint of the ICC with 
respect to valuation was described, the status of the depreciation accounting question, 
revision of accounting classification and other regulations commented upon as to the 
present situation and the probable future. In connection with all these questions the 
importance of unanimity of opinion in discussing the subjects with the ICC authorities 
was stressed, and that the matter of policy is quite important. Mr. Bunnell also made 
the statement that Committee XI — Records and Accounts would henceforth be viewed 
by him as one of the active organizations with which he could confer, and that he would 
look to this Committee to cooperate with his Department both as regards valuation sub- 
jects and to present the engineering viewpoint with respect to accounting and other 
subjects in which that Department is interested; also that the functions of the former 
Committee on Valuation of the Railway Accounting Officers' Association would be 
assumed by Committee XI^ — Records and Accounts. An acknowledgment by the other 
organizations that the AREA has a vital interest in these subjects should be a source of 
considerable satisfaction to the Association. It naturally should enhance the prestige of 
the AREA and Committee XI. 

Annual Meeting of Highway Research Board. — The invitation to participate 
in the sixteenth annual meeting of the Highway Research Board was accepted and Mr. 
E. M. Hastings, Chief Engineer, Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad, was 
delegated to function as the AREA representative. Important papers and reports were 
presented, which developed interesting discussions. Among the reports presented were 
the Use of High Elastic Limit Steel on Concrete Reinforcement; Special Erosion Prob- 
lems, and Behavior of Motor Vehicle Drivers and Causes of Highway Accidents. 

Civil Engineering Research. — The organization of the Association of American 
Railroads provides for a "Planning and Research Department," the function of this 
Department being, among other matters, the collection and analysis of pertinent, current 
data, the making available of such information . . . for educational purposes in support 
of the general railroad program." An Equipment Research Division has been set up, 
its function concerning mechanical problems. During the past year it was suggested that 



28 BusinessSession 



a similar unit be established to deal with problems relating to maintenance of way and 
structures. A special committee appointed by President Wilson made a study of the 
possibilities, incorporating its findings in a report. The report of the special committee 
consisted of a "Plan of Procedure — Civil Engineering Research," of which the following 
is an abstract: 

"1. The formation of a 'Civil Engineering Advisory Committee,' composed of 
seven representatives — three from the Construction and Maintenance Section (AREA), 
and two representatives each from the Signal and Electrical Sections. The representatives 
of the Construction and Maintenance Section (AREA) shall be the current Chairman 
and two Vice-Chairmen; the representatives of the Signal and Electrical Sections shall 
be the current Chairman and First Vice-Chairman of the respective Sections. The 
Chairman of the Construction and Maintenance Section shall be the Chairman of the 
'Civil Engineering Advisory Committee.' 

"2. The Civil Engineering Advisory Committee to cooperate closely with the Director 
of Engineering Research, particularly on projects involving the Mechanical and Engi- 
neering Divisions, such as counterbalancing of locomotives, boiler feedwater studies, in- 
troduction of new types of motive power and their effect on track, etc., to avoid dupli- 
cation and to reach uniform recommendations on problems of common interests. 

"3. New projects, originating within committees of the Engineering Division, or 
referred to it by authoritative sources, to be given due consideration by the Civil 
Engineering Advisory Committee, as to — 

(a) Whether the proposal is timely and there is need therefor; to ascertain 
what studies, if any, have heretofore been made either by individual rail- 
roads or by others, and whether the results obtained can be utilized in 
further explorations of the subject. 

(b) What is expected to be accomplished by pursuing the study. 

(c) Estimate of probable time required to complete. 

(d) Whether existing laboratory or testing facilities can be utilized, or whether 
new scientific instruments or devices not available must be provided. 

(e) Approximate estimate of the cost, to include cost of disseminating the 
technical information developed to those having need of the data. 

'"4. It shall be the duty of the 'Civil Engineering Advisory Committee* to recom- 
mend to the Director of Engineering Research lines of research which it feels should be 
undertaken. . . . Projects of a continuing character shall submit an annual budget and 
reasons for enlarging or decreasing the work. 

"S. Research projects involving extensive field experiments or test runs under 
actual service conditions shall be carried out under supervision and with the advice of 
the sponsoring committee. Bills to be rendered for the actual expense incurred by the 
member road performing the work. 

"6. Contact to be maintained by the Civil Engineering Advisory Committee with 
Universities, Railroads, and Railroad Equipment Companies and others having laboratory 
and testing facilities, for the utilization of such facDities as the need therefor arises. 

"7. An Assistant Director of Engineering Research shall be appointed, who will 
report to the Director of Engineering Research, and who shall by experience and training 
be thoroughly qualified to direct research relating to fixed property." 

The foregoing "Plan of Procedure" has been presented to the proper officers of the 
Association of American Railroads. It is understood that it has been approved in 
principle by the Board of Directors. 



Report of Secretary 29 



Dr. A. N. Talbot Awarded the John Fritz Gold Medal.— This award is 
made annually for scientific achievement. The 1937 award goes to Dr. A. N. Talbot as 
"A moulder of men; eminent consultant on engineering projects; leader of research; and 
outstanding educator in Civil Engineering." He is noted especially for his research in 
stresses in railroad track. Dr. Talbot has been awarded other medals in the scientific 
field, including the Lamme award in 1932, the Henderson medal in 1931, the Turner 
medal in 1928, the Washington award in 1924, etc. 

Appointment of Assistant Treasurer. — At the Board meeting on March 12th, 
President Wilson called attention to the desirability of designating an Assistant Treasurer, 
and proposed Mr. Frank McNeills, the Assistant Secretary, for this duty. The appoint- 
ment of Mr. McNeills was duly ratified by the Board of Direction. 

Acknowledgment. — The loyal, faithful and efficient services rendered by the office 
staff is gratefully acknowledged. 




Secretary. 



30 BusinessSession 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR CALENDAR YEAR ENDING 
DECEMBER 31, 1936 

Balance on hand January 1, 1936 $78,078.71 

RECEIPTS 
Membership Account 

Entrance Fees $ 1,150.00 

Dues 17,823.14 

Binding Proceedings 1,936.50 

Sales of Publications 

Proceedings 1,227.50 

Bulletins 1,457.59 

Manual 259.95 

Specifications 739.64 

Track Plans 200.70 

Advertising 

Publications 629.00 

Interest Account 

Investments 2,377.34 

Bank Balance 3.51 

Premium on bonds called for redemption 250.00 

Miscellaneous 93.19 

Structural Pamphlets 495.00 

Total $28,643.06 

DISBURSEMENTS 
Ordinary : 

Salaries $ 8,714.00 

Proceedings 4,996.43 

Bulletins 5,254.87 

Structural Pamphlets 468.50 

Stationery and Printing 1,052.73 

Rents, light, etc 832.70 

Supplies 39.90 

Expressage 200.99 

Postage 503.80 

Exchange 86.50 

Committee Expense 130.53 

Officers' Expenses 45.25 

Annual Meeting 1,064.74 

Refunds, dues, etc 16.00 

Audit 225.00 

Pension (A. K. Shurtleff ) 1,200.00 

Social Security Act 87.12 

Miscellaneous 81 .05 

' Concrete Studies 50.00 

Total Ordinary Disbursements $25,050.11 

Excess of Receipts over Ordinary Disbursements 3,592.95 

Extraordinary : 

♦Manual Revision Work 9,611.86 

Excess of Total Disbursements over Receipts Account Manual Revision Work 6,018.91 

Balance on hand December 31, 1936 $72,059.80 

* Extraordinary expenditures include the Manual Revision Work authorized by the 
Board of Direction, March 14, 1935, and is properly chargeable to surplus. 



Report of Treasurer 31 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 

March 1, 1937 



To the Members: 



Balance on hand January 1, 1936 $78,078.71 

Receipts during 1936 $28,643.06 

Paid out on Audited Vouchers, 1936 34,661.97 

*Excess of Total Disbursements over Receipts 6,018.91 

Balance on hand December 31, 1936 $72,059.80 

Consisting of 

tBonds at cost $67,310.64 

Cash in Northern Trust Company Bank 3,718.39 

Cash in Royal Bank of Canada 1,005.77 

Petty Cash 25.00 

$72,059.80 

*Total Disbursements include Extraordinary Expenditures account of Revision of 
Manual Work. 

t Includes $6,240.00 book value of Rock Island, Arkansas & Louisiana 4J4 pei' cent 
Londs due March 1, 1934, not paid, in default. 

Also includes St. L. S. VV. S per cent bonds, book value $1,319.31, interest coupons 
January 1, 1936, and thereafter in default. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A..F. Blaess, Treasurer. 

We have made an audit of the accounts of the American Railway Engineering 
Association for the year ending December 31, 1936, and find them to be in accordance 
with the foregoing financial statements. 

E. Deming, 
C. G. Rivers, 

Auditors. 

GENERAL BALANCE SHEET 

December 31, 1936 

Assets 1936 1935 

Due from Members $ 2,127.50 $ 2,472.97 

Due from Sales of Publications 75.00 117.95 

Due from Advertising 55.00 10.00 

Furniture and Fixtures 338.00 338.00 

Gold Badges 32.50 37.50 

Publications on hand (estimated) 2,000.00 2,000.00 

Extensometers 200.00 250.00 

♦Investments (Cost) 67,310.64 72,310.64 

Interest on Investments (Accrued) 423.43 438.42 

Cash in Northern Trust Company Bank 3,718.39 5,328.81 

Cash in Royal Bank of Canada 1,005.77 414.26 

Petty Cash 25.00 25.00 

Manual Revision Work (Suspense) 14,411.35 4,799.49 

Total $91,722.58 $88,543.04 

Liabilities 

Members' Dues Paid in Advance $ 4,782.50 $ 4,464.50 

Surplus 86,940.08 84,078.54 

Total $91,722.58 $88,543.0^ 

* Includes $6,240.00 book value of Rock Island, Arkansas & Louisiana 4^4 per cent 

bonds due March 1, 1934, not paid, in default. 

Also includes St. L. S. W. 5 per cent bonds, book value $1,319.31, interest coupons 

January 1, 1936, and thereafter in default. 

A 



32 BusinessSession 



The President: — Gentlemen, you have heard the reports of the Secretary and of the 
Treasurer. What is your pleasure? 

Mr. E. M. Hastings (Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac): — I move the approval 
of the report. 

(The motion was regularly seconded, put to a vote and carried.) 

The President: — With reference to the list of deceased members mentioned in the 

Secretary's report, the Chair requests that we stand a few moments in silence and respect 

to our departed associates. 

(The convention arose and stood in silent tribute to the memories of the deceased 
members.) 

The President:— This Association functions through the Engineering Division of the 
Association of American Railroads, reporting to the Vice-President of Operations and 
Maintenance of the Association of American Railroads. One of the most pleasant duties 
of your President during the past year has been the contact with that office and the 
cooperation he has received. 

Mr. J. M. Symes, Vice-President of the Association of American Railroads is with 
us this morning. It is my pleasure at this time to introduce Mr. Symes, although I feel 
quite sure many of you know him. He will extend to us greetings from the Association 
of American Railroads (Applause). 

Mr. J. M. Symes (Association of American Railroads): — Mr. President, Officers and 
Members of the American Railway Engineering Association and Invited Guests: — It is 
indeed a pleasure and a privilege for me to be able, in behalf of the Association of 
American Railroads, to congratulate you upon the success of your, organization during 
the past year. Those ot us who followed pretty closely your activities, and that includes 
our Board of Directors, are fully appreciative of the splendid work you are doing. 

We have not had any difficulty in having the Board of Directors go along with 
certain expenditures recommended by you, covering very important research work. We 
hope that your activities along those lines will be continued and also be enlarged. 

It is true that the research organization of our Association has not been developed 
as originally contemplated. The matter is now under consideration. When it is com- 
pleted, the Engineering Division must necessarily play a very important part in that 
program. 

It must be gratifying to your officers to see such a splendid attendance at this con- 
vention. They have put in a lot of work during the past year, conducting the affairs 
of the organization, and the members certainly owe it to them to express their appre- 
ciation by attending these annual meetings. 

I purposely requested that my name be withheld from any program calling for an 
address. I think a frank discussion from the fioor, of the many subjects to be presented 
by your committees, will be more beneficial than anything I have to say. 

President Pelley regrets exceedingly his inability to be with you during part of this 
convention. He has asked me to express his regrets and to wish you continued success 
of your organization in the future. 

Thank you (Applause). 

The President: — Thank you, Mr. Symes. 

We are highly honored in having Mr. Symes with us. He is in Chicago today and 
will be somewhere in the South tomorrow. We are especially grateful to him for taking 
the time and the effort to be with us. 



Business Session 33 



The privileges of the floor are extended to visiting railway officers, and to college 
professors. We hope you will feel perfectly free in discussing committee reports as 
presented. I also make this appeal to the younger members of the Association. Do not 
feel modest. Do not spread your feelings around expecting to be hurt. Engineers are 
kind. So feel at perfect liberty to say what you think. The Board of Direction is now 
excused. 

Gentlemen, we have a long program before us. In order to conserve as much time 
as possible, it is desirable that we be prompt in our attendance and confine our remarks 
to the discussion. 

The first report will be that of the Committee on Standardization. The report will 
be presented by Mr. E. M. Hastings, Chief Engineer, Richmond, Fredericksburg & 
Potomac Railroad, the Chairman. 

(For Report, see pp. 461^74.) 

The President: — The second report is that of the Committee on Yards and Ter- 
minals. The report will be presented by its Chairman, Mr. M. J. J. Harrison, Supervisor 
of Scales and Weighing of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

(For Report, see pp. 65-92.) 

The President: — Will the Committee on Shops and Locomotive Terminals come to 
the platform? This report will be presented to you by Mr. J. M. Metcalf, Assistant 
Chief Engineer, Missouri-Kansas-Texas Lines. 

(For Report, see pp. 137-140.) 

The President: — The next committee to report is that on Uniform General Contract 
Forms. It will be presented by its Chairman, Mr. F. L. Nicholson, Chief Engineer, 
Norfolk Southern Railway. 

(For Report, see pp. 187-190.) 

The President: — The next report will be that of the Special Committee on Water- 
proofing of Railway Structures. This report will be presented by the Chairman, Mr. 
J. A. Lahmer, Senior Assistant Engineer, Missouri Pacific Railroad. 

(For Report, see page 593.) 

The President: — Will the Committee on Electricity please come to the platform? 
The report will be made by Mr. H. F. Brown, Assistant Electrical Engineer of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. Mr. Brown was also elected this past year as 
Chairman of the Electrical Section, Division IV — Engineering. Mr. Brown. 

(For Report, see pp. 457-459.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

The President: — The first report this afternoon will be that of Committee XIII — 
Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation. Mr. R. C. Bardwell, Superintendent 
Water Supply, Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, its Chairman, will please present the report. 

(For Report, see pp. 93-113.) 

The President: — Will Committee XXV— Waterways and Harbors please come to the 
platform? The Committee report will be presented by Mr. F. E. Morrow, Chief Engi- 
neer, Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad and Belt Railway of Chicago, the Chairman. 

(For Repjrt, see pp. 141-159.) 

The President: — The next report is that of the Committee on Roadway. Will they 
p'ease come to the platform? The report of this Committee will be presented by its 
Chairman, Mr. Geo. S. Fanning, Chief Engineer of the Erie Railroad, 

(For Report, see pp. 163-181.) 



34 BusincssSession 



The President: — The next report on the Docket is that of the Committee on Ballast. 
Mr. A. D. Kennedy, Assistant Engineer of the Santa Fe Railway, its Chairman, will 
present the report. 

(For Report, see pp. 191-203.) 

The President: — The Chair wishes to designate Mr. R. C. Bardwell and his asso- 
ciates as tellers to canvass the ballots cast for the officers for the ensuing year. The 
Secretary will turn the ballots over to the tellers and announcement will be made 
Wednesday afternoon as to the successful candidates. 

The convention will now adjourn to permit members to visit the Cofeeum and view 
the exhibits, and we will reconvene again tomorrow morning promptly at nine o'clock. 

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 17, 1937 
MORNING SESSION 

The President: — The first Committee to be heard will be the Committee on Wood 
Bridges and Trestles. Will they please come to the platform? The report of this Com- 
mittee will be made by the Chairman, Col. H. Austill, Bridge Engineer, Mobile & Ohio 
Railroad. 

(For Report, see pp. 183-186.) 

The President: — The Committee on Iron and Steel Structures will please come for- 
ward. The report of this Committee will be presented by its Chairman, Mr. G. A. 
Haggander, Bridge Engineer of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. 

(For Report, see pp. 301-308.) 

The President: — ^The report of the Special Committee on Impact will be presented 
by its Chairman, Mr. 0. F. Dalstrom, Engineer of Bridges of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway. 

(For Report, see pp. 453-454.) 

The President: — The ne.xt report will be that of the Special Committee on Economics 
of Bridges and Trestles. Will the Committee please come forward. The report of this 
Committee will be made by Mr. Arthur Ridgway, Chief Engineer, Denver & Rio Grande 
Western Railroad, the Chairman. 

(For Report, see pp. 433-436.) 

The President: — We are especially honored today in having with us a man who has 
been most helpful to the railroads in the policy, design and distribution of the funds 
appropriated by the Federal Government for the elimination of grade crossings. We are 
also honored by having Mr. R. E. Dougherty, Vice-President of the New York Central 
Railroad, who is Chairman of the Grade Crossing Committee of the Association of 
American Railroads. 

I will ask Mr. Dougherty and Mr. MacDonald to come to the platform, at which 
time Mr. Dougherty will introduce Mr. MacDonald (Applause). 

Mr. R. E. Dougherty (New York Central): — Mr. President, Mr. MacDonald: — I 
was very much impressed by something that happened a few minutes ago. This is the 
first time I ever saw Burt Leffler stopped with nothing to say. 

I think, gentlemen, that perhaps we may not agree (there may be some Republicans 
left in the audience) with all the policies of the present administration, but I think we 
can be unanimous in the conclusion that the grade crossing policy embraces one of the 
most constructive and forward-looking pieces of grade crossing legislation that has yet 
been put on any of the statute books. 



Business Session 35 



The speaker of the morning is unquestionably the man primarily responsible, the 
man to whom the railroads owe a great deal. When I first met Mr. MacDonald, some 
of those that knew him said, "You will find him a pretty canny sort of Scotchman and 
he will sometimes sit down with his guard up." I think lately I have found the reason 
for that. He had a httle bit of postgraduate training with one of the railroads, the 
Great Western, I believe, and I think, perhaps even more so than that, for a number of 
years he was state engineer in charge of the highway department of the State of Iowa. 
I do not know but am inclined to think that maybe Bob Ford and some of his railroad 
friends gave him a postgraduate course. At any rate, gentlemen, Mr. MacDonald is a 
native of Colorado. I think he spent most of his early life in Iowa. He is a graduate 
of Iowa State, and for a number of years was in charge of the state highway department 
of Iowa. In 1916 he went to Washington under the Wilson administration and became 
associated with the Bureau of Public Roads. 

In 1919 he became its chief. Any man who can last through that number of admin- 
istrations, of different political beliefs, must be good. 

We have found him to be a man who is thoroughly fair in all of his dealings, a 
man who has a vast amount of courage and abihty. He heads a department which Mr. 
Brerman and the members of our Committee have learned to know includes a number 
of men with considerable ability. I shall not embarrass him by expressing myself in 
detail as to how I feel, but I take great pleasure and it is an honor, gentlemen, to have 
Mr. MacDonald with us. He is one of the busiest men in Washington. I present him 
to you. 

(The audience arose and applauded). 

The President: — Mr. MacDonald, on behalf of the Association, I wish to extend to 
you our heartfelt privilege of listening to you at this time. I am also proud to state 
that all of the members that j'ou mentioned in the Grade Crossing Committee are 
members of this Association. 

(For address of Mr. MacDonald, see p. 48.) 

Mr. Dougherty, have you a word to say? If not, the next Committee report will 
be that on Highways. Will the Committee please come to the platform? This report 
will be presented by Mr. J. G. Brennan, Engineer of Grade Crossings, Association of 
American Railroads, Chairman. 

(For Report, see pp. 2SS-272.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(First Vice-President J. C. Irwin in the chair.) 

First Vice-President J. C. Irwin: — As President Wilson said yesterday, we wish to 
encourage discussion of the subjects that are presented, and we also particularly invite 
the younger members to take part. This is a very friendly group, and everybody should 
feel that it is a family affair and not hesitate to bring out any ideas he may have or 
ask for any information he desires. 

The Committee on Rail will now come to the platform. This report will be pre- 
sented by Chairman John V. Neubert, Chief Engineer Maintenance of Way of the 
New York Central. 

(For Report, see pp. 215-254.) 

First Vice-President J. C. Irwin:- — The Special Committee on Stresses in Railroad 

Track will please come to the platform. The report will be presented by Dr. A. N. 

Talbot, Professor Emeritus, University of Illinois, the Chairman. 

(For Report, see pp. 455-456.) 

(For Discussion on Stress in Railroad Track, see p. 674.) 



I 



36 Business Session 



First Vice-President J. C. Irwin: — President Wilson, who is Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Clearances, has some diagrams to present, and he will present them at this time. 

Mr. A. R. Wilson (Pennsylvania) : — Gentlemen, this is a rather unusual procedure. 
I am going to present something now that would probably come under "New Business." 
I am taking advantage of the screen and lantern because the subject can be presented a 
little clearer by the use of the screen. There was received too late to be handled by the 
Special Committee on Clearances, a letter from Mr. Symes transmitting a letter from the 
Mechanical Division. 

Last year this Association approved a clearance diagram covering an outline of 
equipment and it was marked" "Unrestricted for Main Lines," The Car Construction 
Committee, in their development of cars, desires to have the Clearance Committee of 
this Association review that diagram and, if possible, advise them officially of a change 
they desire. 

The Clearance Committee has in its possession certain information which, if re- 
viewed, may make it possible to comply with that request. This matter was presented 
to the Board of Direction on Monday. The matter of presenting it to the Association 
at this time has their approval. 

What I am asking the Association to do is this: That the As:ociation authorize the 
Clearance Committee to review the data in hand and if in their judgment the changes 
now requested by the Car Construction Committee can be made, they be so advised 
officially, the Clearance Committee to present that information to this .Association next 
year, for ratification. 

Specifically, they wish to change the width of the diagram 1 inch and the height of 
the diagram above the rail. They also wish to have added to the diagram the infor- 
mation respecting the length of the car, and whether that covers new cars to be con- 
structed or cars in existence. Those two questions can readily be answered. 

To indicate to the convention the dimensions desired to be changed, I will have 
thrown on the screen the diagram. 

The dimensions in question are both enclosed in a circle, with an arrow pointing to 
them, the top one as approved by the convention, being 10 ft. 7 in. It is the desire of 
the Mechanical Division to change that figure to 10 ft. 8 in. 

The other figure is the dimension at the bottom of the diagram, which indicates 
the distance from the top of the rail. They desire that distance to be changed to 2>2 in. 

You may raise the question, which was properly raised in the Board meeting, why 
were not these figures included in the original diagram? This diagram resulted from a 
study of about 200 questionnaires. It will be necessary to go through these question- 
naires again and develop what railroads can or cannot handle the larger dimension cars. 
It may be necessary to further confer with these railroads in writing. The question is 
now, will this convention authorize the Clearance Committee, if they find from the data 
or further development, to state to the Mechanical Division, through Mr. Symes' office, 
officially that these two figures can be changed? 

Mr. D. J. Brumley: — I so move. 

Vice-President Irwin: — I second the motion. 

The President: — It is the distinct understanding, gentlemen, that only those two 
figures will be changed in the diagram. It has been moved and seconded that the Clear- 
ance Committee will have such authority to act. Is there any discussion ? 
(The question was called for, put to a vote and carried.) 
The President: — The Clearance Committee will be so authorized. 
(President A. R. Wilson in the chair,) 



Business Session 37 



» 



The President: — Will the Committee on Signals and Interlocking please come to the 
platform? The report of this Committee will be made by its Chairman, Mr. C. H 
Tillett, Signal Engineer of the Canadian National Railways. 

(For Report, see pp. 205-213.) 

The President: — I will ask the Secretary to read the report of the tellers appointed 
to canvass the election. 

Chicago, March 17, 1937 
To THE Members: 

We, the Committee of Tellers, report the following as the result of the count of 
the ballots: 

For President: 

J. C. Irwin 988 votes 

For Vice-President: 

E. M. Hastings 981* votes 

E. W. Mason 1 vote 

For Secretary: 

E. H. Fritch 986 votes 

D. J. Brumley 1 vote 

For Treasurer: 

A. F. Blaess 976 votes 

For Directors (three to be elected) : 

F. L. Nicholson 472 votes 

C. S. Kirkpatrick 411 votes 

J. B. Hunley 391 votes 

Frederick Mears 359 votes 

J. G. Brennan 352 votes 

F. P. Turner 281 votes 

W. M. Vandersluis 217 votes 

C. P. Richardson 212 votes 

R. C. White 184 votes 

For Members Nominating Committee (five to be elected): 

H. C. Mann 677 votes 

W. A. Murray 550 votes 

G. R. Smiley 548 votes 

A. H. Morrill 525 votes 

C. H. Tillett 480 votes 

J. B. Trenholm 440 votes 

H. F. Sharpley 368 votes 

R. C. Gowdy 367 votes 

Geo. A. Knapp 343 votes 

R. E. Warden 275 votes 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. C. Bardwell, 

Chairman. 

The President: — The next Committee to report will be that on Records and Accounts. 
Will the Committee please come to the platform? The report of this Committee will 
be made by its Chairman, Mr. C. C. Haire, Engineer Capital Expenditures, Illinois Cen- 
tral System. 

(For Report, see pp. S2S-S76.) . . 



38 BusinessSession 



THURSDAY, MARCH 18, 1937 
MORNING SESSION 

The President: — Will the convention please come to order? 

The first Committee to be heard this morning is that on Economics of Railway 
Operation. This Committee report was held over from yesterday. 

In the absence of the Chairman of the Committee on Railway Economics, the re- 
port will be presented by Mr. M. F. Mannion, Assistant to Chief Engineer, Bessemer & 
Lake Erie Railroad, Vice-Chairman. 

(For Report, see pp. 381-419.) 

The President: — The next subject is that of Maintenance of Way Work Equipment. 
Mr. C. R. Knowles, Superintendent Water Service, Illinois Central System, is Chairman, 
and wjll please tell the convention what action is desired. 

(For Report, see pp. llS-135.) 

The President: — The next Committee to report is the Committee on Economics of 
Railway Labor. The report of this Committee will be presented by its Chairman, 
Mr. F. S. Schwinn, Assistant Chief Engineer, Missouri Pacific Lines. 

(For Report, see pp. 355-380.) 

The President :^ — Will the Committee on Ties please come to the platform? The 
report of this Committee will be presented by its Chairman, Mr. John Foley, Forester, 
Pennsylvania Railroad. 

(For Report, see pp. 513-523.) 

Mr. O. F. Dalstrom (Chicago & Northwestern) : — Mr. Wilson, this day is one of 
the high-lights in your career. Today you bring to conclusion a period of sustained 
effort and worth-while achievement that began over a half-score years ago when you 
entered on activities in the committee-work of this Association. Since that beginning 
you have carried a heavier burden each year. Each added responsibility has prepared 
you for the greater ones to follow. 

Your reward, in part, has been the satisfaction that you found in work well done, 
in the knowledge that each task accomplished endowed you with greater strength to 
meet those awaiting you. But such reward alone would be incomplete. By itself it 
would be barren. There is implanted in every man the desire for the approval of his 
fellow-men. Not the formal acknowledgment or praise of worth, but the sympathetic 
response of the understanding heart that is recognized in the sincere pressure of the 
friendly hand, in the look of confidence in honest eyes, in the unstudied gesture of 
esteem and love. These rewards too have been yours in fullest measure. They have 
been the inspiration of the fortitude with which you have carried on during the years 
that now lie in the past. They will be with you in the wider world of action that 
awaits you. 

The Association now offers you a token of appreciation of your loyalty and devoted 
service. Its outward form is the emblem of the Pennsylvania Railroad which you long 
have served. It bears the date 1936-1937, your name, and below your name this 
inscription : 

"He gave generously of his time and efforts to promote the welfare and 
the interest of the American Railway Engineering Association. Under his in- 



\ 



Business Session 



39 




40 BusinessSession 



spiring and progressive leadership its prestige has been materially enhanced 
and its record of achievement maintained on the high plane of the past. 

"This is a token of our affection and regard." 
Mr. Wilson, on behalf of the Association, I present to you this token. 
(The audience arose and applauded.) 

The President: — Fellow-Members, in accepting this token of esteem, words fail 
me to adequately express my appreciation. Whatever has been accomplished during 
the past year could not have been done without you and your loyal support. This 
is visible evidence of your expression to one who has endeavored to serve you in his 
humble way. It will be a constant reminder in the years to come that it has been the 
outstanding year of my engineering career. 

I thank you (Applause). 

The next report will be that of the Committee on Economics of Railway Location. 
The report of this Committee will be presented by its Chairman, Mr. F. R. Layng, 
Chief Engineer of the Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad. 

(For Report, see pp. 421-432.) 

The President: — The Committee on Rules and Organization will please come for- 
ward. The report will be presented by Mr. E. H. Barnhart, Division Engineer, Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad, the Chairman. 

(For Report, see pp. 577-589.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(First Vice-President F. E. Morrow in the chair.) 

First Vice-President F. E. Morrow: — I will ask the Committee on Track to come 
to the platform. The report will be presented by the Chairman, Mr. C. J. Geyer, 
Engineer Maintenance of Way, Chesapeake & Ohio Railway. 

(For Report, see pp. 475-512.) 

(President A. R. Wilson in the chair.) 

The President: — The next report to be heard will be that of the Masonry Committee. 
Will they please come to the platform? The report of this Committee will be presented 
by its Chairman, Mr. Meyer Hirschthal, Concrete Engineer, Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western Railroad. 

(For Report, see pp. 437-452.) 

Mr. E. M. Hastings (Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac) : — Mr. President, now 
that the fog of discussion has been somewhat dispelled by the sunshine, and we seem 
to be out of it for the time being, may we digress for just a moment and say to you, sir, 
Mr. President, that this convention wishes to extend to you its thanks for the kindly, 
courteous, efficient manner in which you have handled the sessions of the three days, 
which have been well filled and have been enjoyed, I am sure, by everyone here. 

If you agree with me, men, in extending this vote of thanks, will you please rise? 

(A vote of thanks was extended to President Wilson). 

The President: — ^Well, I know it is late, and I am not going to talk, but I do 
appreciate the consideration the audience has given to the Chair. It has been a pleasure 
to serve you men who have been with us three full days. 

The President: — The report of Committee VI — Buildings will be presented by its 
Chairman, Mr. O. G. Wilbur, Assistant Engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 

(For Report, see pp. 2 73-300.) 



Business Session 41 



The President: — The final report on the Docket is that of the Committee on Wood 
Preservation. The report will be presented to you by Mr. C. F. Ford, Supervisor Ties 
and Timber, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway. 

(For Report, see pp. 309-353.) 

Mr. John E. Armstrong (Canadian Pacific) : — Mr. President, the most loyal and 
hardest working members of this Association very frequently are of a retiring disposition. 
Too frequently their accomplishments for the Association go unrecorded. In order that 
in one instance this shall not be the case, I move the adoption of the following resolution: 

"Whereas, The Board of Direction of the American Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion decided in the year 1934 that there should be issued a new edition of the Manual 
of Recommended Practices of the American Railway Engineering Association, and 

"Whereas, By March, 193S, preliminary consideration of this project had indicated 
that a work of the type and magnitude contemplated could not be compiled by the 
Board Committee on Manual, and printed and issued by the Board Committee on 
Publications within any reasonable length of time, and 

"Whereas, Therefore, it was decided by the Board of Direction that it would be 
necessary to engage the full-time services of a man specially qualified by knowledge, 
experience, interest and ability to take direct charge of the details of carrying out the 
project under the supervision of the Board Committee on Manual and the Board 
Committee on Publications in their respective spheres, and 

"Whereas, Such an arrangement was entered into as of April 1, 193S, with Past- 
President D. J. Brumley, and 

"Whereas, The new and modernized edition of the Manual of Recommended 
Practices of the American Railway Engineering Association, after nearly two years of 
incessant and arduous labor by Past-President D. J. Brumley, in handling not only the 
work anticipated, but in overcoming unforeseen difficulties of many kinds, has now been 
completed and issued in a form which reflects unusual credit not only upon Past-President 
D. J. Brumley, his staff and the Special Committee on Manual, but upon the American 
Railway Engineering Association; now therefore be it 

"Resolved, That the American Railway Engineering Association in Annual Conven- 
tion assembled, does formally record its recognition and appreciation of the unusual 
services rendered it by Past-President D. J. Brumley." 

The President: — It has been moved and seconded that the resolution just read by 
Mr. Armstrong be approved for adoption. All in favor say "aye"; contrary, there could 
not be any. It is carried (Applause) . 

Gentlemen, we have been listening for three days to Committee reports. There is 
one Committee, however, that has not made a report. The Committee Chairman changes 
each year. It is possible, however, for that Committee Chairman to succeed himself. 
That Committee this year have served your President and you well. They have looked 
after your comfort, and all of the facilities you needed in this convention. They have 
been quite modest, appeared to be in the background, but, nevertheless, we could not 
have run this convention without them. 

I refer to the Committee on Arrangements, to which at this time I wish to express 
my heartfelt thanks in behalf of the Association. Mr. Mark Harrison has been serving 
as Chairman this year (Applause) . 

Any well organized business sets up a retirement fund. Depending on the character 
of the facility to retire is the percentage set off each year. Buildings or bridges may be 
retired in seventy-five years. Machines, for instance, such as welding machines, are 
retired in ten years. 

Man is also a machine. His time is three score years and ten. Our able Secretary, 
Mr. Fritch, celebrated his seventy-seventh birthday last Saturday. I often wonder 



42 Business Session 



what Mr. Fritch's thoughts are each year about this time. I am inclined to think there 
runs through his mind something like this: "Well, there comes another boss I have got 
to break in. This is the thirty-seventh one. What am I going to be up against?" 

Let me tell you gentlemen that the past year I have had nothing but the fullest 
cooperation and kindly support from Mr. Fritch. It has been indeed a pleasure to work 
with him. 

Mr. Fritch, it is my pleasure to officially advise you now that the Association of 
American Railroads' Board of Directors and the American Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation's Board of Direction have authorized your retirement on a pension, effective at 
the convenience of yourself and the Board of Direction of this Association. 

It is with much pleasure, Mr. Fritch, that I have been able to consummate this 
retirement feature for you. 

Mr. J. C. Irwin (Boston & Albany) : — Mr. President, I desire the privilege of the 
rostrum. 

It is hard to realize that the time has come for Mr. Fritch to retire. We have relied 
so on him, it will create a strange situation, but we can rest assured that it will be 
handled in an orderly fashion. 

Mr. Fritch has had a long and honorable career with this Association. It is im- 
possible to overstate the value of his service. Words are inadequate to express our 
admiration and deep affection for him, or to say how much we shall miss him. At this 
time I wish to present for the action of the Association, the following resolution: 



"Whereas, Our much beloved Secretary, E. H. Fritch, has served this Association 
faithfully and efficiently throughout its entire existence; 

"Whereas, He has reached an age well beyond that at which men in railway service 
are usually retired, and 

"Whereas, He has expressed a desire to be relieved of the stress of further duty in 
the office which he has so well administered; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the American Railway Engineering Association, in convention 
assembled, tenders to Mr. Fritch its hearty appreciation of his earnest and faithful 
administration of his office of Secretary and of his personal interest in and helpfulness 
to the individual members of this Association; records its regrets that the time has come 
for the consideration of his retirement and extends to him its best wishes for his full 
enjoyment of a well-earned rest." 

Gentlemen, I present this resolution for action and move its adoption. 

(The motion was regularly seconded and carried by a rising vote.) 

The President: — Gentlemen, I declare this resolution unanimously adopted. 

Vice-President-Elect E. M. Hastings: — Mr. Fritch, Ladies and Gentlemen: — There 
come to us from time to time, down across the years, those things that we love to re- 
member and, at the same time, there spring up in front of us those things that are out 
ahead, that we love to contemplate. 

So, picking from the past and taking out from its setting a few lines written of one 
who occupied a little village shop: 

"Each morning sees some task begun, 
Each evening sees its close, 
Something accomplished, 
Something done; 
He has earned his night's repose." 



BusinessSession 43 



So, then, sir, as you look back over the wonderful years of service that you have 
had with this splendid Association, j'ou may have that feeling come to you, that you 
have indeed earned the well-earned rest which Mr. Irwin spoke of in the splendid 
resolution which has just been passed. 

Down in the City of Washington, sir, fronting on Pennsylvania Avenue, there stands 
one of the most beautiful buildings, architecturally, that I think has been built in this 
period of intensive building in our capital city. It houses the archives of the United 
States of America. 

Out in the front of that building, on the Pennsylvania Avenue side, are two heroic 
statues seated, each with a volume opened in front of the figure. Under the statue of 
the man to the left are the words: "Study the past," and under the statue of the 
woman to the right are the words: "What is past is prologue." Think about it! 

I have the honor, then, in behalf of the Associaijion this afternoon, to present to you 
this very beautiful plaque: 

"The American Railway Engineering Association records its grateful appreciation to 
E. H. Fritch, its Secretary. He built the A.R.E.A." 

What is past, sir, is prologue. I believe it is a true saying. If, then, sir, the things 
that are behind you in the glorious record which you have builded with this American 
Railway Engineering Association are but a preface of the things that lie out ahead, 
what a glorious time is in store for you as you rest and enjoy life ! (Applause) . 

Secretary E. H. Fritch: — You will appreciate that it is rather difficult to make proper 
acknowledgment of this tribute at this time. 

It has been a rare privilege to be associated with this splendid body of men for so 
long a period, and I can assure you it has been a most wonderful experience and a 
glorious adventure. As you have been told, I recently passed the seventy-seventh mile- 
stone, and coincidently rounded out thirty-eight years' service in the railroad industry. 

I am sure you will agree with me that I am entitled to a rest from further active 
duty. 

I am truly grateful and appreciative of the many kind things that have been said 
and the gracious evidence presented to me of your good-will. To all of you I wish the 
best of health and good-luck. I thank you (Applause). 

The President: — During the past year, the Board of Directors suffered by death the 
loss of one of its members, Mr. Edward L. Crugar, and are presenting this resolution for 
proper adoption by the Association: 

"Through the untimely passing of Edward L. Crugar the Wabash Railway has lost 
a capable and worthy executive and Chief Engineer, respected and beloved by hii asso- 
ciates and subordinates, and the American Railway Engineering Association has lost a 
Director and member whose work was always characterized by untiring and unassuming 
devotion to its affairs, who:e apt and pithy suggestions were the means of progress and 
whose kindly and thoughtful ways always made friends of those fortunate to be in his 
company. 

"Now, therefore, we, the American Railway Engineering Association in convention 
assembled do hereby express our feeling of loss and deep regret, and we extend to Mr. 
Crugar's family our earnest wish that the knowledge of the regard in which we held 
Mr. Crugar may in some measure at least assist in easing their sorrow." 

Signed, W. J. Burton, 
A. F. Blaess, 
H. R. Clarke, 
R. H. Ford, 
J. V. Neubcrt, 
Special CommiUee. 



44 



Business Session 









( 


^r^ THE AMERICAN ^^^ 
W^ RAILWAY ENGINEERING ^ 
J ASSOCIATION 1 

RECORDS ITS GRATEFUL APPRECIATIDH TO ' 

> E.H.FRITGH '; 

L ITS SECRETARY! 906 -1 937 k 

^^ HE BUILT THE ^ 


1 









Business Session 45 



What is your pleasure? 

(Upon motion regularly made and seconded, the resolution was adopted.) 

The President: — I declare this the unanimous action of the convention. 

Will Mr. Fritch please read the result of the election of officers for the ensuing year? 

Secretary E. H. Fritch: — The officers elected for the ensuing year are: 

For President: J. C. Irwin. 
For First Vice-President: F. E. Morrow. 
For Second Vice-President: E. M. Hastings. 
For Secretary: E. H. Fritch. 
For Treasurer: A. F. Blaess. 

For Directors: F. L. Nicholson, C. S. Kirkpatrick, J. B. Hunley. 
For Members of Nominating Committee: H. C. Mann, W. A. Murray, G. R. 
Smiley, A. H. Morrill, C. H. Tillett. 

The President: — I will ask Past-Presidents Brumley and Yager to escort Mr. Irwin 
to the platform. 

(President-Elect Irwin was escorted to the platform.) 

The President: — Mr. Irwin, you have been elected to the Presidency of one of the 
outstanding railway engineering organizations in the country. You are well-qualified for 
the position and trust that has been imposed upon you. 

You and I have worked side by side for many years in this Association, and it is 
a keen pleasure and honor that I have in passing this gavel over to you. May your 
administration be one of success. I am confident that at the end of the next year it 
can be said, "Well done, good and faithful servant" (Applause). 

(President-Elect Irwin assumed the chair.) 

The President: — Mr. Wilson, I accept this gavel with a full sense of the honor and 
also the responsibility of the high office which it symbolizes. 

It has been a great pleasure and a privilege to work with you during the past year, 
and I look forward to having your cooperation and company during the years to come. 

I congratulate you, sir, on your very successful administration (Applause) . 

Gentlemen, when a man attains this high office with which you are honoring me, 
he cannot fail to be impressed with the distinction of being chosen by the representatives 
of all American railroads. It is indeed, as has often been said, the highest office in the 
field of railway engineering. It makes a man feel humble in being chosen for such an 
office, but it also puts him on his mettle for future service. 

It seems a pity, when one man is raised to this office, that there is not room for 
more Presidents. When one is chosen, there are sure to be several just as deserving, 
who have not had quite the breaks at the right time. In my case, the Association has 
given me a wealth of opportunities for service as Chairman of Standing Committees and 
Committees of the Board, in which I have had the cooperation and companionship of 
the men, first on the Committees themselves, and later the friendship and support of 
the whole Association, so that you have brought me to this very high office. 

The President of the Association has the support of a strong Board. The Consti- 
tution is so framed that we are very sure of having that support. We are sorry this year 
to lose those men who are retiring on account of the completion of their term of service, 
but we are welcoming those members who will strengthen the Board with new blood. 

I particularly wish to express my appreciation of your confidence in me and assure 
you that I feel my full responsibility to you. Aside from the Board, I want to say that 
the Standing Committees are the backbone of this Association. No matter who may be 
the President or whatever the personnel of the Board, it is the Standing Committees on 



46 BusinessSession 



which we rely, and their reports are a revelation each year for the importance of the 
material which they develop. 

You gentlemen who are on Committees now will soon be coming up to the Board 
and to the office of President, and I look forward to seeing you progress, and stand 
where I am now. I wish you all a very successful year (Applause) . 

Dr. Hermann von Schrenk (New York Central) :— Mr. President— Mr. ex-President 
and Mr. New President: — I feel highly honored in being the first one to address the new 
President formally. 

Mr. Irwin (Jim Irwin, to us) I have the great honor today to represent the New 
York Central System, T. H. and B., and Rutland Railway Engineering Committee. At 
their request I am about to hand you a slight token of appreciation as one of our 
family. 

I notice Mr. Wilson gave you a gavel. We also have one, but before giving you 
this gavel I want to justify the things I am going to say about the gavel. I notice that 
the gavel Mr. Wilson gave you did not carry with it any specifications as to its historical 
or morphological character. We are very much prepared to do so for this one. I think 
possibly I had better give you the gavel first, and then you will understand the signifi- 
cance of what I am about to say. 

This, sir, is a gavel which is, I should say, about 102 years old. It was cut from a 
white pine stringer which formed the longitudinal support of the early strap rail on 
one section of what is now the Syracuse Division of the New York Central System. It 
was cut from a noble white pine tree (and you cannot disprove it) possibly not very 
far from the .Adirondack camp of the new President, at Big Moose. Possibly the young 
pine trees on your summer camp, sir, may have come, if not from the tree that made 
this stringer, at least from one of its coevals of the same period. 

I feel very, very positive as to the history of this pine stringer and also of this 
gavel. You know, this is a day of research. We have gone through the archives of 
the New York Central Railroad in New York to determine where that stringer came 
from, but not being satisfied there, the New York Central Engineering Committee has 
had examinations made, microscopically, ecologically and morphologically, of that gavel, 
I will have you know. 

I came here to testify to the fact that that is a white pine gavel of the age of one 
hundred years or more, the rulings of the Interstate Commerce Commission as to 
depreciation notwithstanding. 

The significance of the gavel, sir, with respect to you (we think of the President of 
the Association, gentlemen, as Jim Irwin) is of such character that I had prepared quite 
a lengthy talk, but the hour being so late, I will simply confine myself by saying this: 
We have known you many years on our railroad. We have appreciated the forceful 
nature of your work, your persistence, above all, your executive ability and your 
imagination. 

While I am not ready to say that your past record, as far as age is concerned, is 
equivalent to the pine tree that made that gavel, we at least feel that the qualities of 
the noble white pine which, among all timbers, is the one timber that has stood the test 
more than anything else, are of the character which you have manifested so many years, 
and we wish to congratulate, first of all, the American Railway Engineering Association 
in that they have obtained the service of a person like yourself, and again yourself, and 
wish you God-speed (Applause). 

The President: — Gentlemen, you realize what a great surprise this is to me and what 
a wonderful thing it is to have this tribute from my own railroad system and presented 



Business Session 



47 



by my friend of many years, Hermann von Schrenk. We do not bother calling each other 
"Doctor" or "Mister;" it is "Hermann" and "Jim." 

As 1 look at this, one thing surprises me; I would expect to see it fully treated with 
approved wood preservative. Dr. von Schrenk says that it is not neccssarj'. It is a 
very handsome gavel and v/ith its historic associations it is priceless. I hope that you 
will all take a look at it b?fcrc you leave the room. 

Hermann, I shall value this very highly especially as it came from the locality 
where I started to work on the New York Central, and the original timber came from 
a region of which I am very fond and which I have haunted for the past generation or 
£0, the great forests of the Adirondacks. I thank you most heartily. I appreciate the 
gift and the thoughtfulness that prompted it. I hope that you wDl carry this word back 
to the Engineering Committee of the New York Central System (Applause). 

Are there any other resolutions to be presented? Is there any other business? 
There being none, the thirty-eighth annual convention of the American Railway 
Engineering Association is declared adjourned. 




Secretary. 



ADDRESS OF THOS. H. MacDONALD, Esq. 

In common with all of you, I have sometimes been asked, after attending a meeting, 
"What did the speaker talk about?" and have found myself rather puzzled to express 
a very concrete idea of just what the speaker did talk about. Perhaps, in common with 
all of you, I felt at times the Engineers have been too modest. In an attempt to do the 
day's work well, they forget they would be frequently in a position to be more effective 
leaders in advancing our present-day culture if they were a little more aggressive in 
stating their convictions and insisting upon them. So the tenor of my talk is the respon- 
sibility of the Engineer to develop sound public policies and to insist upon such policies 
in an aggressive way, particularly as affecting the field of transportation. 

There is one other point. I would feel remiss if I did not express the opinion that, 
in the world of conflict in which we seem to live today, a sound thinking person ought 
to be directing his efforts toward peaceful relations. This does not imply the acceptance 
of conditions as they exist but the directing of efforts toward the establishing of peaceful 
conditions. Certainly out of destructive conflicts can come no great gain. 

The coordination of transportation in all its phases has been given the rank of both 
an ideal and a major objective of governmental responsibility. Much has been said con- 
cerning the ways and means of accomplishing this desirable coordination, but many of 
these advocated policies are directed toward existing conflicts and do not result in con- 
structive effort since their foundation is in disagreements. There are so many construc- 
tive things that may be done where all transportation interests are in harmony that 
through these would seem to be a more productive approach, with the probability that 
when progress is made in these constructive phases many conflicts may automatically 
disappear or be materially mitigated. 

The heritage of the past apparently imposes too strong restrictions upon our think- 
ing into the future. Experience may be a great teacher, but only in the event that the 
precepts are sound. In a very few years the transportation world has changed in a 
degree beyond the expectation of any person, especially those who have been most closely 
identified with the many and diverse developments. 

Before the world went topsy-turvy and plunged civilization into a chaotic struggle 
where the wealth accumulated by nations was destroyed almost over night, the normal 
economic developments handicapped with insupportable burdens and the natural flow of 
trade and commerce painstakingly built through the generations wholly upset by arti- 
ficial boundaries and customs reprisals, the principle was reasonably established that 
where transportation costs are lowest, wages are highest. Even under conditions today 
this principle seems to prevail with such exceptions as may be accounted for by influ- 
ences growing out of the world conflict. If we accept this principle as ruling, all of 
us who have to do with transportation are given a charter that raises our efforts above 
the commonplace and endows them with a reflex upon the public welfare that becomes 
an incentive beyond the natural desire to do the day's work well. It is in this spirit 
that I am presenting some aspects of common interest to railway and highway trans- 
portation. It will doubtless be accepted that the more efficient transportation as a whole 
becomes, the greater asset the nation possesses, and the better position it occupies to 
compete with the world, while at the same time constantly raising the standards of . 
living for our people generally. 

48 



Address of Thos. H. MacDonald 49 

There is a vast accumulation of laws, customs and attitudes of mind which are the 
product of the long years during which railway transportation as a nationwide service, 
was, in a major sense, a monopoly and which now greatly confuse the solution of trans- 
portation problems. This point is well illustrated by the State laws and traditions gov- 
erning the payment of the cost of railroad-highway grade crossing eliminations. Although 
there is a wide discrepancy between the legal requirements in force in the different States, 
it is reasonable to estimate that the average minimum assessment upon the railroads is 
one-half of the cost of such improvements, but protection and warning devices are 
wholly at the expense of the railroads. 

Perhaps the first major recognition by the public of the changed conditions of 
transportation and the realization that the railroads are an asset to be conserved, rather 
than a monopoly to be curbed, came with the provision in the Federal highway legisla- 
tion that permitted the construction costs of grade crossing improvements to be paid 
wholly from public funds. While it may be said that this departure from estabUshed 
custom grew out of the emergency necessity to provide employment of sound character, 
nevertheless its acceptance by the public without adverse criticism indicates the distance 
that public thought has traveled in its willingness to deal fairly, and as conditions now 
exist, with the railroads. In this, certainly the traditions of the past have been denied 
by a recognition of actualities and a willingness on the part of the public to meet these 
fairly. If we can hold to the thought of efficient transportation in whatever form as 
a national asset, the debate as to meticulous methods of assessing costs of improvements 
which add to the efficiency and safety of transportation, loses force. The important 
point to the public is that these improvements shall be made. 

How much better the new plan is working is well attested by the actual results. 
From the time the Federal highway program was established in 1916 until 1933, a period 
of 17 years, there have been eliminated on the Federal aid highway system 6,000 grade 
crossings, and of these 4,650 have been accomplished through the relocation of the 
highways. 

The first authority to carry the whole construction costs of such improvements 
from Federal funds was given in July 1933. Under the provisions of the National 
Recovery Act of 1933, 697 grade separations were constructed and 706 grade crossings 
were protected by automatic warning devices. In 1935 funds were made available 
specifically for work of this character and under this authorization a total of 854 grade 
crossings have been eliminated, 881 ehminations are under construction and 371 are 
programmed for construction, a total of 2106. In addition, 343 existing grade separation 
structures are being rebuilt and protection with automatic warning devices of 1204 
crossings has been accomplished or provided for. Thus in a period of 3^ years, 3,146 
crossings have been eliminated, including the rebuilding and reconstruction of the 343 
obsolete and dangerous crossing structures, and a total of 1910 standard protection 
signals have been provided for or actually installed. 

This achievement is notable in itself, but it should be of more importance that this 
program has brought together the railway and highway officials and Engineers in a 
cooperative undertaking that has not only accomplished these immediate results, but has 
remarkably fine implications as to an intelligent and willing attack upon other problems 
of coordination in the future. Certainly the highway officials may be placed here upon 
record as desiring the most efficient railway transportation that can possibly be secured 
and are wiUing to devote generous efforts to this end. 

Planning surveys are rapidly developing the information that will not only obtain 
the number but will enable an adequate classification of existing railway-highway grade 
crossings to be made. 



50 Address of Thos. H. MacDonald 

It i? only the repetition of axiomatic knowledge common to those in the railway 
;ind highway field, that we are certain to have for many years a very large number of 
grade crossings. That this statement may at once be understood by the public, it must 
be emphasized here that numerically the crossings in the lower classifications as to com- 
bined traffic importance are greatly in excess of those in the higher classifications. Upon 
these latter of most importance, the available improvement funds must first be used. 
Since so many of these crossings will be continued in service, there must be better cross- 
ing proLeclion devices which can be installed in large numbers and which must neces- 
sarily have a low cost range. There are promising developments in this field of simple, 
cheaply installed devices, in which the element of protection offered may be greatly 
increased over the standard cross-arm alternating light by providing in addition automatic 
gate arms. 

In the European countries a very large number of the railway-highway intersections 
are at grade. Universally these are protected by gates, usually manually operated. The 
gates may be across the highway or across the railway, and quite generally each one 
seems to be in charge of a family which lives in a cottage at the site. The gates them- 
selves are light and not strongly designed, but they have the essential quality of placing 
a barrier across the highway during the period of the passing of a train, and quite fre- 
quently for a considerable time before. I have had the experience in driving on a high- 
v/ay which intersected a railroad at frequent intervals of not being able to make 
sufficient time between the crossings not to be stopped at each gate, even though the 
freight train was being operated at a slow rate up a fairly heavy grade. Evidently the 
drivers on European highways accept the idea of waiting a reasonable time for the trains 
to cross, in contrast to the all-too-prevalent willingness in this country to risk life in a 
race for the crossing. 

It is probably true that without significant exception the drivers, if the decision is 
definitely made by interposing a gate arm between the traveled way and the tracks, will 
not only obey but will have a great feeling of relief that they are driving safely. The 
interposing of a gate is of particular importance where there is more than one track, 
and by proper design of reflecting lights on the gate arm the hazards of night driving 
are materially reduced by the barrier of warning lights across the traffic lanes. 

This discussion must not be construed to temper the determination to do away with 
all grade crossings by elimination as a goal, but rather to make more effective the pro- 
tection of crossings that we know cannot be reached for sometime. 

The planning surveys will serve another function of first importance by providing 
the data in definite form which, through careful study, will make possible the formula- 
tion of a program of elimination of grade crossings on a scale more extensive than has 
yet been contemplated. The Interstate Commerce Commission reports at the end of 
1935 234,000 existing grade crossings. At the rate of net elimination of the previous 
three years, approximately 1200 annually, it would require 190 years to wipe out grade 
crossings. It is apparent that an additional attack on an extensive scale and along new 
lines must be undertaken. For example, take the great Mississippi River basin in which 
there are hundreds of thousands of miles of highways that are crossed by the railroads, 
many of them of trans-continental importance. All who are familiar with the number 
of grade crossings in this area know that it will be possible by re-arrangement and by 
the building of short fines of roads parallel with the railroads, to concentrate a number 
of crossings at one point, which will justify an under or overpass, and in many cases 
making use of existing railroad structures. The application of careful planning will per- 
mit the closing of a large number of these grade crossings without serious handicap to 
the public and, through the greater safety provided, will amply justify this course. 



Address of Thos. H. MacDonald 51 

« 

The President has expressed the ideal of eliminating from these fast through rail 
lines ail hazards due to grade crossings. To accomplish this on the extensive scale desir- 
able, we must look to the intensive planning study which will be immediately possible, 
since these surveys are now rapidly maturing in a large number of States. The actual 
possibilities inherent in a vigorous, intelligent attack on the problem of a very large 
number of existing crossings that is new practicable, will result in doing away with 
many of these crossings at a minimum of expense, provided only we can retain and 
extend the cooperative entente between the railway and the highway representatives. 

The removal of each open crossing, however unimportant, must be a distinct gain 
to the railways in safety of operation for their fast trains, particularly those of the new 
light type, and as a corollary a decrease of hazards to the public, both for those who 
use the railways and for those who use the highways. The advantage to the railroads 
is only a concomitant to the public interest, which is the objective to be served. It may 
be repeated here that where this objective is accomplished, the exact division of costs 
becomes unimportant both in theory and in fact. Considerable attention is devoted in 
this paper to this problem of grade crossings which while important in itself, becomes 
more important if considered as the establishment of competent working relationships 
between the railways and the highways. This is a rather brief statement of the charter 
under which the Bureau of Public Roads is working today. It is not the intention to 
exclude other types of transportation either, but it is always well to begin where we can 
make definite progress. 

In this field of planning the grade crossing problem is only a start. When we con- 
sider the floods which have occurred during recent months in the Ohio River valley, and 
the interruption to transportation both rail and highway, and the cost of the rehabili- 
tation and reconstruction of both railways and highways, it extends the field of coopera- 
tive effort for the protection of transportation and the guarding against loss due to the 
same recurring causes to the whole field of flood protection. We have too long regarded 
the protection of highways and of railways against disastrous floods as separate prob- 
lems. The destruction loss is always greatest in narrow valleys where the highways and 
railways occupy the same limited area, and where they frequently parallel each other 
for long distances. 

The potential field for cooperation in matters of major import extends further. One 
of the problems which has ever confronted railway engineers is the maintenance of a 
smooth track under the impact of moving loads. The distortion of our modern railroad 
beds under the weight and speed of heavy locomotives has demanded constant increase 
in the weight of rails and the cost of the remainder of the track construction. The 
impact is directly affected by roughness, and after roughness develops its rate of increase 
is accelerated. The highway engineer has been faced with the same problem, but unfor- 
tunately it is a long and difficult operation to realign and bring to true grade a roadway 
surface. The problem has had to be attacked from the angle of prevention, and after 
a long, exhaustive study the influence of soils has been defined, and it may now be said 
soil control has been put upon a basis approaching real mastery. This final objective 
is not yet quite reached but it will be and within the Hmitations of practicable costs. 
The principles developed will be applicable to the problems of the stabili^tion of the 
roadbeds under the rails as well as those under the highway surfaces. 

I noted on the program or in the Bulletin, mention of the treatment of wood. The 
highway engineers are very much interested in the subject of wood preservation, in which 
the railroads have had much longer experience. It is a field in which railway practice 
can be of great benefit to the highways. This is all directed toward the point, that 
transportation, as far as the public is concerned, is an entity, regardless of the form it 



52 Address of Thos. H. MacDonald 

takes. Whatever we are able to accomplish in economics in any transportation field 
reflects the advantage back to the public. 

As a comment upon some minor difficulties which have developed, it may be helpful 
to suggest the point of view of the public o^fficials. 

In the expenditure of all public funds there are a number of principles which must 
be observed that do not so unequivocally apply to the expenditure of private funds. One 
of these is that the terms of purchase proposals must be adjusted to provide competition 
and to permit all those who are reasonably in a position to supply either equipment or 
materials, or to undertake contracts, to submit bids. 

There have developed some rather highly specialized fields in equipment and mate- 
rials particularly for protective devices, in which the number of those who desire to 
compete is limited, and it might at this time be argued that only these are in a position 
to furniih the equipment or perform the services needed. This may be true, but it is 
necessary to fix the requirements of the proposals in such a way that they would not 
prevent others coming into the field. During the short period of operations under 
present legislation we have had widespread methods of taking bids, between proposals 
which specify the items in great detail and those for which only a lump sum bid was 
submitted. 

The Bureau is now engaged upon a grouping or classification of materials which 
will enter into the grade crossing improvements for which bids will be required in suffi- 
cient detail to disclose intelligently the unit prices, which we hope will reasonably 
standardize current practice. 

The decision of the Administration to continue the appropriations for grade crossing 
elimination on the same basis for the fiscal years 1938 and 1939, so far as we are able 
to determine, has met universal approval. I am expressing here the hope that it will 
become a pubhc policy that will continue into the future as long as necessary. The 
re\iised rules and regulations which were issued to cover the future program, while 
adhering largely to those previously in effect, have endeavored to cover such changes 
as experience has dictated to be desirable. Minor points requiring definition are covered 
in the instructions issued from time to time, rather than in the rules and regulations. 

There is only one point upon which it seems desirable to make comment here. In 
the previous programs the division of the appropriations between the railroads in each 
State was based upon the relative miles of main line track. A number of situations arose 
where it was impossible to reach important crossings because of this division of the 
funds. It was also evident that if the same policy were continued the number of im- 
portant crossings which could not be reached would be increased. For these reasons, 
while continuing in the main the division between the railroads upon the same mileage 
ratio, exceptions have been provided to make possible the use of funds for improvements 
having a high priority even though the allotment of funds to a particular railroad would 
be increased. In a few cases previously there was vigorous insistence upon adhering to 
an exact division of the funds between the railroads. On the other hand, there were 
numerous instances of a most generous attitude on the part of the railroads, when it 
became evident that improvements in which they were particularly interested could not 
be immediately undertaken, in agreeing to important work elsewhere. 

The remarkable results which already have been secured have been through the 
combined efforts of the railroads, the States and the Federal Government. We can con- 
fidently expect equally desirable results to come in other fields such as flood control 
where necessary to protect against losses and provide for continuity of operation of 
transportation lines. The field is open through cooperative effort to secure at minimum 
cost the elimination of a tremendous number of unimportant grade crossings by careful 



Address of Thos. H. MacDonald S3 

planning. That will require much public education and will not be easy to accomplish. 
In the rules and regulations for this year we have made as mandatory as we can enforce, 
the provision that where a crossing is improved and elimination provided, the previously 
existing level crossing must be closed. In a large way this discussion is intended to point 
the way through practical undertakings to coordination of transportation agencies, and 
the eventual elimination of undesirable competition. 

It would not be proper to close this paper without giving credit to the committee 
established by the railroads to cooperate with the States and the Bureau of Public Roads 
in the development of the grade crossing program. This committee, composed of 
R. E. Dougherty, Vice-President of the New York Central Lines; W. D. Faucette, Chief 
Engineer of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad; Robert H. Ford, Assistant Chief Engineer 
of the Rock Island Lines; G. W. Harris, Chief Engineer of the Santa Fe Railroad; R. J. 
Middleton of the Milwaukee Railroad; W. D. Wiggins, Chief Engineer of the Pennsyl- 
vania Lines; and J. G. Brennan as Contact Engineer, have devoted generous time and 
intelligent application to every detail of the work, and are to be given full credit for 
suggestions based on their wide experience in meeting the problems of administration 
which have been handled with the minimum of friction and disagreement. As far as 
we are concerned in the Bureau of Public Roads, we hope the Railroad Association and 
this Engineering Association extend the functioning of the committee to other fields of 
cooperative effort. The engineering departments of the railroads and the State highway 
departments have worked almost as one organization to produce results which are now 
becoming widely apparent as tangible assets contributing to the public's convenience 
and safety. I regard coordination of this character definite, large scale and accomplished 
with economy, as genuine coordination which we hope has only just begun. 



THE BEST PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE 

By Hon. Harold B. Wells 

Judge, Court of Errors and Appeals, State of New Jersey 

Address before the American Railway Engineering Convention, March 17, 1937 

Allen Wilson of Bordentown wants to make this a Bordentown day. I am very 
glad to make a contribution, such as it may be, but he has placed you in the position 
of that man who married the girl from the Wanamaker Store. He was a confirmed old 
bachelor, a uoman-hater. His pal, with whom he had been accustomed to travel, had 
gone South on a business trip of some three months' duration, and when he returned he 
learned that Tom, the old bachelor, the woman-hater, had gotten married in his absence. 

He met him on the street one day and said to him, "Tom, they tell me that since 
I have been away you have gotten married. I was never so surprised in all my life. 
I never supposed that anywhere on the face of the earth there was a woman who 
would suit you. Tell me, how did it happen?" 

He said, "It happened this way. I used to do all my shopping up at the Wanamaker 
store, and one of the girls at one of the counters waited on me so politely that, when- 
ever I went to Wanamaker's, I would stop at her counter and say a few words. One 
day, rather backward, I got up my courage and asked her to go to lunch. She 
accepted the invitation. Another day I took her to dinner, and another day I took her 
to a show. To make a long story short, we got married." 

"Tell me, how are you getting along together? How does she suit you?" 

'Well, I will tell you, I think I could have done just as well at Gimbel's." 

I am of the opinion that Allen Wilson, instead of coming down to the country town 
of Bordentown and taking me from the quiet and retired life and placing me amidst 
the glare, glitter and glory, would have done just as well elsewhere. 

I tell you I am tempted to strike for home and the country town of Bordentown 
just this very minute. Don't you make any mistake about that, but it looks to me to 
be impossible. 

A man had imbibed more freely than wisely of a liquid refreshment, before the 
days of prohibition, of a greater alcoholic content than one-half of one per cent, and 
he found it necessary, for his comfort and support, as he wended his way home, to 
cling to a friendly lamp-post. As he clung to it and swung from it, he looked up and 
across the street he saw a motion picture house, and aicross the front of it in large 
electric letters were these words, "Home Sweet Home in Five Reels", and he said, "Hell, 
it can't be done." So I have got to stagger through this speech somehow or another. 
I just don't know how. 

I used to go to Sunday school when I was a boy, and I hope you did, and I still 
do, by the way. There is one thing I could never understand, and that was at Christmas 
and. Easter, on the program of recitation and song, why it was necessary to have an 
address by the superintendent or remarks by the pastor. The rest of it we could stand 
and we did stand, but why inflict that upon us? 

Since I have grown up, I, for the life of me, have never been able to understand 
why at a luncheon or a banquet or at a dinner, where you are all gathered together 
in a convivial spirit, it was necessary to bring someone in to punish you and to torture 
you. You are here for a good time and I am here to see that you don't have it. 

Shortly after the World War, ex-President Taft was invited to make a speech in 
the Middle West. Sitting with him on the same platform was the captain of Marines 
of the American Expeditionary Forces. He had been wounded in action, decorated on 

54 



The Best Philosophy of Life 55 



the field of battle. He was advertised to speak at the conclusion of the ex-President's 
address. The ex-President spoke at great length. The audience came out to hear him, 
and just as soon as he finished his speech, they arose from their seats and began to 
leave the building through all the exits. The chairman of the meeting, in much 
excitement, rushed to the edge of the platform and said, "Come back here, come back, 
every one of you, and take your seats. This fellow went through hell for us during 
the war, and it is up to us to do the same thing for him now.' 

I didn't endure anything for the Railway Association during the war, but it is up 
to you to endure until the end of this speech. I don't know just why I have been 
brought here. I know absolutely nothing about railway engineering, nothing whatever. 
I was brought up on the Kinkora Branch of the Amboy Division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. That is where I got my experience, and you can judge how much I must 
know about it. We never had any cowcatcher on the front of the engine. We never 
overtook a cow. They put the cowcatcher on the back of the train to keep the cows 
from strolling in and biting the passengers. 

We had a fellow by the name of Joe Scroggy as a conductor. They had taken 
him from an ocean-going tug. He had a remarkable record. For thirty years he rode 
up and down on that road and was only seasick once. Jobstown, being the site of the 
great Lorillard stock farm (now owned by Mr. Sinclair) is on the Kinkora Branch. 
A business man of New York got on the train at the Jobstown station. He was all 
dressed up, high hat, frock coat, dirty-shirt cover — I mean a puffed tie. We used to 
call them dirty-shirt covers. He had yellow spats over patent leather shoes. He was 
exceedingly anxious to make his connection for New York at Kinkora, for a business 
engagement in New York. 

As Joe Scroggy came down the aisle taking up the tickets, this man, with watch in 
hand, said, "Mr. Conductor, can't you make any better tune than this?" 
"Yes, I can, but I've got to stay with the train." 

So those of you who expect to learn anything whatever from me about railway 
engineering or anything along that line had better leave now before the doors are 
locked, and they are going to be locked pretty soon. 

A new policeman in New Jersey was instructed by his superior that he must 
report ever>'thing that occurred on that beat to headquarters and make his report in 
writing. One day he discovered a dead mule at Kosciusko Street in Jersey City. He 
went in to make his report. He was getting along all right until he came to the word 
"Kosciusko."' He couldn't spell it. He said, "Sergeant, how do you spell 'Kosciusko'?" 
The sergeant said, "It is your report. You do your own spelhng." 
He tried but was unsuccessful. He again appealed to the sergeant and said, "Give 
a fellow a break. Do you spell 'Kosciusko' with a 'K' or with a 'C'?" 

The sergeant said, "You took the civil service examination in Jersey City. You are 
supposed to be able to spell the name of every street in Jersey City. Make out your 
report." 

He tried again, but no result. He finally grabbed his hat and started out. The 
sergeant said, "Where are you going?" 

He said, "I am going to drag that damn mule over to Third Street so I can make 
out this report." 

He made out his report all right. 

My topic is "The Best Philosophy of Life." I thought I would select something 
heavy for this occasion. It may cave in on me, it is so big, but until it does I am 
going ahead with it. 



56 The Best Philosophy of Life 

Seriously, you and I must have a philosophy of life. Day by day, consciously or 
unconsciously, we are developing a philosophy of life, and that philosophy of life is 
going to decide our destiny. It is going to determine whether we are to be a success 
or a failure in life. What is your philosophy of life? 

Twenty-four hundred years ago it was — I'll admit that is a long ways back to start 
a speech, but my train doesn't leave until four o'clock. 

There was a colored boy, and he was of the American Expeditionary Forces. He 
was in the front-line trenches in France and became panic-stricken over there. He 
dropped his gun and ran just as fast as he could and just as far as he could. When he 
had run a great distance, someone yelled, "Halt! Where are you going?" 

"Boss, I've done been fighting in the front line, and the bullets got whizzing by so 
fast and the shrapnel was bursting so close, I'm done running to save my life." 
"Do you know what that means? Look at me. Do you know who I am?" 
"I never saw you before in my life." 
"I am the Colonel of this regiment." 
He said, "My God, am I back that far?" 

Twenty-four hundred years ago Socrates was walking the streets of Athens, talking 
to doctors, lawyers, merchants and princes. They marveled at his philosophy, which 
was summed up as follows: "Know thyself." That is a great philosophy, summed up 
in those two words. 

You know a lot about railway positions, you know a lot about cost-plus, depre- 
ciation, stocks and bonds and whatnot. I wonder if you know anything about the 
most important subject on the face of the earth that you should know all about. Do 
you know yourself? Do I know myself? 

If you are in the mercantile business, even the railroad business, or banking busi- 
ness, you have to take an account of stock to see whether you are going forward or 
back. Have you ever sat down and added up your assets and subtracted your liabilities 
to see whether you are a minus or a plus or whether you are a cipher with the rim 
rubbed off, less than nothing? 
Someone said: 

I believe in taking stock 
Every morning by the clock. 
Finding out just how I stand, 
How much soul I have on hand; 
How much nerve to meet the day, 
How much courage for the fray, 
How much heart I have to spare. 
For my grieving brother's care. 
How much love and charity, 
How much human sympathy; 
What indeed do I control 
In the assets of the soul? 

Do I know myself and my speech? Do I talk too much? My wife says I do. 
Do I say anything when I do talk? Those who hear me say I don't. Tom Skillman 
told Allen Wilson that was the case, that he had heard me speak at Titusville recently 
and when I got through neither he nor any one else knew what I had said. I am not 
speaking of that kind of a speech. I mean when I am in my home, in the street, in 
the office, is my speech seasoned with the salt of human kindness or does it drop like 
gall and bitterness into the lives and hearts of people? 

Am I a tale-bearer? Am I a gossip-monger? One girl said to another, "You 
can't believe everything you hear." 

"No, you can't," replied the other, "but you can repeat it." 



The Best Philosophy of Life 57 

I wonder if you are repeating it. The tongue can be the most terrible instrument 
of human torture. It can tear down; it can build up. It can make for happiness or 
woe. Watch your tongue! 

Someone has said, "To speak wisely may not always be possible but not to speak 
ill of one requires only silence. 

If you have become acquainted with your tongue and know what it is doing, you 
could save a lot of anxiety. You could also do a lot of joy-bringing into the lives of 
others. 

Do I know myself in my looks? You say, "The longer that fellow talks, the 
crazier he talks." Why couldn't you have had somebody from New York or some 
place else besides Bordentown? What difference does it make how a person looks? 
All the difference in the world, because that which is going on in your life is leaving 
an imprint on your face. An expert can look into your face and tell you (and some 
of your faces ought to be looked into, by the way) exactly the kind of a life you are 
leading, exactly the kind of a philosophy you are developing. 

Do you think you look like that last photograph you had taken, when you had 
your hair all laid down and your face lifted up and the photographer told you to look 
pleasant and then said to himself and "then resume your natural expression?" 

What is my natural expression? Not when I am looking in the mirror or glass, 
that is artificial. But in my office, in my home, on the street, as I am walking up and 
down, is my expression sweet, kindly or benevolent, or does it register that which is 
within me, jealousy, meanness, envy? 

Mr. Stanton of Abraham Lincoln's cabinet once refused to meet a man because, 
he said, "I don't like his face." 

"Mr. Secretary," said a friend, "that is not fair. A man is not responsible for his 
face." 

The Secretary said, "Every man over the age of forty is responsible for his face." 

Sometime ago I ran for a political office before I went on the bench in New Jersey. 
In order to give the natives a treat and enable them to decide intelligently the issues 
of the campaign, I had my photograph taken to post upon trees and to scatter on cards. 
When I got the pictures, I was as mad as a hornet and I rushed to the photographer 
and said, "Look at this photograph. I look just like a monkey." 

He said, "You ought to have thought of that before you had your picture taken." 

Watch your face, man, lest you get that monkey look. It comes from monkeyshines. 

Do I know myself in my destination? Do you know where you are going? There 
are two questions that confront each and every one of us: First, where am I going? 
Second, how am I going to get there? 

I could have come out here a dozen different ways, but there was one thing I had 
to have before I could reach Chicago, and that was a made-up mind as to my destina- 
tion, and as to that I couldn't afford to do any mental wobbling or I would have been 
over in Detroit. 

I took a trip on the Steamer Toloa of the Great White Fleet. The first port we 
were to reach was Havana. When we struck a point just opposite Cape Hatteras, we 
had a storm of some twenty-four hours' duration, and so terrible was the storm that 
we had to throw the cargo overboard. I threw mine over early, as a matter of fact. 
I was impressed by day and by night, in fair weather and foul weather, of this one 
fact, and the chug, chug, chug of the engine reminded me of it, that we had a destina- 
tion. We had a pilot; we had a compass; we had mighty engines, and though we 
were only making four and five knots per hour for twenty-four hours, the bow of that 
boat was ever pointed toward Havana, and we ultimately reached Havana. 



58 The Best Philosophy of Life 

So it is with life, if you have a destination, know where you are going, you have 
a pilot and a compass and you frequently take your bcarines, and you have the chug, 
chug, chug of a mighty purpose pushing you on. Friends may betray and enemies may 
harass you but you will ultimately reach your destination. Why did Christopher Co- 
lumbus discover a greater country than he ever dared hope to discover? Read his log: 
"Monday. This day we sailed westward, which was our course. Tuesday. This day 
we sailed westward, which was our course." All through that log appears that sentence. 
He had a course and he stuck to it. 

Shortly after America entered the World War a young man came into my office. 
I was then a State Senator of New Jersey. He said, "I want you to give me a cer- 
tificate that my reputation in Burlington County is good. I want to enter an officers' 
training camp." 

I liked the fellow, but I was embarrassed. I said, "I am sorry. I can't do it." 

"Why not?" 

I said, "I think in the last thirty days I have had a dozen or more people speak 
to me about you. They say you are drinking, gambling, running around, and that you 
are going to the dogs." 

"Is that what you think?" 

"No, that is what they think. You want me to certify they are saying good 
things. They are not good things." 

"All right, you don't need to do it." He went out and banged the door behind him. 

One day several weeks later he came to my office and threw a paper on my desk, 
and said, "look at that." It was a certificate showing his appointment as a lieutenant 
in Uncle Sam's Army. 

He said, "I want to thank you for that." 

I said, "You don't owe it to me. I couldn't and didn't write the certificate of 
recommendation." 

"But," said he, "I owe it to you just the same. When I left your office I was the 
maddest man in the world to think that I, coming from blueblood stock couldn't get 
my own Senator to certify that my reputation was good. For the first* time in my 
life I stopped and I looked and I listened and took account of stock. I found I had 
been doing the ostrich act, I had my head buried in the sand. I said, 'I will show 
Burlington County.' I went to the training camp. I cut out the drink and the gambling 
and everything that would interfere, and I got my commission, and I am going to 
make good." 

He was decorated on the field of France and became one of Jack Pershing's most 
trusted lieutenants. Why? Because he had found himself, because he knew enough 
and had the courage to right-about face when he found he was headed in the wrong 
direction. 

I happen to be a shouting Methodist. You can tell that. I don't know what you 
are, but if you live up to your beliefs you are almost as good as I am. 

We Methodists have Bishops, and our Bishops travel here and there on long dis- 
tance trains. One day one of the bishops was traveling on a long distance train. The 
conductor came through to collect the tickets. The bishop went through his clothes 
and couldn't find the ticket. The conductor said, "That is all right, Bishop, I know you. 
I will be back later on in the day and get your ticket." 

"That is all right so far as you are concerned, but I have to have that ticket to 
know where I am going." 

There is a lot of us don't know where we are going. Two men from New Jersey 
went to New York in an automobile. They pulled up alongside the curb and saw a 



The Best Philosophy ot Life 59 

rube leaning up against a post. The driver of the car said, "Can you tell me the way 
to Cohoes?" 

"No, I don't know." 

"Can you tell me the way to Albany?" , 

"No, I don't know." 

"Can you tell me the way to New York City?" 

"No, I don't know." 

"You don't seem to know anything." 

"Maybe I don't, but I ain't lost." 

We are not lost; we have a destination; we know what we are driving at. We are 
not a squirrel in a cage that goes round and round. We are not on a merry-go-round. 
A lot of people pay a nickel to get on the merry-go-round and get the brass ring and 
go around again and finally get off where they got on. We are on the way, pushing 
forward. 

John Newton said, "If I ever die and go to heaven, I expect to find three wonders: 
First, to meet someone in heaven I hadn't expected to find there; second, to miss some 
I had expected to find there, and third and greatest wonder of all will be to find myself 
there." 

A preacher had two gestures, one was that (pointing upward) and the other was 
this (pointing downward). He said, "When the roll is called up yonder (pointing 
upward), I'll be there (pointing downward)." 

John Kendrick said: 

I wish I could take my eyes and turn them square 

around and look about inside of me to see 
What might be found. 

I know a lot of folks as well as books upon my shelf, 
But sometimes sorry truth to tell ; 
I am a stranger to myself. 
And I'd really like to see, 
Past all veneer and sham, 
What curious things inside of me. 
Have made me what I am. 
I have no great ambition high. 
To posture as a saint, 

But many a time I've wished that I might be 
Some things I ain't. 

You have had that experience. It is a wonderful thing to be able lO know yourself 
in the railroad business, in life. There are so many pitfalls you would go nowhere 
near if you knew your limitations, so many things you would do if you actually 
understood yourself. You get along with other people so much better if you only 
know yourself. 

This is a great old philosophy, but I have a better philosophy for you than that. 
It is the philosophy of the Roman philosopher, Marcus Aurelius, and is summed up in 
these two words: Control thyself. Man is wonderful. He controls everything above 
the earth and beneath the sea. He made elephants to dance two-steps, fleas to drive 
tandem and monkeys to talk Esperanto. He has crossed one plant life with another 
until miracles have come forth, but the tragedy of it all is that, though he has been 
able to control ever>'thing above the earth and beneath the sea, he has never yet been 
able to control his own passions and his own temper. Neither has woman. 

A little woman said to me some years ago, "I have a terrible temper but it is 
over in a moment." 



60 The Best Philosophy of Life 

I said to her: "So was the Black Tom explosion over in a moment, but it de- 
stroyed a whole town." I think, that one of the finest things in football occurred at 
Pennington, N. J., involving a classmate of mine, as well as Tom Skillman's. His name 
was "Bosey" Rider. He went over to Princeton and became halfback on the Princeton 
team, second basemen on the baseball team, a great wrestler, boxer and swimmer. We 
used to say of him that he could lick his weight in wildcats. 

During the game at Pennington, one of the boys, much his inferior physically, lost 
his temper because he couldn't stop "Bosey", and, as he went around the ends and 
through the center and was arising, this boy struck him a foul blow in the face. Those 
who knew Rider expected to see him beat up the fellow. I know what I would have 
done. I would have kicked him in the slats if he had been as big as a house and run 
like the devil. What did Rider do? He wiped the blood from his nose, and he went 
for him. He grabbed him and held him as a vice. When that fellow felt his absolute 
helplessness and impotency in the grip of that mighty man, he shook with fear. 

Rider said, "Steady, old boy, steady. You didn't mean that. We are not going to 
fight. Shake." 

That fellow said, "Oh, if he had taken me by the nape of the neck and the seat of 
the pants and mopped up the field with me, I couldn't have felt as badly as I did, 
when I knew that man who had me at his mercy didn't do anything to me." 

Somewhere in the Book of Books it says: "He that is slow to anger is better than 
the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city." 

I think the topic I announced was "The Best Philosophy of Life." I had better 
get to it or else I wont be in time for my train at four o'clock. 

The best philosophy! I care not whether you be Jew or gentile, Cathohc or 
Protestant, bond or free, if you ever made any study of this world's history, you have 
to admit the greatest and best philosophy ever given to a tired, sick old world was 
given to it by the lowly Nazarene, Jesus Christ, and is summed up in these two words: 
Deny thyself. "If any man will come after me, let him deny himself." 

You can search the Byzantine Chronicles; turn back the pages of Publius Victor and 
though they are describing the public edifices of ancient Constantinople and the others 
those of ancient Rome, nowhere will you find mention of a public, charitable institu- 
tion. You can examine minutely the ancient tablets in the museums of the world; go 
dig down in the tomb of old King Tut; interview those who have come back from 
excavating expeditions and nowhere in history before the days of Christ will you find a 
charitabe institution for the alleviation of pain and suffering until the days of Christ. 

It wasn't until this great philosophy had been actually lived out on the face of the 
earth that we began to hear of hospitals and orphanages and asylums and homes for the 
aged, and kindred institutions. 

General Booth wanted to send out a message to the Salvation Army scattered 
throughout the world. He found that the message as prepared would cost thousands of 
pounds to cable. He resolved to reduce it one word. It is the password of the best 
philosophy of hfe. Money? No. Faith, hope, prayer, work? No. It is a fine word. 
Here it is: Others. That is the password. The rule? The Golden Rule: "Do unto 
others as you would have others do unto you." The motto: "It is more blessed to 
give than it is to receive." The text: One which, if you will carry out and live, I will 
underwrite your success: "Whosoever will be great among you, let him be your 
minister; and whosoever will be chief, let him be your servant." The verse: 

"Not what we gain but what we give. 
Measures the worth of the hves we live." 

And the slogan: That which we talk so much about and do so little of — Service. 



The Best Philosophy of Life 61 

One of my favorite characters is Lord Shaftesbury. He used to leave Parliament 
and go down into the slums of London and help the poor. He gave of himself as well 
as of his money to help the poor. One day he and Lady Shaftesbury were traveling. 
As the train came to a stop, a little, poor, elderly lady was having difficulty in alighting. 
This great earl immediately arose from his seat and assisted her. He was gone for 
sometime. Lady Shaftesbury became anxious. She said to a messenger, "Go and tell 
my husband, Lord Shaftesbury, to be sure and get on the train before it starts to 
leave the station." 

The messenger said, "Madam, I don't know your husband when I see him. How 
am I to recognize him?" 

She said, "You will see a tall, fine looking gentleman who will be helping somebody." 

Listen, men and women, if it can be said of us, not that we made a great name or 
fortune for ourselves but that we went through Ufe helping somebody, we are worth- 
while. Our memory, when we are gone, will be a great benediction, but that which is 
much better, our example will be a tremendous inspiration to the boy and perhaps the 
girl who is watching us, and you would be surprised how many folk are watching you. 

You occupy, for the most part, very high positions. Boys want to be like you. 
Even women want to pattern after you in making a success of their lives. Your life 
may be a wonderful inspiration to those who are coming on. 

I like the verse of Edgar Guest in speaking of service, when he says: 

He has not served who gathers gold, 
Nor has he served whose life is told 
In selfish battles he has won 
Or deeds of skill that he has done ; 
But he has served who now and then 
Has helped along his fellow men. 

The world needs many men today, 
Red-blooded men along life's way, 
With cheerful smiles and helping hands, 
And with a faith that understands, 
The beauty of the simple deed 
Which serves another's hour of need. 

The world is crying for the helping hand, Mr. Railway Engineer. The world is 
crying for the cheerful smile. There is so much sorrow in the world today. I have 
good news for you. This old world is full of joy and happiness if you and I who have 
greater advantages than the average will just reach out and gather in those piles of 
happiness and joy and scatter them about where they will do the most good. 

Don't be a grouchy railroad man. I can't imagine anything more contagious than 
a grouchy Engineer. Pop comes down to breakfast and says, "What is the matter 
with this coffee? I thought I said I wanted my eggs boiled three minutes, and now 
you have gone and boiled them four minutes." What happens? Here sits Tom. 
He punches his brother Dick and Dick punches Harry. They go into the public school 
and punch all the youngsters there and they all go to their homes and do likewise, and 
the whole town is mad just because one man had one minute too much on one 
soft-boiled egg. 

I said nothing was more contagious than a grouch. I was mistaken. I will tell 
you what is more contagious: Cheerfulness, every time. 

I have a man who comes to my office. I care not how busy I am I will put my 
heels up on the desk and my thumbs right in there (in vest) and he can talk to me as 
long as he wants to. Why? Because he has a hair-trigger laugh. He comes sweeping 



62 The Best Philosophy of Life 

into my ofnce on a hot August day Uke a breeze from off the ocean. Children cry for 
him as they cry for Castoria, and no dinner party is complete without him. He is a 
traveling salesman. He could sell me a fur-lined overcoat to wear on the Fiji Islands. 

He is usually followed as the night follows the day by a good old Methodist 
brother. I can feel him three doors away. When he gets into the inner sanctuary, he 
says, "Brother Wills, you will never know the troubles that I have." 

Thinks I to myself: "No, and I never will if I can get out of here before you 
tell me."' 

You men travel on long-distance trains. You might have suffered, but I am here 
to tell you that I am a glutton for punishment, but don't sit down, whether in the 
hotel or on the street, and give me the details of your last operation. Don't talk to 
me about your heart and your liver that don't funrtion. I don't care for your organ 
recital. I have troubles of my own. If you have real troubles, I will see them. Don't 
worry about the man Who is boasting and bragging and complaining about his troubles. 
That man who can't speak of them without breaking down is the fellow to go to and 
slap on the back and say, "Is there anything I can do to be of assistance to you?" 

No one ever heard of a husband deserting a cheerful wife, no matter how grizzly 
her hair may be nor what her waist measurement has become. No wife goes pussy- 
footing around for an affinity who understands her if she is married to a cheerful 
husband. 

You can't tell me that children leave homes where laughter rings through the 
hallways. 

It is the dark, dyspeptic, grouchy couples in New Jersey that are filling our divorce 
courts. Man, smile and keep your wife. Why not? I see some of you don't want to 
keep her. All right, look here. Let me give you some free advice. This won't cost 
you a cent. Don't you divorce her. I will tell you what is going to happen. You 
will have to hire a good lawyer and pay him a good fee, or she will beat you, and you 
have to hire her a lawyer, too, just as good as you have got. All the time the case is 
going on, you have to pay her alimony pendente lite. It will go on for weeks and 
weeks. If you beat her in the first case she can take an appeal and there is the record 
book, you have to pay for printing it and pay for the briefs and pay for the appeal. 
It will take you two years. 

Let me tell you what to do. Some night take her home a dozen American Beauty 
roses and present them to her. She will die of shock, and you can use the roses at the 
funeral. 

We have some folks over in New Jersey that are never satisfied. You could make 
them president of all the railroads, and they wouldn't be satisfied. They are never 
pleased, never gratified, never amused. They are chilled when it is cold, and scorched 
when it is warm. They are never so happy as when they are absolutely miserable. 
When they sing, they sigh like that (gives a sigh) . You have them in your railroad 
organization. 

When Mark Twain heard of the death of that great critic of English literature, 
Matthew Arnold, he said, "Arnold has gone to heaven but it won't please him." 

There are a lot of folks won't be pleased when they get to heaven, if they make 
the grade. "What is the matter with those parapets? The streets of gold are so dusty, 
they are very sensitive to my nostrils. St. Peter's beard isn't bobbed right." 

Senator Smoot tells of the typical farmer pessimist out in Utah. The pastor said to 
him, "Horace, I want to talk to you. You have the reputation of being the greatest 
complainer and faultfinder in the world. You can't find fault with your potato crop 



The Best Philosophy of Life 63 

this year. They tell me you have the finest potato crop, both as to quantity and 
quality, in the whole state of Utah. What have you got to say?" 

Horace said, "That is right as far as it goes but where am I going to get the bad 
potatoes to feed my hogs?" 

Don't you ladies laugh. The female pessimist is more deadly than the male. 
There was a little woman in Pemberton where I was bred and buttered. Her name 
was Aunt Phoebe. We always asked her the same question whenever we saw her, 
"How are you feeling today. Aunt Phoebe?" 

Her answer was: "I am feeling pretty well today, I thank you but I always feel 
bad when I feel well 'cause I know I'm going to be worse." 

I much prefer the disposition of the woman who gave testimony in prayer meeting 
and was asked what she had to be thankful for and she said, "I have only two teeth 
but praise the Lord they hit." 

Come on, cheer up, railroad man ! Don't worry, times are going to be better. The 
railroad business is going to pick up. No President, I don't care what may be your 
politics, can keep back the depression only just a certain length of time. They run 
their cycle. Prosperity has come back out of the corner. Don't you fuss and don't 
worry and don't you cross your bridges until you reach them. 

"Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. Take no anxious thought for the 
morrow but live each day at a time." 

When I first started to practice law, for the first three or four years, and had an 
important jury case to try, I never slept a wink the night before. I rolled; I tossed; 
I imagined non-suits, hostile judges, witnesses that didn't show up. It never happened. 
So I joined the Don't Worry Club, and any of you who want to belong, if you will 
give me a dollar just as soon as I finish, can become charter members. 

The greatest of all the wrestlers was William Muldoon who stepped out of this 
earth into heaven at eighty-five. He was one of the greatest optimists. You couldn't 
make an appointment with him for tomorrow. He lived one day at a time. He 
conditioned Elihu Root and John D. Rockefeller and men of that class and got them 
over their nervousness. 

He had these three rules: Live for today. Forget yesterday. Don't anticipate 
tomorrow. 

In other words, to be an optimist, just do the day's work you have before you 
and do the best you can and say, "That is my program." Naturally, you have to try 
to plan. I don't mean that but don't fuss and don't worry. You will be surprised 
how the clouds, which are obscuring your own horizon, disappear when you don't fuss 
and worry. 

That man was an optimist that our grandfathers used to tell about. He fell out 
of the twefth story window of one of the skyscrapers in New York, and as he passed 
the third floor, he said, "I am all right so far." 

We have to go through life having hope and having faith. That old baldheaded 
man was an optimist. He went into the drug store and said, "Give me a bottle of 
hair restorer, then added now give me a comb and brush." Why not? 

That boy was an optimist who fell down the steps and said as he was picked up, 
"I was coming down anyhow." That Irishman was an optimist when he was taken 
to the hospital and was told he had gangrene, said, "I don't know what it is, but the 
color is right." 



64 The Best Philosophy of Life 



Sure this world is fuU of trouble, 

I ain't said it ain't, 

Gee, I've had enough and double 

Reason for complaint. 

Rain and storm have come to fret me 

Skies were often gray, 

Thorns and brambles have beset me 

On the road, but say, 

Ain't it fine today? 



What's the use of always weepin', 

Makln' trouble last, 

What's the use of always keepin' 

Thinkin' of the past? 

Each must have his tribulation, 

Water with his wine, 

Life, it ain't no celebration, 

Trouble, I've had mine, 

But today is fine! 



It's today that I'm alivin', 
Not a month ago; 
Havin', losin', takin', givin', 
As time wills it so; 
Yesterday a cloud of sorrow 
Fell across my way. 
It may rain again tomorrow 
It may rain, but say. 
Ain't it fine today? 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE XIV— YARDS AND TERMINALS 



M. J. J. Harrison, 
Chairman; 

J. R. W. .\i£BROSE, 

C. E. Armstrong, 
JoHX E. Ar^istrong, 
C.J. Astrue, 
H. G. Basques, 

E. J. Beugler, 

\V. O. BOESSXECK, 

\V. J. Brexnex, 
X. C. L. Browx, 
H. F. Burch. 

\V. F. ClMMXSGS, 

F. T. Darrow, 
R. B. Elsworth, 



A. W. Epright, 
E. H. Fritch, 
\V. H. Giles, 
E. D. Gordox, 
R. J. Hammoxd, 
G. F. Raxd, 
E. M. Hastixgs, 
\V. J. Hedley, 
H. O. Hem, 

W. H. HOEBS, 

J. M. Hood, 
A. B. Jacobus, 
Noah Johxson, 
e. t. jokxstox, 
E. K. Lawrexce, 



Hadley B.aldwin, Vice- 
chairman; 
L. L. Lyford, 
*C. P. McCauslaxd. 
C. H. Mottier, 
T. R. Ratcliff, 
C. L. Richard', 
H. L. Ripley, 

H. M. ROESER, 

W. B. Rudd, 
W. C. Sadler, 
C. U. Smith, 
E. E. R. Tratmax, 
H. L. Vandamext, 
E. P. Vroome, 

Committee. 



Died. November 4. 1936. 



I 



To the American Railway Engineering Associatioi:: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual. Progress in study — no report. 

(2) Hump yards, collaborating with Committee XXI — Economics of Railway 
Operation (.\ppendLx A). Progress report. 

(i) The expediting of freight car movements through yards, collaborating with 
Committee XXI — Economics of Railway Operation (Appendix B). Progress report. 

(4) Scales used in railway service (Appendix C). Progress report. 

(5) Bibliography on subjects pertaining to yards and terminals appearing in current 
periodicals (Appendix D). Progress report. 

(6) Freight house and team yard driveway widths. Progress in study — no report. 

(7) Rules and organization, reviewing subject-matter in Chapter XII in 1Q29 Man- 
ual and Supplements thereto pertaining to Yards and Terminals. Assignment cancelled- — 
no report. 

(S) Outline of complete field of work of the Committee (Appendix E). 

The Committee ox Yards axd Termixals, 

M. J. J. Harrisox, Chairman. 



Appendix A 
(2) HUMP YARDS 

K. M. Hastings. Chairman. Sub-Committee; J. R. \V. .\mbrose. Hadlev Baldwin. W. O. 
Boessneck. N. C. L. Brown, H. F. Burch, W. F. Cummlngs, R. B. Elsworth. W. H. 
Giles. R. J. Hammond, G. F. Hand, M. J. J. Harrison. W. J. Hedlev, W. H. Hobbs. 
Xoah Johnson, E. K. Lawrence, C. P. McCausland. C. H. Mottier, T. R. Ratcliff, 
\V. B. Rudd, E. P. Vroome. 

The designing or building of a gravity or a hump classification yard, or the converting 
of such a yard from rider to retarder operation, is such a relatively infrequent engineering 
problem that an outUne of the features that should be considered will be of value to a 
railway engineer in preparing plans or estimates for such a project. 



Bulletin 389. September. 1936. 



65 



66 YardsandTerminals 



FEATURES TO BE CONSIDERED JN THE DESIGN OF GRAVITY OR HUMP 

CLASSIFICATION YARDS OR IN THE EQUIPPING OF SUCH 

YARDS WITH RETARDERS 

A — General 

(1) Tract Layout 

(a) Traiffic characteristics 

(b) Tracks: Capacity; Number; Location 

(c) Gradients 

(1) Maximal numbci- of cars per hour 

(2) Number and weights of loads and empties 

(3) Prevailing winds and temperature range 



(2) 


Accessory Features 




(a) Drainage 




(b) Ballast; Weight of rail; Ties; Length of turnouts; Permissible curvature 




(c) Water supply 




(d) Floodlighting 




(e) Hand-operated skates and derails 




(f) Car pullers 




(g) Snow melters 




(h) Flange oilers 


(3) 


Operating Facilities 




(a) Yard office 




(b) Inspection pit; Lights; etc. 




(c) Track scales 




(d) Hot oil 




(e) Signals; Hump; Repeater; Trimmer; Cab 




(f) Switch targets and lamps 


(4) 


Communication 




(a) Teletype machines 




(b) Loud speaker telephones 




(c) Radio equipment for hump and trimmer locomotives 




(d) Audible outdoor signals 




(e) Pneumatic tubes 


— Rider Operation 


(1) 


Rider Facilities 



(a) Rider tracks 

(b) Rider cars 

(c) Rest and locker rooms 

C — Retarder Operation 

(1) Capacity 

(a) Number of tracks per group 

(b) Rctarders: Length and location 

(c) Locations and length of track circuits 

C2) Retarder Facilities 

(a) Operating cabins and machines: Number; Location; Design 

(b) Switch operating mechanisms and locking circuits 

(c) Power-operated skates 

(d) Power supply 

(1) Normal 

(2) Emergency 

(e) Power and maintenance house 

(f) Heating of buildings 

(g) Track sand boxes 
(h) Guard rails. 



:& 



Yards and Terminals 67 



Appendix B 

(3) THE EXPEDITING OF FREIGHT CAR MOVEMENTS 
THROUGH YARDS 

\V. F. Cummings. Chairman. Sub-Commitlee; T. R. W. Ambrose, John E. Armstrong. 
X. C. L. Brown. H. F. Burch. R. J. Hammond, G. F. Hand. M. J. J. Harrison. 
E. M. Hastings, W. J. Hedley, W. H. Hobbs, E. T. Johnston, L. L. Lyford, C. H. 
Mottier, T. R. Ratcliff, W. B. Rudd. E. E. R. Tratman, H. L. Vandament. 

In its report to the 1934 convention (Vol. 35, Proc, pages 466-472), your Committee 
stressed the importance of employing every means to expedite the movement of freight 
through yards and terminals, outlined the major itema for consideration of the problem, 
and detailed a list of facilities which might help. 

In recent years (as in the past) there has been a great deal of attention given to 
railways, and a great many studies of the transportation problem have been made b>' 
indi\'idual railways, by groups of railways, by private agencies and by governmental agen • 
cies — notably tho=e by the former Coordinator of Transportation. These studies have 
varied as to scope and objective, but nearly all have served to emphasize the great 
importance of the movement through yards and terminals and the effect thereof on time 
and cost. 

Your Committee has under way the collecting of information as to the practices and 
experiences of individual carriers in coping with this most vexatious problem, and is 
likewise engaged in bringing up to date some of the material heretofore presented bearing 
on the subject. 

Your Committee is still of the opinion that the problem is primarily one of operation 
since, even with modern facilities, there are serious delays which to your Committee 
seem avoidable. One of the greatest sources of dclaj' is that incident to inspection of 
equipment, particularly at interchange points. It is suggested that the proper Division 
or Divisions of the Association of American Railroads give serious consideration to this 
matter. 

Your Committee recommends as very worthwhile the reports of Committee 4 in 
1935 and of Committee 7 in 1936 to the American Association of Railroad Superintendents 
on this subject. 

Appendix C 

(4) SCALES USED IN RAILWAY SERVICE 

H. M. Roeser, Chairman, Sub-Committee; Hadley Baldwin, W. J. Brennen, John R. 
Armstrong, H. G. Basquin, A. W. Epright, E.'d. Gordon, M. J. J. Harrison, E. M. 
Hastings, H. O. Hem, A. B. Jacobus, E. K. Lawrence, C. L. Richard, E. P. Vroome. 

At the 1927 convention (Vol. 28, 192 7 Proc, pages 592 and 1409), there was pre- 
sented and adopted a set of specifications lor the manufacture and installation of two- 
section, knife-edge railway track scales. Experience in the application of these specifi- 
cations over a period of ten years has suggested certain desirable revisions. The draft 
here tentatively presented incorporates such revisions, and also differs in arrangement 
from the 1927 specifications in that it follows the form of other scale specifications more 
recently adopted by the Association. 

The following is submitted at this time as information, with the intention of resub- 
mitting it at tlie 1938 convention, with possibly slight modifications, as a substitute for 
existing Manual material under the same title. 



68 Yards and Terminals 

PROPOSED SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE MANUFACTURE AND 
INSTALLATION OF TWO-SECTION, KNIFE-EDGE RAILWAY 
TRACK SCALES 

INTRODUCTION 

These specifications are intended to apply to two-section, knife-edge railway track 
scales without dead rails or relieving gear, but not overhead suspended scales nor scales 
already in service, except that reinstallation of old scales should conform to the pro- 
visions relating to installation and to pivot and bearing steels. 

Requests for proposals should specify sectional capacity and length of scale required, 
together with such other information as will result in complete and uniform proposals. 

(I) CAPACITY 

101. Sectional Capacity Defined 

The sectional capacity of a scale is the greatest live load which may be divided equally 
on the load pivots of a section without producing in any member stresses in excess of 
those specified in Section III. 

102. Sectional Capacities Standardized 

The rated sectional capacity of a two-section, knife-edge railway track scale shall 
be either ISO or 200 tons. The rated sectional capacity shall not exceed the actual 
.-ectional capacity as defined in Article 101, 

103. Scale Capacity Defined 

The capacity of a two-section railway track scale is the weight of the heaviest 
locomotive tiiat may pass over it without developing in any member stresses in excess of 
those sjjejitied in Section III. The loading assumptions for design shall be: 

(aj For scales with 75-foot weigh rail and of 200-ton sectional capacity, Cooper's 
E-S9 locomotive loading plus 112,500 pounds of uniformly distributed dead load. 

(b) For scales with 60-foot weigh rail and of 200-ton sectional capacity, Cooper's 
E-73 locomotive loading plus 00,000 pounds of uniformly distributed dead load. 

(c) For scales with 60-foot weigh rail and of 150-ton sectional capacity, Cooper's 
E-55 locomotive loading plus 66,000 pounds of uniformly distributed dead load. 

(d) For scales with SO-foot weigh rail and of ISO-ton sectional capacity, Cooper's 
E-63 locomotive loading plus 55,000 pounds of uniformly distributed dead load. 

Note. — The above specified loading as,^umptions are those which will load the several 
scales to their respective sectional capacities, assuming a 3-foot overhang at each end of 
the scale (see Article 403). 

104. Nominal Capacity Defined and Limited 

The nominal capacity of a scale is the greatest weight indication obtainable by use 
of all the reading elements in combination, fractional bars totaling 2 per cent or less 
of the remaining elements being neglected. The nominal capacity of a two-section track 
scale shall not exceed the rated sectional capacity. 

(II) PLANS 

201. Assembly i)lans shall be furnished showing the location of field connections and 
all information necessary for the purchaser to design and construct the pit and parts not 
furnished by the manufacturer. On request, the manufacturer shall furnish to the 
purchaser plans showing materials, stresses, and detailed dimensions for all scale parts. 

(Ill) WORKING STRESSES AND FORMULAS 
301. Impact 

For parts made of structural steel and other materials not covered by specific men- 
tion in this Section, there shall be added to the computed static hve load stresses a 
liercentage allowance for impact due to moving loads amounting to: 

/ (in per cent) rr: 20.25 -f (100 — 0.6L) 
where L is the distance in feet from center to center of the weighbridge supports. 

For other materials covered by specific mention in this Section, the unit stress given 
in this .Article contains sufficient provision for impact. 



Yards and Terminals 



69 



Table 1413 

ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH FOR 

IRON AND STEEL 

Transverse Bendmg Direct Stress Shear iiiid 

Material Tension Compression Tension Compression Tension 
Cast Iron (gray) 
Thickness of section 

0.25 inches 5000 S500 3500 10000 5000 

0.3 4780 8130 3350 9560 4780 

0.35 4600 7820 3220 9200 4600 

0.4 4450 7560 3110 8900 4450 

0.45 4320 7340 3020 8640 4320 

0.5 4200 7140 2940 8400 4200 

0.6 4020 6830 2810 8040 4020 

0.7 3870 6580 2710 7740 3870 

0.8 3740 6360 2620 7480 ' 3740 

0.0 3630 6170 2540 7260 3630 

1.0 3540 6020 2480 7080 3540 

1.1 3450 5860 2410 6900 3450 

1.2 3380 5750 2370 6760 3380 

1.3 3310 5620 2320 6620 3310 

1.4 3250 5520 2270 6500 3250 

1.5 3190 5420 2230 6380 3190 

1.6 3140 5340 2200 6280 3140 
1.8 3050 5180 2130 6100 3050 
2.0 2970 5050 2080 5940 2970 
2.5 2810 4780 1970 5620 2810 
3.0 2690 4570 1880 5380 2690 
3.5 2580 4300 1810 5160 2580 
4.0 2500 4250 1750 5000 2500 

.Steel 

Castings 10000 12000 10000 12000 8000 

Pivots and Bearings 
(S.A.E. 6195 or 52100, 
hardened) 30000 30000 30000 30000 

In designing cast iron members to sustain stress of any character, the maximal allow- 
able unit stress shall be determined by the greatest thickness, exclusive of fillets, of the 
portion of the section carr\'ing the stress being considered. In the main portion of a 
beam the thickness of the web or flange shall be used, whichever is the greater. The 
thickness of the flange shall be considered either as the average depth of the outstanding 
portion, or the breadth of flange outside to outside, whichever is less. 

Structural Steel (S..'\.E. 1010 to 1020) (see first paragraph of this Article for impact 
requirement.) 

Pounds per 
Square Inch 

Axial tension, net section 18,000 

.Axial compression, gross section 

Stiffeners for plate girders 18,000 

Compression members, axiallv loaded, where 

L/r does not exceed 140 15,000- =^- 

4r- 

L = the length of member in inches 

r = the least radius of gyration of member in inches 

Tension in extreme fibers of rolled shapes, girders and 

built sections subject to bending, net section 18,000 

Compression in extreme fibers of roiled shapes, girders and built 

sections subject to bending, where L/b does not exceed 40, 

51,^ 

gross section 18,000 — -^=- 

L^ length in inches of unsupported flange between lateral 

connections or knee braces 
b = flange width in inches 



70 Yards and Terminals 

Pounds per 
Square Inch 

Stress in extreme fibers of pins 27,000 

Shear in plate girder webs, gross section 11,000 

Shear in iioucr-drivcn rivets and pins 13,500 

Shear in lurned bolts and hand-driven rivets 11,000 

Hearing on pins 24,000 

Hearing on power-driven rivets, milled stiffeners and other parts 

in contact 27,000 

Bearing on rocker pins 12,000 

Bearing on turned bolts and hand-driven rivets 20,000 

Rivets driven by pneumatically or electrically operated hammers are considered 
power-driven. 

For countersunk rivets, the above values shall be reduced 25 per cent. Counter- 
sunk rivets shall not be assumed to carry bearing stress in metal less than Yz inch thick. 

In proportioning rivets, nominal diameters shall be used. 

The effective bearing area of a pin, bolt or rivet is the nominal diameter multiplied 
by the thickness of the metal upon which the member bears. 

302. Rivet Spacing 

(a) Flange Rivets: Rivets connecting the web and flange angles shall be sufficient 
to resist at any point the longitudinal shear combined with any load that is applied 
directly to the flanges. The pitch shall be computed from the formula: 

p m ■ where 

p =r. the longitudinal spacing of the rivets in inches 

R = the value of one rivet in bearing or double shear in pounds per square inch 

d r= the distance from center to center of flanges in inches 

5 rrr the total maximal shear in pounds at the section, reduced in the ratio of the 

net area of flange angles and plates to the net area of flange plus Y^ the 

gross web section 
W =: the wheel load plus 100 per cent impact 

The maximal spacing, however, shall not exceed 3J/2 inches. 

(b) Cover Plates: The spacing of rivets connecting cover plates to flange angles 
shall not exceed that given by the formula: 

n XRXdX A 
P — ^-rz where 

n=: the number of rivets in one transverse line through cover plates and flanges. 

R =: the value of one rivet in single shear or bearing in pounds per square inch. 

d r=. the distance from center to center of flanges in inches. 

A = the net area in .square inches of the entire flange at the section. 

S = the total maximal shear in pounds at the section, reduced in the ratio of the 

net area of flange angles and plates to the net area of flange plus V^ the 

gross web section. 
a:= the total net area in square inches of the entire flange at the section. 

The pitch as computed from this formula shall be diminished by IS per cent for 
every cover plate after the first. The maximal spacing shall be 6 inches. 

(c) Stiffeners: Rivets in stiffeners may have the maximal spacing, provided that 
rivets in end stiffeners at concentrated loads shall develop the full computed stress in the 
stiffeners, and the spacing of rivets in end stiffeners, intermediate stiffeners and web 
splices shall be identical, except that rivets in any line may be omitted where possible 
without exceeding the maximal spacing in order to minimize shop work. 

303. High Strength Alloys 

For materials intended or represented to be "high strength" alloys, unit working 
stresses other than those given in Table 1413 may be used, provided these do not exceed 



Yards and Terminals 71_ 

\ii the unit stress at the yield point established according to the test routine followed or 
prescribed by the American Society for Testing Materials for parts of the same analysis, 
heat treatment, and size, and provided further that the unit working stresses for any 
combination of gray iron and carbon steel exclusively shall not exceed those given in 
Table 1413 for steel castings. The purchaser, if he requests, shall be furnished with 
sufficient data or test specimens to enable him to determine the physical properties of the 
particular "high strength" material proposed to be used. 

304. Knife-Edge Bearing Stresses 

The load per inch of knife-edge shall not exceed 6000 pounds. 

305. Concrete Bearing Stresses 

Bearing stresses on concrete shall not exceed 300 pounds per square inch under scale 
lever stands, and 400 pounds per square inch at all other points. 

306. Projecting Pivots, Formula for Stresses 

Where practicable pivots shall be supported their full lengtli by integral parts of 
the containing lever. Where impracticable so to support the pivots, external bending 
moments shall be determined as follows: 

Let Afrr: the required bending moment in inch-pounds 
L = the length in inches of the moment arm 
T = the distance in inches between the friction faces of the loop 
W =: the total load in pounds on both ends of the pivot 
D = the length in inches of bearing in the loop 

B = the width in inches of the boss, or sustaining member enveloping the 
pivot 

Then. L =: — J^ {T — B) i- 14 in. 

2 

307. Levers, Formulas for Loading 

The main levers in a section shall be assumed to carry the sectional capacity equally 
divided between them. Each end extension lever shall be assumed to earn.' a load corre- 
sponding to 100 per cent of the sectional capacity. The transverse extension lever, shell 
lever, and weighbeam shall be assumed to carry a load corresponding to 200 per cent of 
the sectional capacity. 

308. Bearing Pressures under Foundations 

The bearing areas of the foundation fcolings shall be such that the pressure under 
the footings will not exceed. 

For fine sand and clay 4,000 pounds per square fool 

For coarse sand and gravel, or hard clay 6.000 pounds per square foot 

For boulders or solid rock 20,000 pounds per square foot 

If the soil has not a safe bearing capacity equal to that of fine sand or clay, its bearing 
capacity shall be increased by drainage, by adding a layer of gravel or broken stone, or 
by driving piles. 

(IV) LENGTH OF SCALE 

401. Scale Length Defined 

The length of a scale is the length of its weigh rails. 

402. Scale Lengths Standardized 

Scales of 150-ton sectional capacity shall be either SO feet or 60 feet long. Scales of 
200-ton sectional capacity shall be either 60 feet or 75 feet long. 

403. Limits of Overhang 

The scale may be longer than the distance between its sections. In no case, how- 
ever, shall the distance from the center of a section to the nearer end of the weigh rails 
exceed 3 feet. 



T2 Yards and Terminals 

(V) SCALE LEVERS 

501. Qualities of Castings 

Castings used for levers shall not be warped. They shall be clean, smooth, uniform, 
and free from blisters, blowholes, and shrinkage holes and cracks. 

502. Machined Ways for Nose Irons 

Levers that are to be equipped with nose irons shall have ihose portions of the lever 
ends receiving them machined for the full distance over which the nose irons are to move. 

503. Leveling Lugs 

In scales of the straight lever type, each lever shall be provided with leveling lugs 
for longitudinal alinemcnt. In scales of the torsion lever type, leveling lugs shall be 
provided on the pipe or torsion member for transverse alinement and on the extension 
arm for longitudinal alinement. Each pair of lugs shall be spaced 11 inches apart. The 
leveling surfaces of each pair of lugs shall be finished to a common plane, which shall 
be parallel to the plane through the knife-edges of the end pivots. 

504. Marking of Levers 

Figures denoting the ratio of each lever shall be cast or otherwise permanently marked 
on the lever. 

505. Permanency of Adjustment 

The design, workmanship and factory adjustment of each lever shall be such that 
the ratio of the lever arms established by the relative positions of the pivot knife-edges 
will be within 0.02 per cent of the nominal ratio. 

(VI) PIVOTS AND BEARINGS 

601. Material 

The material 'used for pivots and bearings shall be special alloy steel. S..\.E. 6195 
or S.A.E. 52100, hardened to Rockwell C scale not less than 58. 

602. Design and Manufacture 

Pivots shall be so formed that the included angle of the sides forming the knife-edge 
will not exceed 90 degrees, and the offset of the knife-edge from the center line of the 
pivot will not exceed 10 per cent of the width of the pivot. 

603. Mounting 

(a) Fastening: Pivots shall be firmly fastened in position without swaging or 
calking. 

(b) Machined-in Pivots, when required: Pivots in main and extension levers shall 
be fitted into machined ways. 

(c) Continuous Contact Required: Pivots shall be .so mounted that continuous 
contact of the knife-edges with their respective bearings for the full length of the parts 
designed to be in contact will be obtained. In loop bearings the knife-edges shall pro- 
ject slightly beyond the bearings in the loops. 

604. Position 

In any lever the pivots shall be so mounted that: 

(a) Each knife-edge will be maintained in a horizontal plane under any load within 
the capacity of the scale. 

(b) A plane bisecting the angle of a knife-edge will be perpendicular to the plane 
through the knife-edges of the end pivots. 

(c) The actual distance between the end knife-edges of any lever will not differ 
from the nominal distance by more than 1/64 inch per foot. 

(d) The knife-edges in any lever will be parallel. 

605. Support for Projecting Pivots 

The reinforcing on the levers to support projecting pivots shall be tapered off to 
prevent accumulation of dirt next to the pivots and to provide proper clearance. 



i 



Yards and Terminals 73 

606. Fulcrum Distances 

The distance between knife-edges of fsilcrum and load pivots of main levers shall be 
not less than 8 inches. 

607. Location of Main Lever Load Knife-Edges 

The load knife-edges of main levers shall be so located that the center line of the 
weigh rails can be placed in the plane established by vertical lines through the centers 
of the knife-edges. 

608. Design of Bearings 

Bearing steels and the parts supporting or containing them shall be so applied to 
the mechanism that permissible movement of the platform will not displace the line cf 
contact between any bearing and the opposing pivot. 

609. Interchangeability of Bearing Steels 

.■\11 bearing steels of the same nominal dimensions or parts identification shall be 
interchangeable or mounted in interchangeable bearing blocks. The interchangeable part 
shall be securely mounted in the part containing it. 

610. Finish of Bearing Steels 

The bearing surfaces shall be brought to a smooth, true and accurate finish to provide 
continuity of contact with opposing pivots. 

(VII) NOSE IRONS 

701. Design 

Xose irons shall be so constructed that: 

(a) They will be positioned by means of adjusting screws of standard size and 
thread. 

(b) They will be retained in position by means of screws or bolts of standard 
size and thread. 

(c) The surfaces of nose irons intended to be in slidable contact with the levers 
will be machined true, so as to obtain an accurate fit in or on the levers. 

(d) When adjustments are made, the knife-edge will be held parallel to its normal 
position. 

702. Screws and Bolts 

Adjusting and retaining screws and bolts .-hall be made of a corrosion-resistant 
material. 

703. Retaining Device 

A device for retaining each nose iron in position shall be provided, and shall he so 
designed and constructed that: 

(a) It will be independent of the means provided for adjustment. 

(b) It will not cause indentation in the lever. 

(c) Loads applied to the scale will not cause tension in the retaining bolts. 

(d) The nose iron will remain in position when the retaining device is released. 

704. Marking of Position 

The position of each nose iron as determined by the factory adjustment shall bo 
accurately, clearly and permanently indicated by well-defined marks on the lever and 
nose iron which meet on a common line. 

(VHI) LEVER FULCRUM ST.ANDS 

801. Qualities of Castings 

Castings for lever stands shall be smooth, clean, uniform, and free from blisters, 
blowholes, and shrinkage holes and cracks. 

802. Proportions 

Lever stands shall be so designed, constructed and installed (hat, under any practical 
condition of loading, the resultant force throutrh the bearmg will fall within the middle 
third of the length and width of the base. 



74 Yards and Terminals 

803. Bases for Lever Stands 

The base of any lever stand shall be smooth, or shall be finished in any suitable 
manner true within a tolerance of 1/32 inch to a plane perpendicular to a vertical line 
through the center of the knife-edge bearing carried by the upright portion of the stand. 

804. Finish of Tops of Stands 

The top of any lever stand receiving a bearing steel, cap or block shall be finished 
smooth and shall be parallel to the base within 1/32 inch. 

805. Anchor Bolt Holes 

Four or more anchor boll holes, not less than 2 inches in diameter, shall be provided 
in proper places in the base of every tulcrum stand, unless other equally effective means 
for anchorage are provided. 

806. Tie Bars 

When tic liars for lever stands arc used, contacting surfaces shall be machined. 



(IX) LOOPS AND CONNECTIONS 

901. Material 

The requirements for material and hardness of bearing surfaces in loop connections 
shall be the same as those prescribed herein for pivots and bearings. 

902. Design 

In loops which form bearings for projecting pivots, the radius of the portion of the 
bearing making immediate contact with the knife-edge and the radius of the eye of the 
loop shall be not less than the longest side of the cross-section of the square pivot to 
be used in the loop, and like clearance shall be provided if pivots of other than square 
cross-section be used. 

903. Length 

Loops in like connections, except when adjustable, shall be of the same length. 

904. Steelyard Rod 

The steelyard rod shall be equipped with a turnhuckle. 

905. Locknuts 

Bolts or turnbuckles used as parts of connections shall be provided with locknuts. 



(X) CHECKS 

1001. Number, Type and Kind 

Weighbridge checks shall be provided equivalent in functioning to not less than two 
longitudinal checks on each end and two transverse checks on each side of the rod type. 
Checks of the rod and bumper types shall be adjustable. 

1002. Position 

Checks shall be set in the same horizontal plane and as high as possible. Longi- 
tudinal and transverse checks designed to take tension shall be respectively parallel and 
perpendicular to a vertical plane through the center line of track. 

1003. Strength 

Checks of the rod type shall be designed to act only in tea-^ion. The checks at either 
end or side shall be designed to resist the force<; prescribed in Table 1414. Other types 
designed to take tension shall be calculated for equivalent strength. 



Yards and Terminals 



Table 1414 
FORCES TO BE ASSUMED L\ THE DESIGN OF CHECK RODS FOR TWO- 
SECTION KNIFE-EDGE RAILWAY TRACK SCALES 



Sectional 


Scale 


Each 


Combined 


Capacity 


Length 


Lateral Check 


Longitudifud Checks 


(tons) 


(feet J 


(pounds) 


(pounds) 


150 


50 


27,500 


64,000 


150 


60 


29,000 


73,000 


200 


60 


29,000 


85,000 


200 


75 


31,000 


101,000 



(XI) WEIGHBEAMS AND ACCESSORIES 

1101. Design 

(a) Limits for Weighbcam Capacity: See Article 104. 

(b) Full-Capacity Wcighbeam: Except for special cases, a weighbcam of the full- 
capacity type shall be provided. 

(c) Shoulder Stop; On each weighbcam a shoulder stop shall be provided to pre- 
vent the travel of the main poise back of the zero notch. 

(d) Notches: On main bars the notches shall not be spaced closer than 6 to the 
inch. Each notch shall be so made that when the pawl rests in it a line projected from 
the center of the side of the notch nearer the zero graduation to the axis about which 
the pawl stem rotates will be perpendicular to that side of the notch. 

(e) Pawl or Latch: The tip of the pawl or latch shall be of the same width as 
the notches of the beam, and shall be rounded off so that a small amount of dust or dirt 
in the bottom of the notch will not prevent the poise from assuming the correct position. 

(f)' Projections and Recesses: Poises shall be designed with the object of reducing 
to a minimum the number of projections that may become chipped or broken off, and 
recesses that may retain foreign material. 

(g) Poise Bearings: Each poise shall be constructed to move along its bar without 
side play. The main poise shall be equipped with ball bearings. 

1102. Marking 

(a) Intervals: For scales with a main poise travel of less than 400,000 pounds, the 
notches and graduations on the main bar shall be made at 1000-pound intervals. 

(b) Length of Graduation Marks: For the main bar, the length of graduations 
other than those representing 0, 5, 10, 15, etc., thousand pounds shall be preferably 1.5 
times the distance between their centers, but in no case greater than twice the distance 
bcween their centers. The length of graduations representing 5, 15, 25, etc., thousand 
pounds shall be not less than 1.5 times that of the intermediate graduations. The length 
of graduations representing 0, 10, 20, etc., thousand pounds shall be 0.75 inch. 

(c) Size of Figures: For the main bar, the zero graduation and every tenth grad- 
uation shall have its value in thousands of pounds {i.e., 0, 10. 20, etc.) marked by figures 
^ inch in height, except the last graduation on the bar, which shall be marked in full 
(e.g., 300,000 pounds). The 5s, 15s, etc., may or may not have the value in thousands 
of pounds marked, or may have a star or other device placed opposite the graduation. 
.\\] numbers shall be placed directly above or below their respective graduations, and 
shall be within 1/16 inch to % inch of the graduation. 

1103. Registering Weighbeams 

(a) Fractional Bar Stops: On registering weighbeams, the fractional poise shall 
be equipped with means to insure a positive stop at any 20-pound interval, and a 
stop shall be provided to prevent the movement of the fractional poise beyond its proper 
travel in either direction. 

(b) Operating Lever: On registering weighbeams, a substantial type of hand grip 
shall be provided to facilitate the registration of the weight. The natural operation of 
the registering mechanism shall not cause lateral displacement of the weighbcam. 

(c) Receptacle for Weight Ticket: On registering weighbeams, means shall be 
provided to prevent the placing of the weight ticket in its receptacle in any position in 
which an incorrect weight can be registered. 

(d) Type Figures: On registering weighbeams, type figures shall be made of mate- 
rial sufficiently hard that under the designed conditions of use the figures will not be- 



76 Yards and Terminals 

come battered or defaced. 'Hie rigines shall be plain and raised sufficiently to insure a 
clear impression upon the weight ticket. They shall be so attached that they cannot 
become loosened or detached without a positive indication that the weighbeam is out 
of order. 

1104. Fractional Bars 

For registering weighbeams, the graduations for the fractional bar shall be placed 
at 20-pound interval? up to and including OSO pounds, or, if the fractional bar corre- 
sponds to a full 1000 pounds, the last figure shall be marked to read 999 pounds. Non- 
registering vveighbcams, except for special cases, shall be graduated in SO-pound intervals. 

1105. Balance Ball 

The position of the balance ball shall be veilically adjustable. Unless otherwise 
required by law or regulation, longitudinal movement shall be controlled by means of 
a self-contained, hand-operated screw or other device which will not require the ball to 
be rotated. • 

1106. Counterbalance Weights 

If counterbalance weights are to be used, the lower end of the counterbalance hanger 
stem shall be threaded, a cup for the loose balancing material shall be screwed to the 
lower end of the stem and each additional weight shall be provided with an elongated 
hole in the center through which the hantrer stem may pass. When no counterbalance 
weights are necessary on top of the counterbalance cup, the cavity shall be closed by a 
cover, secured in a positive manner. No counterbalance weights shall be used in any 
place in the scale except at the weighbeam. No slotted counterbalance weights shall be 
used. 

1107. Ratio 

A pivot with a loop shall be provided at the weighbeam tip. The ratio to this 
pivot shall be 7,000 or 10,000. The ratio shall be plainly and permanently stamped on 
the weighbeam. 

1108. Identification of Parts 

Each weighbeam shall be given a serial number which shall be stamped on the weigh- 
beam. The pivots, poises and fractional bar shall have stamped upon them identification 
marks to show to which weighbeam each belongs, and the pivots shall be so marked as 
to indicate their proper positions in the weighbeam. 

1109. Factory Adjustment of Notches 

Each weighbeam notch shall be adjusted to within 0.002 inch of the nominal 
distance from the zero notch. 

1110. Beam Fulcrum Stand 

(a) Type: The weighbeam shall be supported on a stand fitted with compensating 
bearings. Beam fulcrum stands shall be so designed, constructed and installed that the 
resultant line of forces applied through the bearing carried by the stand will fall within 
the middle third of the length and width of the base. 

(b) Height: The height of the stand measured from the bottom surface of the 
base to the bearing surface shall not exceed l^ inches. 

(c) Finish: The base of the stand shall be finished to a plane perpendicular to 
the a.xis of the upright portion of the stand, and the knife-edge line of the bearing shall 
be parallel to the base. 

nil. Trig Loop 

(a) Weighbeam Travel: The play of the weighbeam in the trig loop shall be not 
more than 2 per cent of the distance from the trig to the fulcrum pivot, nor less than 
0.9 inch. 

(b) Pointer: The weighbeam shall be fitted with an indicator to be used in con- 
junction with a graduated target or other device on the trig loop to indicate a central 
position in the trig loop when the weighbeam is horizontal. 

(c) Material: The contact parts of the trig loop shall be made of a non-magnetic 
material. 



Yards and Terminals 



77 



1112. Weighbeam Support 

The weighbeam fulcrum stand and trig loop stand shall be supported on a metal 
shelf mounted on metal pillars, or equivalent in strength or durability. The shelf must 
be sufficiently rigid that, within the capacity of the scale, deflections cannot occur to 
such an extent as will affect the weighing performance. 

(XII) ANTI-FRICTION POINTS AND PLATES 

1201. Material and Design 

Hardened steel anti-friction contacts shall be used to limit longitudinal displacement 
between knife-edges and bearings. They shall be smooth and so designed and applied 
as to provide contact at points on the knife-edge line. 

1202. Clearances 

The total clearance between anti-friction plates and points shall not exceed 1/16 inch 
on the weighbeam, 5 8 inch on the shelf lever, and ]/\\ inch on all other levers. The 
minimal clearance shall be not less than ', j times these respective amounts. 

(XIII) CLEARANCES 

1301. The clearance around and between the fi.xed and live parts of the lever system 
shall be at least 54 inch except at points where other clearances are specified. 

(XIV) INTERCHANGEABILITY 

1401. Units or parts of units intended to be interchangeable with hke units or parts 
in scales of the same design and manufacture, shall be identified on the scale drawings 
or in the subject-matter of the proposal in such a manner as will clearly indicate the 
interchangeable parts, the manner of replacement, and the adjustments required, if any, 
after replacement. 

(XV) SCALE WEIGHBRIDGES 

1501. Type of Girders 

Girders shall be of the fish-belly type. 

1502. Steel Specifications 

Material and workmanship shall conform to the Specitications lor Steel Railway 
Bridges — 1935, published by the American Railwav Engineering A.«?ociation, punched and 
reamed work. 

1503. Main Girders — Size and Strength 

The section modulus of each main weighbridge girder shall be not less than that 
given in Table 1415. 

Table 1415 

REQUIRED NET SECTION MODULUS, ONE WEIGHBRIDGE GIRDER, FOR 
TWO-SECTION, KNIFE-EDGE RAILWAY TRACK SCALES 

Length 



Sectional 


Length 


Caparii v 


of Sralr 


(Ions) 


(feel ) 


]>0 


50 


1.^0 


60 


200 


60 


200 


75 



>f Span 


Required Section Modulus 


(feet) 


(Net Section, One Girder) 


44 


1724.0 


54 


2007.6 


54 


2670.1 


69 


3167.3 



1504. Bracing 

Each weighbridge shall be designed to resist a force equal to 300 pounds per foot of 
scale uniformly applied laterally in either direction along the track, and a concentrated 
force of 20,000 pounds applied laterally in either direction at any point on the track. 

(a) Diagonal Bracing: Diagonal bracing shall consist of not less than 3-inch by 
3-inch by ^'s-inch angles. 



Yards and Terminals 



(b) Transverse Bracing: The ends ol tlie weighbridge shall be provided with trans- 
verse bracing, of which the section modulus shall be not less than that determined by the 
formula 

(20,000 -r 150/.; X^ 
^ = 18,000 ''^"''' 

S = the section modulus 
L =: the length of scale in feet 

d^z ihc distance in inches from the main lever load knife-edge to the top of the 
weigh rail 

Intermediate transverse buacing, with icclion modulus not less than that determined 
by the above formula shall be provided, spaced not farther apart than the distance 
between allcnaatc stiffeners. 

(c) Lateral Bracing: Lateral bracing shall be provided between compression 
flanges, spaced not farther apart than the distance between intermediate transverse brac- 
ing, designed to take compression shear ccjual to 5 per cent of the axial stress in the 
compression flange of one girder. 

(d) Stiffeners: Not less than two pairs of stiff encr angles shall be provided over 
each bearing of the girders and, in addition, suitable angle stiffeners shall be spaced not 
farther apart than the unsupported depth of the web plates. The ends of these stiffeners 
shall be milled to fit the girder flanges where bearing stress is transmitted from the 
stiffener to the flange. 

Note. — Attention is called to the reported economy and efficiency of welded stiffeners. 
When properly applied, welded stiffeners should be considered as meeting the requirements 
of this specification. 

1505. Fabrication and Assembly 

Weighbridges shall be assembled and riveted up complete with all bracing, except 
lower flange transverse and diagonal bracing, in the shop under proper inspection. 

1506. Weigh Rail Pedestals 

The weigh rails shall be carried on metal pedestals, spaced not over 30 inches center 
to center, which shall be mounted on metal ties or directly on the weighbridge. The 
tops of pedestals shall be machined. The bottoms of pedestals shall be machined unless 
type metal or equivalent is to be poured between the bottoms and the surfaces supporting 
them. 

1507. Weigh Rails 

The weight of the weigh rails shall be not less than 100 pounds per yard. New rails 
shall be used. If splices are necessary, they shall be accurately applied. 

1508. Clearance along Weigh Rails 

The clearance between the weigh rails, or their pedestals, and the rigid deck shall 
be not less than 1.5 inches. The openings shall be protected from weather and dirt. 

(XVI) TRANSVERSE BEAMS SUPPORTING APPROACH RAILS 

1601. Section Modulus 

The transverse beams at each end of the scale shall each have a section modulus of 
not less than 250 for 200-ton per section scales, or 197 for ISO-ton per section scales. 

1602. Fastening 

The transverse beams shall be securely fastened to the end walls of the pit. 

(XVII) PROTECTION FROM CORROSION 

1701. The finish and treatment of all surface? shall be such as to insure good appearance 
and satisfactory resistance to corrosion. The surface treatment shall be durable and 
appropriate to the intended uses. 



Yards and Terminals 79 

(XVIII) APPROACH RAILS 

1801. Anti-Creep Provisions 

Positive means shall be provided to prevent creeping of approach raUs, and to main- 
tain a clearance, which shall be not less than % inch nor more than ^ inch, between 
the approach rails and the weigh rails unless some special means is used to reduce impact 
when wheel loads pass from approach rails to weigh rails. 

1802. Easer Rails 

Easer rails, or load transfer devices, if used, shall be so constructed as to leave no 
lateral or vertical restraint upon the weigh rails when the device is unloaded. 

(XIX) DECK 

1901. Type 

Unless a scale is used to wTich other loads than freicht cars of standard gage, the 
deck shall be of the fi.xed type. 

1902. Construction 

The material for the deck shall be surfaced to conform to safety requirements, shall 
be sufficiently strong to support the incidental traffic, and shall be waterproof, 

1903. Clearance 

The clearance between the bottom oi the fixed deck beams, or deck supports, and 
the weighbridge girders shall be not less than 2 inches. 

(XX) EXCLUSION OF DIRT AND PRECIPITATION 

2001. Means shall be provided to prevent accumulation of dirt or other foreign material 
in or about the pivots, bearings, or other parts, whereby interference with the action 
of the scale or undue deterioration of in\ part of the scale might result. 

(XXI) LIGHTING 

2101. Weiglibeam, Scale House and Deck 

Lighting of the weiehbeam, scale house and deck shall be provided adequate for 
the needs of safe operation and to enable the weigher to read the weighbeam and observe 
car numbers and position of car wheels with certainty. 

2102. Pit 

The pit shall be provided with sufficient illumination to permit the ready and complete 
inspection of the scale parts, 

(XXII) LOCATION AND ELEVATION 

2201. Foundation 

Scales shall be so located that an adequate foundation and at least SO feet of tangent 
track at each approach to the weigh rails can be provided, 

2202. Elevation 

The scale shall be raised with respect to the yard to such an elevation that surface 
water will drain away from it. Means shall be provided to prevent surface water between 
the rails of the scale track from running into the pit. 

2203. Right-Handed Beam 

Scales shall be so located that levers other than the shelf lever between the transverse 
extension lever and the weighbeam are not necessary. Right-handed weighbeams are 
always to be preferred. 

(XXIII) FOUND./VTION AND PIT 

Note. — This section presumes that a scale pit fully enclosing the scale mechanism is 
necessary. When condition^ permit, however, consideration should be given to the pos- 
sibility of installing scales on foundations without side walls since this conduces to 
better maintenance, especially in the lower latitudes. 



80 Yards and Terminals 

2301. Material 

All scale foundations shall be constructed of concrete. The quality of materials and 
methods of mixing and placing the concrete shall conform to the specifications of the 
American Railway Engineering Association for Class A concrete. 

2302. Dimensions of the Pit 

The depth of the scale pit shall be not less than 7 feet from the base of the weigh 
rails to the finished floor. The width between faces of side walls shall be not less than 
10 feet, provided there shall be a horizontal clearance of not less than 16 inches between 
the faces of the side walls and the scale parts below the weighbridge and above the 
bases of the stands. The length inside the end walls shall be not less than 2 feet greater 
than the length of the scale assembly. 

2303. Walls of Pit 

The side and end wall.s shall be not less than 15 inches (preferably 18 inches) thick 
at the top. The foundation walls of the scale house shall be not less than 12 inches 
thick at the top and shall be solidly formed to the side walls of the scale pit. 

2304. Waterproofing 

Where necessary to prevent seepage of water through foundations, scale pits shall 
be membrane waterproofed, or waterproofed by methods equally effective. 

2305. Drainage 

The pit floor shall be pitched to a common point for drainage and shall be smooth 
and free from pockets in which water may stand. If the pit floor is below subsurface 
water level, the pit shall be drained from its lowest point into a sump adequately equipped 
with automatic means for removal of water as it collects. 

2306. Approach Walls 

Approach walls, or piers of concrete shall be built to extend 15 feet (preferably 25 
feet) from the pit face of the end walls and back under the track to preserve line and 
surface of tracks. They may be built of a solid mass of concrete or may consist of 
parallel walls or piers; however, the latter construction shall have a single footing sup- 
porting both walls. Where necessary to obtain safe bearing capacity the approach walls 
shall extend to the same depth as the pit walls. 

2307. Wall Batter 

Wall surfaces next to earth subject to freezing shall be constructed with a batter of 
not less than 1 to 12. For extreme low temperatures, the batter should be not less than 
1 to 6, and should extend not less than 3 feet below the ground surface. 

2308. Footings or Piers for Lever Stands 

Concrete footings or piers supporting the lever st:nds shall be not less than .30 
inches thick. Their tops shall be above the floor a surficient distance to prevent the 
accumulation of water under the bases of stands, and shall be finished to exact level 
and elevation to receive the lever stands directly without the use of shims or grouting. 
If the scale is of a type having main levers or parts of the bearing asfemblies that hang 
below the base,; of the main lever stands, the i^iers shall be provided with reces.ses of 
a size to give clearance of not less than 1.5 inches, and so formed as to prevent accumu- 
lation of dirt. (See also Article 307.) 

2309. Pit Floor 

The floor of the pit may be a mat uf concrete approximately as thick as that required 
to support the main lever fulcrum stands, or, if local conditions permit, the thickness may 
be reduced to not less than 6 inches. (See Article 2,505 for drainage requirements.) 

2310. Anchor Bolts 

Anchor bolts embedded in concrete a minimum of 15 inches shall be provided in 
foundations for lever stands to match the bolt holes provided for securing the stands. 

2311. Floating Levers 

Floating levers shall be anchored to resist not less than twice the up-pull produced 
by the capacity live load. 



___^ Yards and Terminals 81 

2312. Deck Beam Supports 

For deck beam supports, inverted T-rails, or old rails, or equally effective metal 
bearings shall be set in each side wall of the pit with the center of bearings not less than 
6 inches from the inside of the pit wall. Such bearings shall not be fastened to trans- 
verse beam.-. 

2313. Weighbeam Foundations 

The pillars supporting the weighbeam shelf shall rest upon a reinforced concrete 
floor, or steel beams, or reinforced concrete beams, but the pillars and supporting beams, 
if u.-ed, shall be independent of the scale house floor if it is of timber. When necessary 
to install the weighbeam in a building other than a regular .scale house, the pillar support 
shall rest on foundations independent of the building. 

2314. Ventilation 

Scale pits shall be ventilated to meet the needs of each particular case, the object 
being to prevent condensation on the metal parts. 

2315. Entrance to Scale Pit 

Entrance to the scale pit shall be either through the floor of the weighbeam house or 
the foundation wall, preferabl.\- the latter. The opening shall be closed by a door 
suitably fastened to prevent unauthorized entry. 

2316. Safety Piers 

Suitable piers, columns, or other supports should be provided to prevent excessive 
drop of the girders should failure of the scale parts occur. 

(XXIV) SETTING OF THE SC.^LE 

2401. Fastening of Stands 

After alining the lever stands, the anchor bolt holes in the castings shall be tilled 
with cement or other suitable material, washers applied to the anchor bolts, and the 
nuts run solidly home. 

2402. Alinement 

All levers shall be level and connections plumb. 

(XXV) WEIGHBEAM HOUSE 

2501. Design 

Except where the weighbeam is mounted in an adjacent building, a suitable and 
substantial house shall be provided for the weighbeam and weighing oflice. The minimal 
inside width of the house shall be 4 feet, and the minimal length shall be sufficient to 
allow the installation of a shelf and weighbeam of proper capacity, together with acces- 
sories. It shall be provided with a bay window, or front and end vsindows, located with 
the sill about on a level with the top of the beam shelf, and of sufficient size to give 
the weigher a clear and unobstructed view of the scale deck and approaching cars. 
The windows shall be glazed with clear glass, or clear wire glass, free from imperfections. 

2502. Clearances 

(a) Beam Shelf: .^ clearance of not less than 1 inch shall be provided between 
the inside of the scale house and weighbeam supports and shelf. 

(b) Track: The lateral clearance between the scale house and the center of any 
track shall be not less than 7 feet 6 inches, if not otherwise required by law, or the 
purchaser. 

2503. Ventilation 

A suitable roof ventilator shall be provided for the scale house. 

(XXVI) SENSIBILITY RECIPROCAL 
2601. Definition 

The sensibility reciprocal is the change in load required to turn the weighbeam 
from a position of equilibrium in the center of the trig loop to a position of equilibrium 
at either limit of its travel. 



82 Yards and Terminals 

2602. Limit 

The sensibility reciprocal shall not exceed 50 pounds. 

(XXVII) TOLERANCE 

2701. The tolerance in cxce?s or deficiency on the first field test, after Installation 
corrections, is O.OS per cent of the applied load, or 50 pounds per 100,000 pounds of 
applied load, for any position of the test weight car on the weigh rails. The procedure 
outlined in the "Definition of a Standard Test of a Railway Track Scale" shall be 
followed. 

Appendix D 

(5) BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SUBJECTS PERTAINING TO YARDS AND 
TERMINALS APPEARING IN CURRENT PERIODICALS 

E. E. R. Tratman. Chairman, Sub-Committee; the Committee as a whole. 

(A) GENERAL 

Air rights — economical commercial development at terminals — .AREA Proceedings, 1036, 
page 318. 

Clearances for buildings and structures — AREA Proceedings, 1936. page 201. 

Clearances — equipment clearances and .\RE.\ diagrams- — Mechanical Division, AAR, 
Proceedings, 10,36 — Railway Age, 1036, June 27, page 1035. 

Clearances — electrical overhead and third rail — Electrical Section, .\AR-AREA Bulletin 388, 
1936, August. 

Coordination or unification — A.AR study — Engineering News-Record, 1036. July 23, 
page 135^Railway .Age, 1935, November 16, page 642; 1936, January 4, pages 9, 17 
and 20; January 25, page 173; .^pril 18, page 656; July 4, page 23. 

Coordination or unification — Chicago; unification of passenger and freight terminals pro- 
posed; report of V. V. Boatner to Federal Coordinator — Engineering News-Record, 
1036, Februar\- 6, page 227; February 27, page ii?: — Railway .\ge, 1936, Febru- 
ary 22, page 317; March 14, page 430. 

Coordination or unification; economic possibilities — Report of Federal Coordinator of 
Transportation, 1935, Februarv 18 and Julv 12 — Railway .\ge, 1935, September 28, 
page 397; 1936, April IS, page 656. 

Coordination or unification — Freight Traffic Report of Federal Coordinator, 1936, May 6. 

Coordination or unification; labor aspect — Railway Age, 1935, December 21, page 824. 

Coordination or unification — Merchandise Traffic Report of Federal Coordinator, 1934, 
March 22. 

Coordination or unification — passenger transport at Buenos .'Vires; law provides for co- 
ordination of all form? of passenger transport in the city — Railway Gazette (London), 
1936, October 16, page 600. 

Coordination or unification — passenger transport at London, England; report of London 
Passenger Transport Board, operating suburban railway services, street railways and 
bus Hues — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, October 30, page 688. 

Coordination or unification — unification proposed for terminals of 60 railways in 11 cities; 
report of Federal Coordinator — Engineering News-Record, 1936, February 6, page 227 ; 
February 27, page 333. 

International frontier stations — (see section (B) of this .Appendix). 

Locomotive terminals — at passenger and freight terminals; also for oil-electric locomo- 
tives and rail-cars — .ARE.-V Proceedings, 1936, pages 73 and 332. 

Stopping and starting trains; analysis of cost — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 541 — 
Railway Age, 1936, March 28, page 523. 

Terminals; architectural design — Railway Gazette (London), 1935, December 27, page 1088. 

Terminals; definition of term — ARE.\ Proceedings, 1936, page 308. 

Terminals — joint terminals; facilities; records for accounting— .\REA Proceedings, 1936, 
pages 95, 07 and 595. 

Terminals — merger plan proposed by Federal Coordinator — Railway Age, 1936, Febru- 
ary 8, page 243; February 22, page 317. 

Terminals; organization of staff and management — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 309. 

Terminals — terminal charges; suit between Kansas City Terminal Ry. and tenant lines — 
Railway Age, 1935, November 23, page 682. 



Yards and Terminals 83 

Transportation; methods of regulation — by John S. Worlcy (University of Michigan) — 
Engineering New^Record, 1936, June 4, page 837; June 11, page 856; June 18, 
page 881; June 25, page 018; July 2, page 19; July 9, page 51; July 16. page 97; 
August 20, page 281. 

Waterways and railways — by F. E. Morrow (Chicago & Western Indiana R. R.) — 
Western Society of Engineers, Journal. 1936, June, page 179. 

Waterway vs. railway transportation — Civil Engineering. 1935, July, page 457 — Report 
of Federal Coordinator; Railway Age, 1936. Januarv 25, page 173 — Shipping Register 
and World Ports, 1936, October 17. 

(B) PASSENGER STATIONS AND TERMINALS 

Amsterdam. Holland — enlargement of Central Station and track elevation of approach 

lines; to be completed in 1940 — Railway Gazette (London), 1935. October 25, 

page 692. 
Boston — snow melting at South Station; Boston Terminal Co. — Railway Engineering and 

Maintenance, 1936. January, page 32. 
Camden — stations on rapid-transit line — Engineering News-Record, 1936, June 4, page 812. 
Chicago — history of the six terminal station groups — Western Society of Engineers, 

Journal, 1936. 
Chicago — proposed unification; reducing six stations to four; \'. V. Boatner's plan for 

Federal Coordinator — Engineering News-Record, 1936, February 27, page 333. 
Cincinnati — proposed use of rapid transit subway — Transit Journal, 1936, September. 

page 306. 
Florence, Italy — new station for Italian State Railways — x\rchitectural Forum, 1936, 

September, page 205. 
Havre. P'rance — railway marine terminal station on new quay — Railway Gazette (Lon- 
don). 1936, April 10, page 715 — Engineering News-Record, 1934, May 24, page 681; 

June 14. page 768. 
Kansas City — Kansas City Terminal R\. ; suit over terminal charges to tenants — Railway 

Age, 1935, November 23, page 682. 
London, Canada — station of Canadian National Rys. — Canadian Railway and Marine 

World, 1935. October, page 441. 
London, England — inter-station bus service; double-deck busses with baggage compart- 
ment; operated by London Passenger Transport Board — Railway Gazette (London), 

1036, October 2i, page 663. 
London, England — London S: Northeastern Ry.; maintenance on suburban and terminal 

lines — Railway Gazette (London), 1935. October 25, page 691. 
London, England — Waterloo terminal station. Southern Ry.; new track lajout with 21 

stub tracks — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, May 29, page 1036. 
Los Angeles — union station for Southern Pacific Co., Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. 

and Union Pacific R. R.; location and construction— Western Construction News, 

1936, August, page 256. 
Mexico, D. F., Mexico — reconstruction of Buenavista Station, Mexican Rys. — Railway 

Age, 1935, October 26, page 555. 
Milan, Italy — snow melting by electric heaters at switches in passenger yard of Central 

Station — Railway Gazette (London). 1936, January 3, page 22. 
Moscow, U.S.S.R. — stations on new subway line — Engineering News-Record, 1936, 

April 9, page 523; July 16, page 94. 
Newark, N. J. — station for Pennsylvania R. R., rapid-transit line city subway and bus 

lines — Architectural Record, 1936, March, page 199. 
New York — Baltimore & Ohio R. R. bus service between New York offices and terminal 

station in Jersey City — Railway Gazette (I^ondon), 1936, September 25, page 499. 
New York — Erie R. R. passenger ferryboat "Meadville"; New York to Jersey City 

terminal — Marine Engineering, 1936, April, page 188. 
New York — Pennsylvania R. R. station; in service 25 years; heavy concentrated traffic — 

Railway Age. 1935, September 14, page 344; November 2, page 587. 
New York — mail terminal erected over station tracks at Pennsylvania R. R. station — 
Engineering News-Record, 1935, December 5, page 793 — Railway Age, 1935, De- 
cember 7, page 772; 1936, February 29, page 351. 
San Jose. Calif. — new station and relocated elevated line through cit}- — Southern Pacific 
Bulletin, 1936, January, page 5 — Engineering News-Record, 1936, July 2, page 14. 



84 Yards and Terminals 

Syracuse — New York Central R. R.; new station and relocated line on track elevation- 
Civil Engineering, 10,^5, April, page 25.^ — Engineering News-Record, 1Q,^6, Septem- 
ber 24, page 45 7 — Railway Age, 19,?6, October 3, page 476; October 10, page 504. 
\'alley Stream, N. Y. — suburban station on track elevation of Long Island R. R. — Archi- 
tectural Record, 1936, March, page 178. 
Wellington, New Zealand — new terminal station of New Zealand Government Rys.; 
stub-type station with seven tracks; track changes — Railway Gazette (London), 1935, 
November 1, page 720; 1036, September 25, page 486. 
Air rights; commercial use over stations — .\REA Proceedings, 1936, page 318. 
Bus sei-vice; Baltimore & Ohio R. R.; New York offices to Jersey City terminal — Railway 

Gazette (London). 1Q36. September 25, page 490. 
Bus service; London. England — special bus service between passenger stations — Railway 

Gazette (London), 1036, October 23, page 663. 
Bus stations and terminals; National Trailways Co. — Railway Age, 1936, May 23, 

page 837. 
Bus terminal — union station at Jacksonville, Fla. — Architectural Record, 1936, August, 

page 140. 
Cab stands — form of agreement for cab stands at stations; facilities for cab ser\'ice — 

AREA Proceedings, 1936, pages 83 and 314. 
City planning and railway stations- Railway Gazette (London). 1936, September 4. 

page 362. 
Coach yards; design and facilities — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 318. 
Fire protection; methods for protection of stations — Railway Fire Protection Associa- 
tion, Proceedings, 1035 — Railway Age, I035, October 19, page 495 — (see also "Oil 
Tracks", section (C) of this Appendix). 
Mail-handHng facililie? — AREA Proceedings, 10,^6, pages 310 and 315 — (see also "New 

York — mail terminal" above) . 
Pa.-sengers — movements at stations; (0 and from trains; time-speed studies — AREA 

Proceedings, 1036, page .U7. 
Platforms — Erie R. R. construction of inter-track platforms — Railway Engineering and 

Maintenance, 1936, September, page 545. 
Platforms and floors; specifications and clearances; platforms for passengers and trucking 

—AREA Proceedings, 1036, pages 281. .^00 and 314. 
Ramps; for passengers and trucking in large stations — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 316. 
Stations — design, facilities and organization for management^ — AREA Proceedings, 1936. 

pages 308, 310 and 312. 
Stations — exhibits in stations to interest traveling public — Railway Gazette (London), 

1936, October 30, page 684. 
Stations — frontier stations on international railway route?- Railway Gazette (London), 
1936. April 10, page 69.5 — also "Juridical and Administrative Systems on Frontier 
Lines and Stations", Bulletin of League of Nations (published by Allen & Unwin, 
40 Museum St., London, England; price three shillings). 
Stations — joint facilities; forms of agreement — AREA Proceedings, 1936, pages 94, 97 

and ,W8. 
Stations — sewage disposal for stations and camps — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 397. 
Stations — small stations; designs — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 276. 
Stations — snow melting by electric heaters at switches of station at Milan, Italy — Railway 

Gazette (London), 1936, January 3, page 22. 
Stations — street approaches — AREA Proceedings, 1036, pages 310 and 312. 
Stations — terminal stations and architectural design — Railway Gazette (London), 1035, 

December 27, page 1088. 
Ta.xicabs — service at large stations- -.\RE A Proceedings, 1036, pages S3 and 314 — (see 

also "Bus Service" above). 
Terminal mergers — plan proposed by Federal Coordinator of Transportation — Railway 

Age, 1936, February 8, page 243; February 22, page 317. 
Track maintenance — work at terminals— Railway Age, 1935, September 28, page 397. 

(C) FREIGHT STATIONS, TERMINALS AND YARDS 
AUoucz, Wis. — Great Northern Ry.; rebuilding approaches to ore docks — Railway 

Engineering and Maintenance, 1936, August, page 475. 
Amsterdam, Holland — new classification yards and city freight yards in connection with 

track elevation and other terminal work; to be completed in 1940 — Railway Gazette 

(London), 1935, October 25, page 692. 



Yards and Terminals 85 

Baltimore — Baltimore & Ohio R. R.; coal handling and shipping at Baltimore, Toledo 

and \e\v York — Baltimore & Ohio Macrazinc, 1935, October. 
Chicago — Chicago & Northwestern Ry.; improvements at Wood St., at Proviso Yard, 
and at Merchandise Mart; express terminal and produce terminal — Railway Age, 

1936. May 30, page S83. 
Chicago — terminal coordination proposed in Boatner report to Federal Coordinator — 

Railway Age, 1936, February 22, page 317; March 14, page 430 — Engineering News- 
Record, 1936, February 6, page 227; February 27, page m. 
Colona, Pa. — Pittsburgh & Lake Erie R. R.; coal transfer from barge to car; unloading 

machine with 7-ton bucket — Electrical World. 1935, October 26, page 35. 
Port aux Basques, Newfoundland — paper-handling terminal; train shed for unloading; 

storage shed and shipping pier — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1935, 

November, page 491. 
St. Louis — motor freight transfer between terminals at Si. Luuis and East St. Louis by 

Columbia Terminals Co. — Railway Age, 1936, August 22, page 2S5. 
Syracuse — New York Central R. R.; track elevation and new freight facilities on re- 
located line — Civil Engineering, 1935, April, page 253 — Railway .^ge, 1936, October 3, 

page 476; October 10, page 502 — Engineering News-Recorcl, 1936, September 24, 

page 457. 
Wellington, New Zealand — New Zealand Government Rys. ; new yards and engine 

terminals — Railway Gazette (London), 1935, November 1, page 720. 
Banana handling — methods on English railways — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, 

September 25, page 482. 
Buildings; insjiection and maintenance — American Railway Bridge and Building Asso- 
ciation, Proceedings, 1935, page 119. 
Car dumper — Chesapeake & Ohio Ry.; Toledo; coal pier — Railway Age, 1936, October 17, 

page 554. 
Car rctarders; at coal mine tipple — Coal Age, 1935, October, page 415. 
Car retarder.= — hump yard arrangements — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 323. 
Car retarders — "Hump Yard Svstems" — pamphlet published by Signal Section, AAR, 

1936. 
Car retarders — hydraulic apparatus in hump yard at Hull. England, on London & 

Northeastern Ry. — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, January 24, page 145. 
Car rctarders; testing and maintenance- -Signal Section, AAR, Proceedings, Vol. 33, No. 1, 

1936, page 213. ' 
City planning; in relation to freight stations — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, Sep- 
tember 4, page 362. 
Clearances — AREA diagrams and equipment clearances— Mechanical Division, A.AR, 

Proceedings, 1036 — Railway Age, 1936, June 27, page 1035. 
Coal — Baltimore & Ohio R. R.; coal handling and shipping at Baltimore, Toledo and 

New York — Baltimore & Ohio Magazine, 1935, October. 
Coal — Chesapeake & Ohio Ry.; coal pier at Toledo — Railway Age, 1936, October 17, 

page 554. 
Coal — Norfolk & Western Ry.; new pier at Lamberts Point, with bunkering barge — 

Railway Age, 1936, April 25, page 705. 
Coal terminals; layout; mechanical handling by various methods — AREA Proceedings, 

1936, page 33,i 
Coal tipple; handling methods — Coal Age, 1936, April, page 139. 
Coal tipple — loading cars and barges; Harewoocl, W. Va. — Coal Age, 1936, June, 

page 226. 
Coal tipples; at different mines — Coal .Age, 1935, October, page 413; 1936, January, 

page 13; March, page 97. 
Containers — use on English railways for moving furniture and household good.s — Railway 

Gazette (London), 1936, October 2, page 513. 
Containers — handling by Columbia Terminals Co. at St. Louis and East St. Louis — 

Railway Age, 1936, August 22, page 285. 
Containers — handling at express company's depot at Surbiton, England, on Southern 

Ry. — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, January 17, page 114. 
Containers — new type tested — Railway Age, 1936, July 25, page 155. 
Containers — Pennsylvania R. R. method — RaDway Age, 1936, January 18, pages 143 

and 160. 
Containers — report of AAR — Railway Age, 1936, July 18, page 118. 



S6 Yards and T c r m i n a 1 s 

Containers — report to Federal Coordinator on extensive use of system — Railway Age, 

June 20. page 907. 
Containers — si>ccifications and car loading rules — Report of Federal Coordinator, 1934, 

July 23— Railway Age. 1Q36. April 18. page 670; May 30. page 892. 
Containers — test on Chicago. Rock Island & Pacitk Ry.; truck body on flat car — Railway 

Age. 1936, September 26, page 455. 
Door-to-door service — .^.AR discussion— Railway .\gc. 1Q35, November 16. page 642. 
Door-to-door service- .\merican Trucking .\ssociation opposes railway service — Railway 

Age, 1036, April 18, page 669. 
Door-to-door service — eastern roads' practice — Railway Age. 1936, February 1, page 226; 

February 8. page 254; May 9, page 770. 
Door-to-door service — Federal Coordinator's Report. 1933. September 28. 
Door-to-door service — form of agreement — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 85. 
Door-to-door service— German railways haul freight cars on transfer trucks over roads 

and narrow-gage railways between freight houses and factories— Railway Gazette 

(London). 1936, October 30, page 702. 
Door-to-door service — highwa_\- trucking competition — Engineering News-Record, 1936, 

January 30. page 171. 
Door-to-door service — horse and mechanical traction study in England — Railway Gazette 

(London), 1036. January 17, page 117. 
Door-to-door service — Interstate Commerce Commission hearings — Railway Age, 1936, 

June 27, pages 1056 and 1058; July 4, pages 29 and 31; July 11, page 83; August 1, 

page 188; September 26. page 456. 
Door-to-door ser\'ice — LCL service — Railway Age. 1936. January 25, page 170. 
Door-to-door service — new developments and opposition — Railway Age, 1936, Janu- 
ary 11, page 128. 
Door-to-door service — New York Railroad Club discussion — Railway Age, 1936, 

April 25, page 687. 
Door-to-door .-ervice — Pennsylvania R. R. — Railway Age, 1936, March 7, page 411. 
Door-to-door scrvicc^ — western roads' practice — Railway Age, 1935, December 21, 

page 821. 
Elevators — freight house equipment — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 327. 
Elevators, grain — (see "Grain Elevators" herein). 
Express terminals— Chicago ; Chicago & Northwestern Ry. — Railway Age, 1936, May 30. 

page 883. 
Express terminals — London, England; containtM- handling at terminal of Carter Paterson 

Co. — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, Januan,- 17, page 114. 
Express terminals — London. England; Pickford Co's suburban receiving, sorting and 

shipping station, with warehouse — Railway Gazette (London), 1035, November 8, 

page 785. 
Express terminals — Manchester, England; express company's handling and sorting of 

package freight at Sutton depot — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, April 10, 

page 704. 
Express terminals — Southern Ry. (England) ; container handling at Surbiton — Railway 

Gazette (London), 1036. January 17, page 114. 
Express terminals — Railway Express Agency; new type of truck — Railway Age, 1935, 

December 28, page 867. 
Express terminals — Railway Express .\gency ; dispatching system at Chicago — Railway 

Age, 1936, January 25, page 191. 
Fire protection ; freight houses and buildings — Railway Fire Protection Association, 

Proceedings, 1935 — Railvva} Age, 1935. October 10. page 512. 
Fire protection- — tracks for loading and unloading inflammable liquid.s — Report of Elec- 
trical Section, AAR-AREA Bulletin 388. 1936, August, page 58. 
Freight handling — damage claims reduced by care in handling — Railway Age, 1936, 

May 9, page 771. 
Freight handling — damage reduced by improved equipment — Freight Claim Division, 

AAR — Railway Age, 1936, June 13, page 955. 
Freight handling — horse vs. mechanical handling — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, 

January 17, page 117. 
Freight handling — Report of American Association of Railroad Superintendents — Railway 
Age, 1936, June 27, page 1020; August 1. page 177; August 8, page 211. 



Yards anfl Terminal? 87 

Freight handling — tractor-trailer handling at marine freight house — Marine Engineering, 
1936, June, page 333 — (see also "Cargo Handling", section (D) of this Appendix). 

Freight handling — trucking at freight houses; cost of operation — AREA Proceedings. 
1936, page 326. 

Freight houses; concrete lloors for — Railway Engineering and Maintenance, 19.^6. 
August, page 486. 

Freight houses; elevator equipment for — .\REA Proceedings. 1936, page 327. 

Freight houses and transfer stations; features of general design — ARE.\ Proceedings. 
1936, page 325. 

Freight terminals — design; yard layout; facilities — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 321. 

Freight transfer — motor transfer between freight stations at St. Louis and East St. 
Louis by Columbia Terminals Co. — Railway Age, 1936, August 22, page 285. 

Freight yards — expediting handling of cars through — American Association of Railroad 
Superintendents Proceedings, 1036 — Railway Age, 1936, June 2 7, page 1020; 
August 1, page 177; August S, page 211; September 26, page 445. 

Freight yards — general design; facilities; requirement? — ARE.A Proceedings, 1Q36, 
page 320. 

Freight yards— maintenance gangs; large or small — Railway Engineering and Maintenance. 
1936, March, page 183; April, page 249. 

Fruit traffic— ?pecial service on English railway? — Railway Gazette (London), 1936, 
September 25, pages 482 and 495. 

Grain elevators; Canadian port.?— Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1035, November, 
page 525; 1936, March, page 135; September, page 409. 

Grain elevators — railway facilities — .AREA Proceedings. 1936, page 330. 

Grain elevators — railway ownership and leasing — Reports of Federal Coordinator, 1034, 
August 30; 1936, May 29— Railway .\ge, 1936, June 6, page 914. 

Hump yards — automatic devices; operation — Railway Gazette (London). 1936, August 14, 
page 255. 

Hump yards — communication to switching locomotives — Railway Gazette CLondon), 
1936, July 16, page 38. 

Hump yards; design and layout — .AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 322. 

Hump yards— London S: Northeastern Ry., England; Hesle and Mottram yards; hy- 
clraulic car retarders; Mottram yard with two ladders, five turnouts from each, and 
two tracks for each turnout; 3 per cent starting gradient — Railway Gazette (Lon- 
don), 1935, October 18, page 631; 1936, January 24, page 145. 

Hump yards — pamphlet on ''Hump Yard System?" (100 pages); chapter 21 of "Ameri- 
can Railwav Signalin<r Principle? and Practice" — published bv the Signal Section. 
AAR, 1936.' 

Icing — facilities for servicing California fruit and perishable freight — Railway Age, 1935. 
December 28, page 854. 

Industry tracks^form of agreement with railway — ^.ARE.A Proceedings, 1936, page 93. 

Industry tracks; maintenance re5pon?ibility — Pennsylvania R. R. vs. Merchants Ware- 
house Co., Philadelphia — Railway .Age, 1936, March 21, page 512. 

Joint terminals — facilities and agreements for — .ARE.A Proceedings, 1936, pages 05, 07 
and 595. 

LCL service^door-to-door service — Railway Age, 1936, January 25, page 170. 

LCL service — Great Western Ry. (England); efficient handling in trains and at freight 
stations — Railway .Age, 1935, November 9, page 606. 

LCL service — pooling of service — Report of Federal Coordinator — Railway Age, 1936, 
June 6, page 917. 

Merchandise traffic — Canadian National Rys.; terminal facilities — Railway Age, 1935, 
December 28, page 858. 

Merchandise traffic — Report of Federal Coordinator of Transportation, 1934, March 22. 

Oil tracks — protection from fire due to electric spark.? — Report of Electrical Section, 
AAR-AREA Bulletin 388, 1936, August, page 58, 

Ore docks — .Allouez, Wis.; Great Northern Ry.; rebuilding approache? — Railway Engi- 
neering and Maintenance, 1936, August, page 475. 

Piers — (see "Coal" above — see also section (D) of this Appendix). 

Produce terminals — service for California produce and perishable freight — Railway Age, 
1935, December 28, page 854. 

Produce terminals — Chicago; Chicago & Northwestern Ry. — Railway .Age, 1936, May 30, 
page 883. 



Yards and Terminals 



Produce terminals — facilities required; general design — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 328. 
Produce terminals — Port aux Basques; Newfoundland Ry.; fruit handling terminal with 

sheds and shipping pier — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1935, November, 

page 491. 
Rail-and-road service — Baltimore & Ohio R. R.; Chicago Great Western Ry.; Great 

Northern Ry.; Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry.; etc. — Railway .\ge, 1936, 

March 28, pages 548 and 553; May 16, page 811; May 23. pages 841 and 842; 

May 30, page 883; September 26, page 455. 
Rail-and-road .-ervice — Canadian National Rys. — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 

1935, September, pagi- 422; October, page 472. 

Rail-and-road service- — English railways; fruit-handling service — Railway Gazette (Lon- 
don), 1936, September 25, page 495. 

Rail-and-road service — New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. — Railway Age, 1935, 
December 28, page 863; 1936, July 25, page ISO. 

Rail-and-road service — Northern Pacific Ry. — Railway Age, 1936, February 22, page 324. 

Rail-and-road service — Southern Pacific Co, — Railway Age, 1936, January 25, page 183. 

Rail-and-road service — truck-ferry system; motor trucks on cars— Chicago Great West- 
ern Ry.; Mound City & Eastern Ry.; Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R. R.— 
Railway Age, 1935, November 23, page 673; 1936, August 22, page 292; October 24, 
pages 601 and 603. 

Scales — motor truck scales for railway service; specifications — AREA Proceedings, 1936, 
pages 357 and 963. 

Scales — railwav track scales; specifications — AREA Proceedings, 1936, pages 211, 212, 
332, 344 and 963. 

Scales — report of National Bureau of Standards track scale testing service, abstracted — 
Railway Age, 1936, April 18, page 652. 

Scales — track scales with standard and narrow gage weigh rails; Great Northern Ry. — 
Railway Engineering and Maintenance, 1936, January, page 29. 

Skates — track skates for gravity switching — "Hump Yard Systems", published by Signal 
Section, AAR, 1936. 

Switches; for car retarder layouts — "Hump Yard Systems", published by the Signal 
Section, AAR, 1936. 

Switching locomotives; butane-electric— -.\cme Steel Co.— Railway Age, 1935, December 21, 
page 819. 

Switching locomotives; oil and oil-electric — costs — Railway Age, 1935, October 26, 
page 525; 1936, February 1, page 222 — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1935^] 
September, page 403; December, page 583. 

Switching locomotives; oil-electric — Illinois Central System; New York, New Haven & 
Hartford R. R. — Railway Mechanical Engineering, 1936, May, page 197 — Railway 
Age, 1936, April IS, page 646; .August 20, page 304; October 31, page 615. 

Switching locomotives; oil-electric — Report of Mechanical Division, AAR — Railway Age,'^ 

1936, June 27, page 1045. 
Switching locomotives; steam; 200 tons; 0-10-2 type — Union R. R. — Railway Age, 1936,' 

July 18, page 105; October 17, page 570. 
Team yards; design and features — AREA Proceedings, 1936, page 328. 
Terminal capacity; as affected by sohd trains — AREA Manual, 1929, page 1421. 
Track maintenance; in terminals and yards — Railway Age, 1935, September 28, page 397. 
Tunnel — union freight tunnel to connect Brooklyn, N. Y., and Greenville, N. J. — Railway 

Age, 1935, September 21, page 378. 
Warehouses — freight warehouses; facilities and features of design — .^REA Proceedings, 

1936, page 327. 
Warehouses — storage charges — Interstate Commerce Commission report — Railway Age, 

1936, July 4, page 31. 

(D) RAIL-AND-WATER TERMINALS 

Bayonne, N. J. — Municipal bonds issued for rail-and-water terminal — Engineering New.s- 
Record, 1935, December 19, page 867; 1936, April 30, page 647; July 16, page 102. 

Cartagena, Colombia — new jiiers, sheds, and railway facilities— Engineering News-Record, 
1935, November 21, page 710. 

Colona, Pa. — -barge-to-car coal transfer; Pittsburgh & Lake Erie R. R. — Electrical World 
1935, October 26, page 35. 



Yards and Terminals 89 

Fort William and Port Arthur, Canada — port and railway facilities — Canadian Railway 
and Marine World, 1035, November, page 523. 

Halifax, Nova Scotia — history and present facilities of the port — Canadian Railway and 
Marine World, 1935, December, page 565. 

Hamilton, Canada — harbor and facilities — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1935, 
October, page 477. 

Havre, France — passenger station on "French Line" quay — Railway Gazette (London), 
1936, April 10, page 715 — Engineering News-Record, 1934, May 24, page 681; 
June 14, page 768. 

Houston — description of marine, railway and industrial facilities — Houston Port Book 
(Houston Port Commission), 1Q36. 

Los Angeles — port facilities — Civil Engineering, 1Q35, September, pages 519 and 577; 
December, page 803. 

Montreal — port facilities — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1935 May, page 287; 
1936, June, page 288; August, page 386. 

Newport News — Chesapeake & Ohio Ry.; reconstruction of timber piers — Wood Preserv- 
ing News, 1936, October, page 123. 

New York — Erie R. R.; passenger ferryboat "Meadville" to Jersey City terminal — 
Marine Engineering, 1936, April, page 188. 

New York — "free port" zone on Staten Island — Engineering News-Record, 1936, Feb- 
ruary 6, page 227. 

New York — piers 1100 feet by 125 feet for SS Normandie and SS Queen Mary — Engi- 
neering News-Record, 1936, June 11, page 861; August 20, page 281. 

New York — railway operations and ferries in New York Harbor — by J. H. Lofland 
(New England Steamship Co.) — New York Railroad Club, Proceedings, 1936 — 
Railway Age, 1936, March 21, page 406 — Marine Engineering, 1936, May. 

New Westminster, Canada — port and facilities — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 
1936, April, page 182; July, page 341. 

Port aux Basques, Newfoundland — Newfoundland Ry.; paper-shipping terminal — 
Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1Q35, November, page 491. 

Port Everglades, Florida — Florida East Coast Ry.; new car ferry port — Shipping Reg- 
ister and World Ports, 1936, March 7 — Railway Age, 1935, November 2, page 591. 

St. John, New Brunswick — new piers and quays — Engineering News-Record, 1936, Octo- 
ber 22, page 569 — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1935, November, page 530; 
1936, January, page 36; October, page 483. 

San Francisco — new steamship piers — Engineering News-Record, 1936, September 10, 
page 386. 

San Francisco — water supply to ship? — Engineering News-Record, 1936, March 28, 
page 776. 

Seattle — reconstruction of water front, sea wall, and railway tracks — Marine Engineer- 
ing, 1936, September, page 518 — Engineering News-Record, 1935, December 12. 
page 833. 

Toronto — port and port facilities — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1935, Sep- 
tember, page 427. 

Vancouver — port and facilities — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1935, October, 
page 481; 1036, February, page 83; March, page 134; September, page 432. 

Car ferries; American and foreign — history; equipment; operation; landings — AREA 
BuOetin 387, 1936, July. 

Car ferries; Danish State Railways, 1872-1036; nine ferry crossings — International 
Railway Congress, Bulletin, 1036, June, page 609. 

Car ferries — Dover (England) to Dunkerque (France); operation begun October, 1036; 
sleeping car service between London and Paris — Railway Gazette (London), 1936. 
October 2, pages 514 and 525; October 16, page 618 — The Engineer (London), 1936, 
October 9, page 377; October 16, page 404 — Railway Age, 1936, October 31, 
page 626 — Engineering News-Record, 1936, November 5, page 638. 

Car ferries; Florida East Coast Ry. — new facilities at Port Everglades — Railway Age, 
1935, November 2, page 591. 

Car ferries; Lake Michigan — Marine Engineering, 1036, April, page 196; May, page 250. 

Car ferries; New York Harbor; railway service — Railway Age, 1936, March 21, 
page 496 — Marine Engineering, 1936, May, page 258. 

Cargo handling — Marine Engineering (an article every month). 



90 Yards and Terminals 

Coal shipping plants — various types of equipment at railway shipping ports — AREA 
Proceedings, 1936, page i33. 

Free ports; American and foreign — Shipping Register and World Ports, 1936, October 24. 

Free port? — Canadian law for establishing ports — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 
1936. July, page 343. 

Free f>ort ; New York Harbor; proposed establishment— Engineering News-Record, 1936, 
February 6. page 227. 

Grain elevators; on the St. Lawrence River — Engineering News-Record, 1936, Febru- 
ary 20, page 300; September 17, page 421. 

Package freight — passenger and package freight traffic on the Great Lakes — Marine 
Engineering, 1936, October, page 550. 

Piers— Baltimore & Ohio R. R.~coal-handling at Baltimore, Toledo and New York- 
Baltimore & Ohio Magazine, 1935, October. 

Piers— Chesapeake & Ohio Ry.— coal-handling at Toledo— Railway Age, 1936, October 17, 
page 554, 

Piers— Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. — reconstruction of timber pier at Ne\\q}ort News — Wood 
Preserving News, 1936, October, page 123. 

Piers — Norfolk & Western Ry. — coal pier at Lamberts Point— Railway Age, 1936, 
April 25, page 705, 

Piers — Cartagena, Colombia — shipping piers, sheds, and railway facilities — Engineering 
News-Record, 1935, November 21, page 710, 

Piers— New York— 1100 feet long for SS Queen Mary and SS Normandie — Engineering 
News-Record, 1936, June 11, page 861; August 20, page 281. 

Piers — St. John, New Brunswick — new shipping piers and quays — Engineering News- 
Record, 1936, October 22. page 569 — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1935, 
November, page 530; 1936. January', page 36; October, page 483. 

Piers — San Francisco — new steamship piers — Engineering News-Record, 1936. Septem- 
ber 10, page 386. 

Port Authorities— Canada replaces harbor commissioners at individual ports with a gov- 
ernment bureau; Canada Harbor Board — Marine Engineering. 1935, December, 
page 485 — Canadian Railway and Marine World, 1936, October, page 457 — Engi- 
neering News-Record. 1936, March 26, page 476. 

Port Charges — problem of charges at rail-and-water terminals operated by railways, 
municipalities, and private companies — Houston Port Book (Houston Port Com- 
mission), 1935, November; 1936. May — Association of Port Authorities, Proceedings, 
1935— Railway .\ge, 1935, November 16, page 646; 1936, April 4, page 590. 

Railway freight transfer — New York Harbor service; equipment and methods — Marine 
Engineering, 1936, May, page 258 — Railway ."Vge, 1936. March 21. page 496. 

Railway docks — railway ownership of docks in England^Railway Gazette (London) 
1936, May 1, page 877; June 5, page 1072. 

Self-unloading steamers; operation on the Great Lakes — Marine Engineering, 1936, June; 
page 318. 

Water supply; for ships in San Francisco Harbor — Engineering News-Record, 1936, 
May 28, page 776. 






Appendix E 

(8) OUTLINE OF COMPLETE FIELD OF WORK 
OF THE COMMITTEE 

Hadley Baldwin. Chairman, Sub-Committee; the Committee as a whole. 

Terminals 

(A) ControUing factors and requirements 

(B) Municipal interest and participation 

(C) Departmental segregations 

1. Freight service 

2. Passenger service 

3. Engine houses and shops and appurtenant facilities, including tracks 

4. Heating, lighting, and power plants, and appurtenant facilities, including 

tracks 



Yard? and Terminals 91 

5. Scale?: Design, location, erection, maintenance, operation 

6. Signaling; interlocking; systems of communication: Scope of installation, 

immediate and prc^pective 

(D) Joint terminals 

1. Special consirierations 

2. Organization, development, cooperation 

(E) Interrelated arrangement of all terminal feature?, sequentially or otherwise. 

calculated to afford maximal expedition, convenience and efficiency of the 
ensemble 

(F) Thorough determination of the essential details and the required capacity of 

each feature of the ensemble 

(G) Lccnmotive fuel and water supply facilities 

2. Passenger Terminals 

(A) Comprehensive determination of features and capacities required for present 

and anticipated functions b.\- study of volume and character of traftk in 
relation lo through and suburban service, and, with due regard to cost, 
the selection of type and location 

(B) Passenger Station proper 

1. Main building, its interior areas, their functions, concessions and arrangement 

2. Passenger thorofares: Corridors, ramps, escalators, stairways, etc. 

3. Station tracks and platforms, their shelters, functions and dimensions; 

facilities for servicing cars (air, water, steam, electricity, etc.) 

4. Auxiliary buildings for handhng mail and expre.?s and possibly baggage, and 

their appurtenant platforms and driveways with due regard to their 
track requirements 

5. Baggage, mail and express station trucking thorofares 

6. Street approaches, roadways, platforms and parking spaces for taxicabs 

and other public and private vehicles handling railway patrons 

7. Special facilities, where required, for train-air transport, train-bus trans- 

port, and train-water transport transfers 

8. Development of air right? and office ?pace for lease 

(C) Tracks 

1. Station tracks and their throat connections 

2. Coach yards, including buildings for supplies and facilities for inspecting. 

cleaning and repairing equipment 

3. Yard for serving mail building and for the loading and unloading of 

carload mail 

4. Yard for serving express building and for the loading and unloading of 

carload express 

5. Special tracks for sleepers occupied or to be occupied before or after train 

movement, business car?, exhibition cars, trash cars, fuel supply cars 

6. Yard inter-communicating running (thorofare) tracks 

3. Freight Terminals 

(A) Comprehensive determination of character and volume of traffic, required 

capacities, design, location, accessibility, etc. 

(B) Yards 

1. Location of ensemble and its relation to main tracks 

2. Functions: Receiving, classification, departure, house, bulk, transfer, re- 
pair, holding, storage, icing, elevator, coal transfer, etc. 

3. Special tracks: Caboose, bad order, private, etc. 

4. Yard inter-communicating running (thorofare) tracks 

(C) Buildings and appurtenant facilities 
1-a. Freight houses, either separate or combined, for inbound and outbound 

LCL freight, for freight transfer, for produce terminal service, and for 
rail-water transport transfer ser\-ice 
1-b. House and team track platforms, driveways and mechanical handling 
facilities 



I 

92 Y a rds and Terminals 

2. Special provisions where necessary to accommodate — 

(a) Pick-up and delivery service 

(b) Freipht forwarding companies 

(c) Railway owned and operated highway or waterway transport 

companies 

(d) Other trucic service: Private, contract, common carrier 

Under each general subject, the current Committee study should include — 

(a) Revision of the Manual 

(b) Adherence to recommended practice 

(c) Progress in the science and art 

(d) Bibliography 

(e) Outline of work for the ensuing year 



Cljarles Patterson iWcCauglanlJ 

Charles Patterson McCausland, Engineer of Surveys, Western Maryland Railroad! 
died at his home in Baltimore, Md., November 4, 1936. He was admitted to memberi 
ship in the American Railway Engineering Assocation on November 28, 19.56, and 
appointed a member of the Committee on Yards and Terminals in 1Q26, serving thereon 
continuously until his death. 

Mr. McCausland was a conscientious and hard-working member of the Committee, 
and contributed materiallv to its work. His loss will be keenlv felt bv his associates. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE XIII— WATER SERVICE, 
FIRE PROTECTION AND SANITATION 



R. C. Bard WELL, Chairman; 
W. M. Bark, 
R. W. Chorley, 

R. E. COLGHLA.V, 
W. L. CURTISS, 

J. H. Davidson, 
B W. DeGeer, 
G. E. Durham, 
R. N. Foster, 
C. H. Fox, 
VV. P. Hale, 
J. P. Haxley. 

H. M. HOFFMEISTER, 

R. L. Holmes, 
A. W. Johnson, 



H. F. King, 
C. R. Knowlks, 
J.J. Laudki, 
O E. M.xcE, 
Ray McBrl^n, 
M. E. McDonnell 
W. A. McGee, 
H. L. McMuLLiN, 
R. H. Miller, 
E. R. Morris, 
L B. Paine, 
A. B. Pierce, 

W. G. POWRIE, 

W. A. Radspinner, 
O. T. Rees, 



E.M.Grlme, Vice-Chairman, 
Owen Rice, 

C. P. Richardson, 
H. L. Roscoe, 

J. A. Russell, 
H. E. SiLCOx, 

D. A. Steel, 

R. M. Sttmmel, 

C. P. Van Gundy, 

H. W. Van Hovenbero, 

R. E. VVachter, 

J. C. Wallace, 

J. B. Wesley, 

A. E. Willahan, 

J. B. Young, 

Committee. 



To the American Raihvay Engineering Association : 

Your Committee respectfully presents herewith its report covering the following 
subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual. Progress in study — no report. 

(2) Relation of railway fire protection equipment to municipal and privately-owned 
waterworks (Appendix A). It is recommended that the report be received as information 
and the subject discontinued. 

(3) Use of phosphates in water treatment (Appendix B). Recommended that the 
report be accepted as information and the subject discontinued. 

(4) Cause of and remedy for pitting and corrosion of locomotive boiler tubes and 
sheets, with special reference to status of embrittlement investigations (Appendix C). 
It is recommended that the report be accepted as information and the subject continued. 

(5; Value of water treatment with respect to estimating and summarizing possible 
savings effected. Progress in study— no report. 

(6) Methods of analysis of chemicals used in water treatment (Appendix D). It 
is recommended that the methods of analysis of sulphate of alumina be adopted for 
publication in the Manual. It is further recommended that the methods for analysis of 
salt to be used in the regeneration of zeolite water softeners be received as information 
and the subject discontinued. 

(7) Progress being made by Federal or State authorities on regulations pertaining 
to railway sanitation, collaborating with Joint Committee on Railway Sanitation, AAR. 
(Appendix E). It is the recommendation of your Committee that the report be received 
as information and the subject continued. 

(8) Clarification and disinfection of -mall raihvay drinking water supply. Progress 
in study — no report. 

(9) Determination of and means for reduction of water supply (Appendix F) . It 
is recommended that the report be received as information and the subject discontinued. 

(10) Classification of water service material, collaborating with Purchases and 
Stores Division. Progress in study — no report. 

Bulletin 389. September, 1936. 



93 



94 Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 

(11) Rules and Organization, reviewing subject-matter in Chapter XII in 1929 
Manual and Supplements thereto pertaining to Water Service, Fire Protection and Sani- 
tation. Owing to the ruling of the Board Committee on Outline of Work, this subject 
has been discontinued from further study. 

(12) Outline of complete field of work of the Committee (.Appendix G). Progres.- 
report as information. 

The Committf.k o.v Water Service. Fire Protection and Sanitation, 

R. C. Bardwei.l, Chairman. 



Appendix A 

(2) RELATION OF RAILWAY FIRE PROTECTION TO MUNICIPAL 
AND PRIVATELY-OWNED WATERWORKS 

W. A. Radspinner, Chairman, Sub-Committee; C. H. Fox, A. W. Johnson. H. F. King, 
W. A. McGee, L. B. Paine, A. B. PieVce, C. P. Richardson, J. A. Russell, R; E. 
Wachter, J. C. Wallace, A. E. Willahan. 

This subject was assigned your Committee in 1934 and progress was reported in 1935. 
The information and data given here has been obtained from engineers of the under- 
writers and from the railroads. 

A questionnaire was prepared and distributed to member roads and it was found 
that the railroads were, in some cases, not sure of what rates they were paying to mu- 
nicipal and privately-owned waterworks for fire service charges and that there was very 
little data available for comparative purposes. There was no available data or universal 
yardstick on which the charges were based. 

It was found, on the other hand, that fire service charges have been discussed 
widely in the waterworks profession for many years, yet there has been and is today 
a wide variation in the practices of waterworks companies in levying charges for public 
and private fire service. Such service may be given either by municipalities or private 
water companies, both types of which are included in the data given in this report. 

Public fire protection is a governmental function and for such service public fire 
departments consisting of apparatus and men are maintained by municipal funds obtained 
from the general tax levy. In the case of a private water company, the municipality 
pays direct for fire protection service. There appears to be a question as to whether 
some railroads are receiving the service from their taxes that are due them. 

The -Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Companies made a national survey 
of fire service charges in 1930. The National Fire Waste Council in 1931 issued a 
pamphlet entitled "Water Charges for Public and Private Fire Protection" and in 1932 
the National Fire Protection Association's committee on Public Water Supplies for 
Private Fire Protection issued a pamphlet on "Water Charges," calling attention to lack 
of uniformity in the practice of some water companies in charges made for water 
service for private fire protection 

The object of both public and private fire protection is the same, namely, to extin- 
guish fire with maximum effectiveness and minimum damage. The progressive property 
owner, by the installation of modern devices, such as sprinklers and standpipes, at his 
own expense extends the fire fighting facilities in the street to his building and, to that 
extent, the function of the municipality to extinguish fire is more effectively accomplished. 
When the public fire departments use public hydrants and water to combat a fire in an 
unsprinklered property there is a complete segregation of part or all of the water system 



Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 9S 

until the fire is extinguished. Public fire protection has been partly or wholly with- 
drawn from the general use and given over to private use and benefit, just as much as 
though a private automatic sprinkler had gone into action. The use which every citizen 
is thus making of the pubhc fire and water departments is just as much for his exclusive 
and private benefit as is any use which he can make, in time of fire, of a private hydrant 
or automatic sprinkler. 

Modem building codes require automatic sprinklers and standpipes in many types 
of buildings depending on occupancy, height, type of construction and location. Private 
standpipes are an extension of the public facilities in the street. Without them the 
public fire department could not operate in the upper floors of high buildings. 

Charges for Private Fire Protection 

Water service for fire protection is a ".>land-by'' service ready to deliver a large 
amount of water for extinguishment of fire but seldom called upon to actually do so. 
Charges for fire service are "readiness-to-serve" charges. 

Readiness-to-Serve Criarge 

As a condition precedent to allowing a rcadiness-to-serve charge or fixing the 
amount of such a charge, it should be definitely shown that the waterworks incurs a 
cost on standing-by to serve private fire protection, and the nature and amount of such 
cost, if any. 

The additional capacity for fire protection, in the lorm of water storage, pumping 
equipment, pipes sufficient to supply the fire demand simultaneously with the maximum 
domestic demand and other appurtenances which are incorporated into waterworks sys- 
tems, represents additional investment. The cost of this additional investment and inci- 
dental operating expenses aie fixed by the demand upon the system for fire protection 
and are the bases for the readiness-to-serve charge for fire protection. The amount of 
water actually used for private fire protection is so small as to be of no consequence. 
It is general practice not to charge for water used in extinguishing fires. 

The fire protection water demand of a city must be taken as a unit. It is deter- 
mined by the fire risk of the city as a whole and is expressed by well-recognized standards 
as so many thousands of gallons per minute or the number of fire streams necessary to 
give the entire city adequate protection. If the number of outlets were increased over 
what is required for adequate protection, the fire risk of the city as a whole and the 
number of fire streams needed for adequate protection would remain exactly the same, 
the demand upon the system for protection would remain exactly the same and no 
additional burden of cost would be thrown upon the waterworks thereby. If the public 
fire protection is adequate, the capacity demands and costs of fire protection are defi- 
nitely established. As the fire demand is made by the fire risk of the city as a unit and 
not by the outlets in excess of those needed for basic adequacy, so the capacity costs 
should not be measured by the number of fixtures through which the demand is supplied. 

Present Practice Regarding Charges 

Information collected by means of a questionnaire in 1930 indicates that practically 
all of the large cities in the United States have adopted principles similar to those out- 
lined in this report as a basis for private fire service charges; that is, when the property 
owner pays all installation costs, including that of the connection, either no charge at 
all is made or only a nominal charge sufficient to cover the cost of maintenance and 
inspection. The majority of the smaller communities, where the waterworks are munici- 
pally owned, have likewise recognized their obligation to furnish fire protection and 
they follow the same practice. 



96 Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 

On the other hand, a tew of the municipally-owned waterworks and some private 
water companies levy charges which are very high and discourage the installation of 
private fire protection. These charges are on a more or less arbitrary basis such as the 
size of connection, number of hydrants, or number of sprinkler heads. 

In some cities the revenues derived from the limited number of private fire service 
connection? is such that the owners of a small part of the total taxable property pay 
a sizable portion of the total revenue from fire protection. 

In the lOiO census there are 93 cities in the United States with a population over 
100,000. Information concerning charges for private fire service was received in 1930 
from 84 of them. Forty-five of this number either make no charge, or an annual charge 
of $15 or less for a 6 inch private fire service connection as indicated in the following 
list. For the purpose of this tabulation the figure $15 is arbitrarily taken without 
attempting to set up any standard for maintenance and inspection charges, which may be 
expected to vary in accordance with local conditions. 

Annual Charge, for Annual Charge for 

City 6 in. connectio7i City 6 in. connection 

Nevvf York, X.V None Oklahoma City, Okia None 

Chicago, 111 None Richmond, Va None 

Philadelphia, Pa None Hartford, Conn None 

St. Louis, Mo $5.00 New Haven, Conn None 

Baltimore, Md .$5.00 Springfield, Mass. (4 in.) None 

Boston, Mass. (4 in.) $10.00 San Diego, Calif $12.00 

Bufialo. N.Y $12.00 Bridgeport, Conn None 

Washington, D.C None Salt Lake City, Utah $6.00 

Minneapolis, Minn Inspection Fee Jacksonville, Fla None 

Cincinnati, Ohio None Albany, N.Y None 

Newark, N.J ($7.50 with meter Trenton, N.J $10.00 

Low service ($15.00 without metei Camden, N.J None 

Kansas Citv, Mo $12.00 Erie, Pa None 

Seattle, Wash $6.00 Spokane, Wash $12.50 

Jersey City, N.J None Fall River, Mass None 

Portland, Ore $7.20 Cambridge, Mass None 

Houston, Te.xas None New Bedford, Mass None 

Toledo, Ohio $10.00 Wilmington, Del None 

Dallas, Texas None Canton, Ohio None 

Providence, R.I $8.00 Sommerville, Mass None 

Syracuse, N.Y None Lynn, Mai^s None 

Dayton, Ohio $5.00 Tampa, Fla $5.00 

Worcester, Mass None Lowell, Mass None 

The railroads may be interested in checking the price they are now paying against 
those shown in the above list. One system found that it pays $3,098.00 annually for 
the right to use its own fire fighting facilities, that are paid for, installed and maintained 
to better protect its property, assist the water works companies and help protect adjoin- 
ing property not its own. 

Such conditions are the same as double taxation as is shown in the following opinion 
u'iven to the Pennsylvania and Missouri Service Commissions. 

Re M. Callaghan vs. Springfield Consolidated Water Co., Complaint Docket 
No. 19 (1918) 

"The Commission is of the opinion that no extra charge should be assessed for 
private fire protection service, provided the individual or individuals receiving this service 
assume the entire cost of installation and maintenance of the connection to the city's 
system. Under these circumstances, to collect an extra charge must certainly amount 
to double taxation since the proper proportion of the capacity cost of the waterworks 
is always inchided in the public fire protection charge and the payment is made by the 
borough or municipality out of the general funds raised by taxation. 



Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 97 

"Such individuals are entitled to the benefits of public fire protection, just as is 
any other taxpayer. To place upon the private fire protection user, under these cir- 
cumstances, an additional service charge for the potentiality of the waterworks system in 
standing ready to meet the fire demand, is to deprive him of his payment to general 
taxation so far as the same goes toward payment for the public fire protection." 

In the case of W. J. Kenyon, Manager Traffic Bureau, St. Joseph, Mo., Com- 
merce Club et al. vs. St. Joseph, Mo., Water Company, P.U.R. 1921 D 590 
Our decision in the Kenyon case was predicated on the idea that the sprinkler users 
received special benefits for the service rendered them by the water company and should 
therefore pay a reasonable charge therefor. 

It may be conceded that numerically the weight of commission and judicial author- 
ity is in favor of the special benefit doctrine announced by us in the Kenyon case. Yet, 
we are now convinced, after careful consideration of the subject, that reason and logic 
are against the views which we expressed there. Fundamentally, the basis of the special 
benefit theory is that because one user can get a greater benefit from the same water 
service than another user, the first should pay a higher rate. This seems to us unsound and 
if carried to its logical conclusion would result in gross discrimination and tremendous 
difficulties in the creation of rate structures. It would mean, for example, that the 
laundryman who makes a profit out of the use of water for washing clothes should pay 
a higher rate for the water than, say, the butcher who makes no pecuniary profit out 
of its use and so on through the whole category of uses of the water. As is pointed 
out most forcibly in the brief of counsel for the sprinkler users this theory has been 
repudiated in the case of rates charged for other utility services. 

It is desired to repeat the conclusions of the National Firewaste Council in its 
pamphlet entitled "Water Charges for Public and Private Fire Protection:" 

"(1) The municipality has a recognized responsibility for furnishing fire protec- 
tion. The object of both public and private protection is the same, to extinguish fire 
with a maximum of effectiveness and a minimum of damage. Automatic sprinkler and 
standpipe systems may reasonably be considered as extensions of the public water sup- 
ply, supplementing and making more effective the municipal fire protection facilities. 

"(2) Private fire protection services do not necessitate increased capacity for sup- 
ply works or for distribution systems beyond that necessary to provide supply for rea- 
sonable public protection. There is a community benefit from the general installation 
of automatic sprinkler systems and other private fire protection equipment, much of 
which is required by law in many cities. A property owner who is willing to install 
automatic sprinklers, private hydrants and standpipes at his own expense should be 
given every encouragement to do so." 

This report is submitted as information. 

Appendix B 

(3) USE OF PHOSPHATES IN WATER TREATMENT 

J. J. Laudig, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. M. Barr, E. R. Morris, Owen Rice, J. B. 
Young, C. P. Van Gundy. 

The use of tri-sodium phosphate for the prevention of scale in steam boilers is 
definitely recorded as early as 1886. There are now eight different phosphates of soda 
used for this purpose. The information in regard to the use of these various phosphates 
is widely scattered and the Committee has compiled for convenient use this data in 
order that information may be more readily available. 

This report does not attempt to compare phosphates with other chemicals for water 
treatment. However, phosphates of soda have a distinct and undeniable place in the 
treatment of boiler feedwater. They are not a panacea and must be used with judg- 
ment based on the inherent characteristics of the several phosphates available, the 
characteristics of raw water available, the size of the boiler plant involved and the per- 
centage of makeup water required. 



98 Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 

Primary purposes in using phosphates for treating of boiler waters in addition to 
the prevention of scale are the advantages which can be obtained in the — 

(1) pH control 

(2) Maintaining a desired sulphate carbonate ratio 

(3) The prevention of deposit in feedwater lines, injectors, etc., which is 
characteristic of some forms of this material. 

In large boiler plants, sodium phosphates are not economical materials for complete 
feedwater treatment except where there is a high percentage of condensate return which 
will not contain lime or magnesia. There should be a water softening plant installed 
and the phosphate employed for treatment of water after it passes through the softening 
plant. 

In small boiler plants, regardless of the condensate return, where the expense of a 
water softening plant is not found justifiable, phosphates may be economically used for 
internal treatment, either along or in combination with other chemicals. 

The reactions between sodium phosphates and calcium and magnesium are so sim- 
ilar that this discussion will be limited to calcium i"eactions. 

In the following discussion it will be assumed that the phosphate employed reacts 
with CaCOi to form tri-calcium phosphate. It is probable that a "mixed reaction" 
takes place forming some di-calcium and some tri-calcium phosphate, tri-calcium phos- 
phate composes the greater percentage. 

CaCOs in solution reacts with the various phosphates to form tri-calcium phos- 
phate as follows: 

(1) NaH^POi — Sodium Acid Phosphate, anhydrous. 
PjOs^ 59.17 per cent iVa20 = 25.82 per cent 

3 CaCOi -f iNalhPO, — Ca.CPOJi 4- Na^COt + 2CO2 + 2H2O 

(2) NaH2POM20 — Sodium Acid Phosphate 

PjOi =51.45 per cent Na-O = 22.45 per cent 
Acts the same as anhydrous. 

(3) A^cPO, = Sodium Meta Phosphate 

P2O-0 — 69.62 per cent NaiO = 30.38 per cent 

This hydro lizes to NaHtPOi as follows: 

NaPO, + H2O = NaH^PO, 

Therefore one mole of this material is the equivalent of one mole of Sodium 

Acid Phosphate and 2 PsOs removes 3 Ca. 

(4) NfhHPOi = Di-Sodium Phosphate anhydrous 
PiOi=z 50.00 per cent A^o^O^ 43.65 per cent 
This material reacts with CaCOz as follows: 

3 CaCO^ -f 2N(hHP0* = CchCPO,)^ + iNa^COz + C02 -}- H2O 
Again 2 PjOs removed 3 Ca. 

(5) NohHPOt 12 H2O = Di-Sodium Phosphate crystals 
P20i= 19.83 per cent Na^O — 17.31 per cent 

Same reaction as for anhydrous but larger quantities required on account of 
the lower PjOs content. 

(6) NoiJ>Oi 12^20 = Tri-Sodium Phosphate (T.S.P. crystals) 
P20i= 18.68 per cent A^OtO= 24.46 per cent 

This salt hydrolizes with water as follows: 

NaJ*04 12 H2O = N(hHPO^ + NaOH 

It probably removes CaCOa as follows: 

3 CaCOz + 2NaJ'0i 12 H20 = C(h(P0i)2 + 3NchC0,+ 12HaO 

Here again 2 PjOb removes 3 Ca. 

(7) iVoiPsO? = Tetra Sodium Pyro Phosphate, anhydrous (T.S.P.P.) 
PiOi = 53.39 per cent NoiO = 46.6 per cent 

This hydrolizes with water at temperatures above 212° Fahr. as follows: 
NaJ'207 + H20 = 2 Na^HPO, 

The reaction with calcium carbonate may be expressed as follows: 
J,CaCO^ 4- NatPiOi + 2H2O = CchCPOJ^ + 2iVojCo,-t- 2CO2 + B2O 

(8) Na,P:,0, 10 /r20 = Tetra-Sodium-Pyro-Phosphate (T.S.P.P. crystals) 
PjOt^r 31.84 per cent N(hO= 27.79 per cent 



Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 9Q 

Reaction same as with anhydrous with larger quantities required on account of the 
lower PiOi content. 

All the foregoing data can be tabulated as follows, taking NchUPOt, anhydrous, as 
unity and evaluating the other phosphates in percentage ratio thereto as to calcium re- 
moving capacity. 

Table No. 1 
CALCIUM REMOVAL CAPACITY OF PHOSPHATES OF SODA 

Relative 

Efficiency Lb . necessary to 

No. 4 = -700 equal performance 

percent of 100-lb. of No.4 

No. 1 NaHiPO* 118.34 per cent 84.7 lb. 

No. 2 NaHjPOi H.0 103. 97.5 

No. 3 NaPOa 139.24 72.2 

No. 4 Na^HPO* 100.0 100. 

No. S Na.HP04 12 H^O 39.65 252. 

No. 6 NasPO* 12 H2O 37.25 267. 

No. 7 NaiPjOr 107. 94.0 

No. 8 Na4P207 10 ILO 64. 157.0 

The number of pounds of di-sodium phosphate (No. 4) required to treat (without 
excess) one thousand gallons of water containing various quantities of calcium carbonate 
is shown in the following table. The corresponding quantities of other phosphates will 
be in the ratio stated in the preceding table. 

Table No. 2 

// precipitated 
CaC03 Hardness as tri-calcium 

g.p.g phosphate 

2 27 lb. per thousand gal 

4 54 lb. per thousand gal. 

6 80 lb. per thousand gal. 

8 1.07 lb. per thousand gal. 

10 1.34 lb. per thousand gal. 

Taking the price of anhydrous di-sodium phosphate as lOi;'' per pound as a basis for 
comparison, the following is a tabulation of the price which can be paid for other phos- 
phates to have the cost of phosphate per unit of calcium removed on a par. This com- 
parison does not take into account other values such as pH correcting ability, non- 
precipitation in feed lines, etc. By substituting the quoted price on any phosphate the 
"parity" price of the others can be easily determined. 

Table No. 3 
Type of Phosphate Equivalent price per pound 

No. 1 NaH2P04 10.8< 

No. 2 NaHcPOi H2O 10.3'^ 

No. 3 NaPOs 13.0^^ 

No. 4 Na=HP04 10.0^ 

No. 5 Na2HP04 12 H2O 3.96^ 

No. 6 NasPOi 12 Hi.0 3.134 

No. 7 Na4P.07 10.68^ 

No. 8 Na4P20- 10 H=0 6.37^ 



100 Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 

The following table shows the pounds of (NasO) which will be introduced into a 
boiler by 100-lb. of di-sodium phosphate (No. 4) in comparison with equivalent calcium 
removing quantities of other phosphates. 

Table No. 4 

Quantity Per cent Per cent Lb. 

Type of Phosphate Used Na^O PiO^ NaiO 

No. 1 NaH^PO^ 84. lb. 25.82 59.17 21.7 

No. 2 NaH^FOi HeO 97. 22.45 51.45 21.7 

No. 3 NaPOa 72. 36.38 69.62 21.7 

No. 4 NaiHPO^ 100. 43.65 50.00 43.4 

No. 5 NazHPOi 12H.0 252. 17.31 19.83 43.4 

No. 6 NaaPO. I2H2O 267. 24.46 18.68 65.1 

No. 7 NaiPaOr 94. 46.60 53.39 43.4 

No. 8 Na^P^Or IOH2O 157.0 27.79 31.84 43.4 

From the foregoing it will be seen that tri-sodium phosphate (No. 6) introduces more 
NorzO per unit of softening accomplishments than any other phosphate. 

Another factor to be kept in mind in selecting the phosphate to be used in boiler 
feedwater treatment is the alkalinity balance or pH of the system. 

It is generally conceded that the best operating results are obtained when the pH in 
the boiler is maintained at some point between 9.5 and 12. 

If the makeup water is highly alkaline it may tend to raise the pH above the desir- 
able limit. These conditions call for the use of (No. 1) or (No. 2). Other conditions, 
as for example, a makeup water containing dissolved silica, may tend to make the pH 
too low; this calls for (No. 4) or (No. 5). Thus, the proper pH in the boilers can 
be corrected and maintained by proper selection of the phosphate used. 

The following table shows the pH of a saturated solution of various phosphates. Of 
course there will never be a saturated solution in a boiler, but the relative pH of these 
solutions will show which way their addition will tend to change the boiler water pH. 

Table No. 5 

Type of Phosphate pH of a Saturated Solution 

No. 1 NaHzPOi 4.0 approximate 

No. 2 NaHiPO, H2O 4.0 approximate 

No. 3 NaPOs as added 6.0 approximate 

After hydrolysis in the boiler the same as No. 1 and No. 2 4.0 approximate 

No. 4 Na2HP04 9.0 approximate 

No. 5 NajHPOi 12 H2O 9.0 approximate 

No. 6 Na8P04 I2H2O 12.8 approximate 

No. 7 Na4P207 as added 9.8 approximate 

After hydrolysis in the boiler the same as No. 4 and No. 5 9.0 approximate 
No. 8 Na4P207 10 H2O Acts same as No. 7. 

Both meta-phosphate (No. 3) and tetra-sodium-pyro-phosphate (No. 7 and No. 8) 
have the peculiar characteristic of forming complex salts with calcium. These double 
salts are soluble. When one of these phosphates is employed there should be no precipi- 
tation in feedwater heater or feed lines. There will be such a precipitation where any of 
the other phosphates are used. 

These complex salts formed by No. 3, 7 and 8 break down under the temperature 
conditions existing in the boiler. Thereafter, when using No. 3, the effect will be exactly 
the same as would be secured with No. 2 or 3. Either No. 7 or No. 8 will, in the 
boiler, act exactly the same as No. 4 or 5. 



Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 101 

In other words, No. 1 or 2 fed directly to the boiler through a separate feed line 
will give the same results as No. 3 and 4 or No. 5 fed in a similar manner give the same 
results as No. 7 or 8. 

Since Nos. 3, 7 and 8 are more expensive per unit of PzO:. than the other phosphates 
the convenience of their use should be balanced against the capital cost of installing a 
separate phosphate feed line to each boiler, together with means of injecting into boiler. 

Appendix C 

(4) CAUSE OF AND REMEDY FOR PITTING AND CORROSION OF 
LOCOMOTIVE BOILER TUBES AND SHEETS, WITH SPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO STATUS OF EMBRITTLEMENT INVESTI- 
GATIONS 

R. E. Coughlan, Chairman, Sub-Committee; J. H. Davidson, B. W. DeGeer, G. E. 
Durham, O. E. Mace, Ray McBrian, M. E. McDonnell, O. T. Rees, R. M. Stimmel, 
J. B. Wesley. 

During the past year your Committee has reviewed what information has been made 
available both from railroad sources and the Joint Research Committee on Boiler 
Feedwater Studies. 

Results of the Joint Research Committee's investigation to date indicate that the 
type of boiler cracking, known as embrittlement, is dependent upon the combination of 
two contributing causes, namely, boiler metal under stress and character of feed water. 
Specific information has been obtained on data relative to the solubility deposition of 
Sodium Sulphate or its complex salts in boiler waters. 

It is believed by these research workers that under certain conditions a combination 
of Sodium Silicate and Sodium Hydroxide tends to promote embrittlement and that 
Sodium Sulphate tends to inhibit this effect in some cases. Their studies al?o indicate 
that some oxidizing salts, such as Sodium Chromate may have an inhibiting effect on 
embrittlement. 

As a result of the investigations reported during 1936, it is believed that the develop- 
ment of two factors by the Joint Research Committee may lead to a method of retarding 
embrittlement of boiler metal. One of these factors has been expressed in a curve show- 
ing conditions under which Sodium Sulphate will be deposited from waters of known 
composition when such waters are evaporated in a boiler. If further investigation proves 
that Sodium Sulphate, either in solution or as a sohd, is necessary to prevent embrittle- 
ment, this investigation will define the conditions that should be maintained. 

Up to the present time investigation has not progressed far enough to enable the 
control of the composition of boiler water to be developed for the prevention of 
embrittlement. 

Their research also indicated that caustic soda alone will not produce embrittlement. 
It has been found that sodium silicate must also be present in the boiler water to produce 
this effect. In a recent report, this Research Committee states "sodium silicate and 
sodium hydroxide tend to produce embrittlement and sodium sulphate tends to inhibit 
this effect." 

Another factor which has been substantiated by individual railroad laboratories is 
the presence of "metal fatigue" or "age embrittlement" which may have a decided effect 
on future studies of this problem. As the investigation is still in the experimental stages, 
no further information is available at this time. 



102 Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 

The Committee was advised that a recommendation was being considered by the 
Mechanical Division of the AAR covering the investigation of firebox steel, with par- 
ticular reference to metallurgical properties and the Committee unanimously voted that 
the following resolution be presented to the Board of Direction of the AREA: 

"It is the unanimous recommendation of the Water Service Committee of the 
Construction and Maintenance Section, Engineering Division, that the Mechanical 
Division be urged to carry out research work on metallurgical properties in fire- 
box steel, with particular reference to factors affecting age hardening and 
corrosion fatigue, either of which occasionally cause cracking in boiler plate, 
cause of which is frequently attributed incorrectly to the quality of the water 
used." 

It is the recommendation of the Committee that this investigation include (1) 
physical and chemical properties of the steel used in boiler construction; (2) methods of 
manufacture of boiler steel; (3) the methods of fabrication of locomotive boilers, par- 
ticularly as regards flanging, rolling, riveting and caulking; (4) methods of staying and 
bracing boilers; (S) exhaustive study of all stresses to which boiler steels are subject, 
including (a) the combination of direct tensile and compressive stresses due to normal 
boiler pressures with stresses between staybolts due to bending of boiler plates; (b) in- 
ternal stresses in metal due to difference of temperature on fire and water sides of plates; 

(c) stresses due to different temperature of interconnected parts of boiler and frame; 

(d) stresses (and shock) due to boUer washing. 

Inasmuch as definite conclusions have not actually been reached regarding these 
peculiar boiler metal phenomena during the past year, it is the recommendation of your 
Committee that this be accepted as a progress report of information and that the 
subject be reassigned for further study. 



Appendix D 

(6) METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF CHEMICALS USED IN 
WATER TREATMENT 

R. M. Stimmel, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. M. Barr, G. E. Durham, J. J. Laudig, 
Ray McBrian, M. E. McDonnell, H. L. Roscoe, C. P. Van Gundy, J. B. Young. 

SULPHATE OF ALUMINA 
L Determination of Total Iron and Aluminum Oxides 

(a) Reagents: 

1. Hydrochloric Acid, Concentrated, Sp. Gr. 1.19 

2. Nitric Acid, Concentrated, Sp. Gr. 1.42 

3. Ammonium Hydroxide, Sp. Gr. 0.96. 

4. Ammonium Chloride, C, P. 

5. Methyl Red — Dissolve one gram in 500 ml. of neutral alcohol 

6. Washing solution — 2 per cent ammonium chloride solution 

(b) Procedure: 

Weigh out a 5 gram sample of the sulphate of alumina. Dissolve in 100 ml. of 
hot distilled water. Filter and wash thoroughly with hot distilled water, collecting the 
filterate and washings in a 500 ml. volumetric flask. Make up exactly to 500 ml. 

Take 50 ml. of the filtrate (0.5 gram sample). Reserve the balance of the filtrate 
for the determination of basicity. Add 150 ml, of distilled water to the SO ml. of filtrate 



Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 103 

and acidify with 5 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid and 1 ml. of concentrated nitric 
acid. Add 1 gram of ammonium chloride and heat to boiling. Make just alkaline to 
methyl red with ammonium hydroxide. Boil for one minute and filter immediately. 
Wash thoroughly with hot washing solution. Return the precipitate and filter paper 
to the original beaker. Dissolve the precipitate in 200 ml. of warm distilled water con- 
taining 10 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Add 1 gram of ammonium chloride 
and repeat the precipitation with ammonium hydroxide. Boil for one minute and filter 
immediately. Wash the precipitate with hot washing solution. 

Dry the precipitate in a platinum crucible in the oven for one hour keeping the 
temperature between 95 and 100 deg. C. Ignite carefully with the blast lamp to constant 
weight. The weight in grams times 2 gives the iron and aluminum oxide per gram of 
sample, or times 200 gives the per cent of these oxides. 

2. Determination of Total Iron 

(a) Reagents: 

1. Sulphuric Acid, Concentrated, Sp. Gr. 1.84 

2. Potassium Permanganate, 0.1 Normal 

3. Granulated, C. P., Zinc 

(b) Procedure: 

Weigh out a five gram sample and dissolve in 100 ml. of distilled water. Add 
cautiously 10 ml. of concentrated sulphuric acid. Heat and add approximately 3 grams 
of the granulated zinc. Allow IS minutes for the reaction. Pass the solution through a 
funnel containing a wad of cotton. Wash with 50 ml. of cold water containing 2 to 
3 ml. of concentrated sulphuric acid and then with cold water. 

Titrate the filtrate with 0.1 N potassium permanganate to a faint permanent pink. 
Run a blank on the granulated zinc. Deduct the ml. required in the titration of the 
blank from the ml. of potassium permanganate used in titrating the sample. The num- 
ber of ml. remaining time 0.0016 gives the grams of iron oxides per gram of sulphate 
of alumina, or times 0.16 gives the per cent of iron oxide. 

3. Water Soluble Aluminum Oxide 

From the per cent of iron and aluminum oxides (Determination No. 1) deduct the 
per cent of iron oxide (Determination No. 2). The difference gives the per cent of 
water soluble aluminum oxide. 

4. Basicity 

(a) Reagents: 

^l. Phenolphthalein Indicator Solution 
< 2. Normal solution of sodium hydroxide 

(b) Procedure: 

Take 100 ml. (1 gram of sample) of the filtrate from the solution prepared for the 
determination of iron and aluminum oxides. Dilute to 300 ml. and heat to boiling. 
Add 1 ml. of phenolphthalein and titrate with the normal solution of sodium hydroxide, 
titrating to a faint pink color. Again boil for about two minutes and titrate. Repeat 
the titrations in this manner until the pink color remains upon boiling. 

(c) Calculations: 

1. Calculate the amount of sulphuric acid which is equivalent to the sodium hydrox- 
ide used for titration. (One ml. of the sodium hydroxide is equivalent to 0,04904 grams 
of sulphuric acid.) 



104 Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 

2. Calculate the amount of sulphuric acid which is equivalent to the iron and alumi- 
num oxides found in the sulphate of alumina. 

The sulphuric acid equivalent to the aluminum oxide found per gram of sample is 

equal to the AUO^ times 2.8847. 
The sulphuric acid equivalent to the iron oxide found per gram of sample is equal 

to the Fe-jOa times 1.843. 

3. If the sulphuric acid found by titration is greater than the sulphuric acid equiv- 
alent to the iron and aluminum oxide, the excess is free sulphuric acid. If the sulphuric 
acid by titration is less than the amount of sulphuric acid equivalent to the iron and 
aluminate oxides, the sulphate of alumina is basic. 

SALT TO BE USED IN THE REGENERATION OF ZEOLITE WATER SOFTENERS 

Method No. 1 — Rapid Method 

Determination of Sodium Chloride 
Reagents: 

1. Sodium chloride, 0.10 normal solution — dissolve exactly S.84S grams of C. P. 
dried sodium chloride in distilled water and dilute to exactly one liter. 

2. Potassium chromate indicator — dissolve S grams of neutral potassium chromate 
in a little distilled water. Add silver nitrate until a precipitate is formed. Let stand for 
about one day and filter. Dilute the filtrate to 100 ml. 

3. Silver nitrate 0.10 normal solution — dissolve 17 grams of C. P. silver nitrate in a 
trifle less than one liter of distilled water. Standardize against 25 ml. of the 0.10 normal 
sodium chloride solution, adding the silver nitrate drop by drop, with stirring, until a 
permanent red precipitate is produced. If the amount of silver nitrate required is not 
exactly 25 ml. make the adjustments required. 

Procedure: 

Weigh out 5.845 grams of the sample — dissolve in distilled water and make up to 
one liter. Pipette out 25 ml. of this solution. Add approximately 0.5 ml. of potassium 
chromate indicator. Titrate against the 0.10 normal silver nitrate solution, adding the 
silver nitrate drop by drop, with stirring, until a permanent red precipitate is formed. 

The number of ml. of silver nitrate used times 4 gives the per cent of chloride as 
sodium chloride in the sample. 

SALT TO BE USED IN THE REGENERATION OF ZEOLITE WATER SOFTENERS 

Method No. 2 — Precision Method 

Reference — Journal American Chemical Society 51,1664,1929 (Foulk and Caley) 

Journal American Waterworks Association, 27,1712,1935 (Foulk and Caldwell) 

Determination of Sodium Chloride 

Reagents: 

1. Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid, Sp. Gr. 1.19, C. P. 

2. Ammonium Chloride, C. P. 

3. Ethyl Alcohol, 95 per cent. 

4. Magnesium Uranyl Acetate Solution — 

Solution A — Uranyl Acetate (2 ILO) 90 grams 

Glacial Acetic Acid 60 grams 

Make up to 100 ml. with distilled water 

Solution B — Magnesium Acetate (4 H2O) 600 grams 

Glacial Acetic Acid 60 grams 

Make up to 1000 ml. with distilled water 



Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation IPS 

Magnesium uranyl acetate solution — Solution A and Solution B are heated to about 
70 deg. C. until the chemicals are dissolved. Then mix the two solutions at 70 deg. and 
cool to 20 deg. C. Hold at 20 degrees for about two hours or until any excess salts 
have crystallized. Filter through a dry filter into a dry bottle. 

Procedure: 

1. One gram of the salt sample is dissolved in S ml. of distilled water. Add 10 ml. 
of concentrated hydrochloric acid, adding slowly with agitation. Evaporate to between 

4 and S ml. It is important that the volume after evaporation be between 4 and 5 ml. 
to prevent the precipitation of other substances with the sodium chloride. Cool and 
add S ml. of concentrated HCl. Filter the precipitate, using a crucible with a porous 
bottom. Transfer the salt to the crucible with the smallest amount of hydrochloric acid 
possible. The filtrate and washings, which should not exceed 30 ml. in volume, are 
reserved for the second part of the analysis. 

The crucible containing the sodium chloride is heated, very slowly at first. Heat 
finally to dull redness. To prevent loss by depreciation, the crucible should be covered 
during the first part of the heating. Cool and weigh. The sodium chloride obtained 
is approximately 94 per cent of the total in the sample. 

2. To the filtrate and washings from the first part of the procedure add about 5 
grams of ammonium chloride. Evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in about 

5 ml. of distilled water. Add 200 ml. of the magnesium uranyl acetate solution. Imme- 
diately immerse the flask containing the solution in water in 20 deg. Agitate the solu- 
tion vigorously for 30 to 40 minutes. 

During this time the solution must be kept at a temperature within 0.5 deg. C. of 
20 deg. A yellow crystalline precipitate is formed. Filter into a tared filtering crucible 
and wash with successive portions of 95 per cent ethyl alcohol. Dry the crucible and 
contents at 105 to 110 deg. C. Dry for 30 minutes and weigh. 

To the weight of the precipitate add 1 milligram for each 5 ml. portions of alcohol 
used in washing. The weight of the precipitate plus the alcohol correction factor time^ 
0.0389 gives the amount of sodium chloride. 

3. The sum of the amount of sodium chloride obtained in procedure 1 plus the 
amount obtained by procedure 2 gives the amount of sodium chloride per gram of 
sample, or times 100 gives the per cent of sodium chloride. 



Appendix E 

(7) PROGRESS BEING MADE BY FEDERAL OR STATE AUTHORI- 
TIES ON REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO RAILWAY SANI- 
TATION 

H. W. Van Hovenberg, Chairman, Sub- Committee; W. L. CurtLss, W. P. Hale, A. B. 
Pierce, D. A. Steel, A. E. Willahan. 

A meeting of the Joint Committee on Railway Sanitation, consisting of representa- 
tives of the Engineering Division; Medical and Surgical Section; Mechanical Division; 
U.S. Bureau of Public Health Service, and the Canadian Health Department, was held 
in the office of the AAR in New York, September 22, 1936. This meeting was called 
by the Secretary following complaint by one of the U.S. Public Health Service members 



106 Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 

of the Joint Committee that relatively little attention is being paid to the report of 
the Joint Committee which was published as information in 1931 for the guidance of 
member railroads. The report is known as Circular M&S No. 133. 

The letter of complaint expressed the hope that the Joint Committee might influence 
the Engineering Department of the various railroads in charge of design and construction 
to follow the recommendations of the Joint Committee to the end that the necessity for 
Federal regulation would not exist. It further appears that wherever possible, the U.S. 
Public Health Service is bringing Circular M&S No. 133 to the attention of the proper 
railroad officials and in every case the Government's recommendation complies with the 
Joint Committee's report in correcting conditions. 

At the time of the recent meeting of the Joint Committee, over one thousand copies 
of Circular M&S No. 133 had been distributed to railroads, the U.S. Public Health 
Service, State Boards of Health, and the Canadian Health Department. The report has 
become a semi-official guide to several state health departments in their dealing with 
railroads, so much so that it appears that flagrant departure from its suggested practice 
may lead to the states requiring approval of plans for installations. It is the hope of 
all members of the Joint Committee that any trend toward such a requirement will 
never materialize, but it is obvious much will depend on the attitude of the member 
railroads in following the suggestions embodied in Circular M&S No. 133. 

The Joint Committee is asking all member railroads to review the committee's re- 
port and to submit any recommendations, changes, or suggestions they may have to 
offer, to the end that the report may be kept in line with modern practice and its im- 
portance emphasized as a practical guide for those departments on railroads having to 
deal with local, state and Federal sanitary regulations. It is the purpose of the Joint 
Committee to review the suggestions and recommendations made by member railroads 
and reissue Circular M&S No. 133 in revised and condensed form during the year 1937. 



Appendix F 

(9) DETERMINATION OF AND MEANS FOR REDUCTION OF 

WATER WASTE 

J. P. Hanley, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. L. Curtiss, A. W. Johnson, C. R. Knowles,] 
L. B. Paine, J. A. Russell. 

The expense for water for locomotives only for Class I railways in the United States 
for 1935 was $17,282,610, exclusive of terminal and switching railways. Assuming that! 
water used in office buildings, power plants and for the other numerous purposes of! 
railway operation equaled half the amount used by locomotives, the expense would bej 
$25,932,915 for 1935. The cost of maintaining water stations for the same year was! 
$4,497,349. These figures indicate that water is one of the most extensively used and] 
expensive of railway commodities and that considerable study should be given to its! 
conservation. 

As an example of what can be accomplished against water waste, the Illinois Cen-j 
tral reported a reduction in the expense of city water from $225,112 in the fiscal yearj 
of 1913-1914 to $190,438 in the fiscal year of 1914-1915. This reduction of $34,6741 
was accomplished by an intensive campaign to save water. The campaign then started] 
has been maintained since through division and district waste avoidance meetings, sup- 
plemented by the use of circulars and placards posted at water-using points and by gen- 
erally impressing employees that water waste is expensive and unnecessary. It has beenl 



Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 107 

found advisable to continue the instruction and publicity on this subject to prevent a 

relapse into former wasteful use of water. One of the placards used by this railway is 
shown below. 



WHAT SMALL LEAKS MEAN 

UNDER THE AVERAGE WATER PRESSURE 

SIZE OF 
HOLE 

• "^1 A LEAK THIS SIZE WILL WASTE 62,000 GALLONS A YEAR 

• "^S A LEAK THIS SIZE WILL WASTE 354,000 GALLONS A YEAR 

• "^I A LEAK THIS SIZE WILL WASTE 1,314,000 GALLONS A YEAR 

MORAL: prevent leakage and save money 



Large quantities of water can be wasted and track damaged as well by the over- 
fiowing of engine tenders at tanks and water columns. Water column drain ports 
should be closed during non-freezing periods to conserve drainage waste. Overflow pipes 
from roadside and washout tanks having direct sewer connections often waste water be- 
cause the overflow is not observed. Such overflow pipes should have exposed outlets, 
so that overflow will be visible and cause of unnecessary overflow repaired. The mainte- 
nance of trackpans where locomotives secure water without stops should be carefully 
handled, the altitude valves, leveling of the pans, and other maintenance items checked 
frequently to prevent waste. 

Cinder pit and washout hose valves at engine houses are sometimes permitted to 
flow when not required. Bubbling drinking fountains are often allowed to flow con- 
tinuously to keep the water cool. Coach yard and fire hydrants used for filling water 
jugs and for individual drinking waste many times the water actually required. Leaks 
in flush tank valves and too frequent flushing of automatic tanks in toilet rooms are 
prolific causes of water waste. Self-draining hydrants of frostproof pattern are desirable 
at cinder pits and other points to avoid unnecessary flow of water to prevent freezing. 

Hidden leakage in underground water mains is now recognized as one of the most 
prevalent sources of water waste. Many cities maintain leak testing crews and make 
periodical and sometimes continuous surveys to keep up with this item of "unaccounted 
for" pumpage. These investigations indicate numerous cases of the following defects: 

Abandoned service taps leaking 

Iron service pipes broken 

Lead service pipes broken 

Wiped joints broken 

Couplings on service pipes leaking 

Curb cocks leaking 

Taps blown out 

Joints on mains leaking 

Mains broken 

^'alves leaking 



108 Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 

Leakage from the items mentioned often escapes to sewers, or percolates into the 
ground without showing on the surface. 

Cities have found that the changing of water rates from a flat schedule to a meter 
basis generally results in a reduction of customer waste in that it makes the customer 
"money conscious" of leaks in the household plumbing and other unnecessary uses of 
water. A wider use of water meters would be of similar advantage to railways in 
checking water pumped by their own plants or purchased for coach yards, office build- 
ings and large terminals, as the meters would indicate excessive requirements of vari- 
ous sections of their premises. The use of several sub-meters in addition to the master 
meter would indicate the section using unnecessary water. 

Railways have not considered it necessary to maintain leak testing equipment on 
such an extensive scale as the large cities, but their water service men generally use the 
limited equipment to good advantage in detecting and repairing hidden leakage in under- 
ground mains. An example of this occurred at a large engine terminal on a mid-westeni 
railway where a 12 -in. water column main was laid under a porous fill when the terminal 
grading was placed. Some years after the terminal was finished the metered water bills 
showed an unaccounted for increase and settlement and leakage in the 12-in. water main 
was suspected, although leakage did not appear on the surface. Notwithstanding the ab- 
sence of surface leakage the joints on the 12-in. main were excavated and fifteen joints 
were found to have settled in a cramped position and leakage escaping in the fill. The 
joints were repaired and a bell joint clamp applied over the recalked lead joints. This 
work was done in 1933-1934-1935. In 1933 the water bill was $8205, in 1934 the bill 
was $7117 and in 1935 it was $6374. Engines handled in 1933, 4990; in 1934, 5643 
and in 1935, 4773. In the latter year, a larger type of engme was handled which ac- 
counted for the decreased number of engines. The meter is now read weekly at this 
location and any unaccounted for increases promptly investigated without allowing them 
to continue. 

In checking underground leakage the amount and quality of sewer flow at various 
manholes and at the outlet should be studied, as a progressive increase in flow or in 
dilution may indicate approximate location and volume of watermain leakage entering 
the sewers. 

Some of the common sources of water waste follow: 

1. Water may be lost in delivery through the following causes: 

(a) Pump slippage 

(b) Breaks in mains 

(c) Leaks in pipe joints, due to defective calking or settlement 

(d) Leaks in mains due to small cracks and other imperfections 

(e) Blow-out and leaky hydrants and small leaks around valve stems 
(i) Worn-out or defective semce pipes 

(g) Leaks around defective service and curb cocks 

(h) Service pipes abandoned without openings being properly closed 

2. Water lost on premises through general service: 

(a) Leaking service pipes 

(b) Leaking plumbing, often due to careless or defective work 

(c) Leaking plumbing fixtures 

(d) Leaking faucets 

(e) Leaking water closets— defective ball and stop and improper operation 
of automatic stop valve 

(f) Water closets running continuously, without control 

(g) Old fashioned hopper closet 
(h) Frozen service pipes or plumbing 

(i) The open faucet 

(j) Leaks in tanks of all kinds 

(k) Too frequent operation of automatic urinal flush 



Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 109 

3. Water lost through power house and enginehouse facilities: 

(a) Cinder pit hydrants and connections 

(b) Bubbling fountains, without automatic valves 

(c) Lavatories without automatic valves 

(d) Lavatory trough in which men wash in running stream 

(e) Leaking automatic valves in boiler washing systems 

(f) Overflow from boiler feedwater heating facilities 

(g) Air compressor cooling lines 

(h) Internal combustion engine cooling lines 
(i) Cooling vats in blacksmiths' shops 
(j) Leaking coach yard hydrants 

4. Water lost through miscellaneous waste: 

(a) Use of fire hydrants for drinking and washing purposes 

(b) Overflowing engine tenders 

(c) Unnecessary use of hose for sprinkling 

(d) Overflowing tanks 

(e) Unnecessary use of water in flushing sewers 

(f) Use of hose without proper nozzle 

The above groups of waste can be corrected by: 

(a) Good maintenance 

(b) Investigation for underground leakage 

(c) Visible overflow outlets 

(d) Close attention to plumbing fixtures 

(e) Re-use of cooling water where practicable and instruction and publicity 
to employees in methods of avoiding water waste. 

Conclusions 

1. Constant vigilance is required on the part of employees and supervisory forces 
to save water. 

2. A system of daily or weekly meter readings should be maintained by the plant 
engineer or other competent employee at terminals where meters are used. Comparison 
of these readings should be made and any unaccounted for increases promptly investi- 
gated. Sectional metering for large terminals is advisable, 

3. Water waste prevention publicity consisting of placards, water cost statements 
and frequent instructions to employees are necessary to conserve water. Otherwise water 
which is usually considered "free" will be wastefuUy used. 

4. Overflow pipes from roadside and washout tanks, water column pits and other 
fixtures having concealed sewer connections should be frequently examined for waste. 
Visible overflow outlets should be provided where practicable. 

5. Hidden leakage in underground mains should be suspected when otherwise un- 
accounted for increase in water consumption takes place and necessary excavation and 
repair made to the pipe joints. 

6. The installation and maintenance of oversized connections should be avoided. 
Adequate sizes are more economical from water waste and maintenance standpoints. Im- 
proved pressure is also secured by reduction of unnecessary openings. 

Recommendation 
That the report be received as information and the subject discontinued. 



no Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 



Appendix G 

(12) OUTLINE OF COMPLETE FIELD OF WORK 
OF THE COMMITTEE 

H. F. King, Chairman, Sub-Committee; R. E. Coughlan, J. H. Davidson, E. M. Grime, 
C. R. Knowles, J. B. Wesley. 

(I) 



(H) 



Water 


Supply 


A. 


Definitions 


B. 


Quantity 


C. 


Quality 


D. 


Source 




1. Streams 




2. Springs 




3. Wells 




4. Reservoirs 


Pumping Plants and Equipment 


A. 


Definitions 


B. 


Types 




1. Steam 




2. Oil or Gas 




3. Electric 




4. Hydraulic Rams 




5. Air Lift 


C. 


Design and Installation 


D. 


Operation, Maintenance and Supervision 


E. 


Relative Economy 



(III) Pipe Lines, Hydrants, Valves, Columns, Meters and Trackpans 

A. Definitions 

B. Material 

1. Cast Iron 

2. Wrought Iron 

3. Steel 

4. Wood 

5. Other 

C. Types 

1. Intake 

2. Suction 

3. Discharge 

4. Gravity 

5. Distribution i 

D. Specifications 

1. Cast Iron Pipe and Special Castings 

2. Hydrants and Valves 

3. Laying Cast Iron Pipe 

E. Design, Installation and Maintenance 

1. Pipe Joints 

2. Protection Against Electrolysis 

3. Preventing Incrustation 

4. Cleaning Pipe Lines 

5. Thawing Frozen Pipe Lines 

F. Water Columns 

1. Types 

2. Rigid and Telescopic Spouts 

3. Advantages — Delivery — Loss of Head 



Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation Ul 

G. Meters 

1. Types 

2. Testing Meters 

3. Instructions Reading Meters 
H. Trackpans 

1. Design, Installation and Maintenance 

2. Heating in Winter — Drainage — Ice Removal 

3. Costs 

(IV) Storage Tanks 



A. 


Types 

1. Elevated Tanks 




2 . Standpipes 

3. Sedimentation basins 




4. Impounding Reservoirs 


B. 


Material 




1. Wood 




2. Steel 




3. Concrete 


C. 


Storage Capacity 

1. Consumption 

2. Duplicate Units for Economy in Cleaning and Maintenanc 


D. 


Relative Economy 


E. 


Specifications 

1. Wood Tanks — Tank Hoops 




2. Steel Substructures 




3. Timber Substructures 




4. Steel Tanks 




5. Concrete Tanks 


F. 


Frost Protection ^ 


(V) Water 


Station Buildings 


A. 


Type 

1. Brick 




2. Concrete 




3. Hollow Tile 




4. Frame 


B. 


Design, Construction and Maintenance 


C. 


Heating 

1. Steam 




2. Electric 




3. Stoves 


D. 


Frost Protection 



E. Fire Protection 
(VI) Treating Plants — Filters 

A. Definitions 

B. Lime — Soda Ash Plants 

C. Types 

1. Continuous 

2. Intermittent 

D. Design and Installation 

E. Operation, Maintenance and Supervision 

F. Capacity 

G. Relative Economy 

1. Type and Design 

2. Value of Treatment 

3. Savings 



112 Water Service, Fire Protection and Sanitation 

H. Reagents 

1. Purpose — Quantity Required 

2. Chemical Purity 
I. Coagulants 

J. Zeolite Plants 

1. Design, Installation and Operation 

2. Limitations as Compared with Lime-Soda 

3. Costs — Construction — Operation 

4. Relative Economy 
K. Wayside Treating Plants 

1. Types 

2. Reagents 

3. Relative Economy 

4. Justification for Use 
L. Internal Treatment 

1. Reagents 

2. Relative Economy 

3. Justification for Use 
M. Specifications for Chemicals 

1. Soda Ash 

2. Quick Lime 

3. Hydrated Lime 

4. Sulphate of Alumina 

5. Sulphate of Iron 

6. Salt Used in Regeneration of Zeolite Plants 

7. Methods of Analysis 

N. Standard Method of Water Analysis 

1. Field Tests 

2. Rapid Laboratory Tests 

3. Complete Laboratory Examination 
O. Filters 

1. Gravity — Pressure Filters 

(VII) Effect of Water Quality on Boiler Operation and Maintenance 

A. Definitions 

B. Foaming and Priming 

1. Cause 

2. Concentration Limit 

3. Slowdown Schedule 

4. Washout Schedule 

5. Use of Anti-Foam Compound 

6. Cost 

7. Methods for Testing and Control 

C. Pitting and Corrosion 

1. Cause 

2. Character of Metal 

3. Method of Manufacture and Construction of Boilers 

4. Remedy 

D. Embrittlement 

E. Protection of Boilers and Boiler Materials in Storage 

(VIII) Drinking Water Supply 

A. Definitions 

B. Federal and State Regulations 

1. Car Water System 

2. Water Coolers and Filters 

3. Collaborating with Joint Committee on Railway Sanitation, 
AAR 



(IX) Water Service Organization 

A. Construction, Maintenance and Operation 

B. Rules and Instructions 

C. Inspection and Supervision 

D. Report Forms 

1. Water Station Record 

2. Pumpers' Report 

3. Costs 

(X) Fire Protection 

A. Organization 

B. Rules and Instructions 

C. Inspection 

"■ 5:td"wa°te™S'" "'" "'"'''"'"' '° Municipal and Privately 
E. Reports 

(XI) Sanitation 

A. Definitions 

B. Federal and State Regulations 

1. Sanitary Facilities— Coach Yards 

2. Toilets 

3. Soil Cans 

4. Waste Disposal 

5. Collaboration with Joint Committee on Railway Sanitation 

C. Sewage Disposal 

D. Mosquito Control 

E. Disinfectants, Fumigants and Cleaning Materials 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE XXVII— MAINTENANCE OF 
WAY WORK EQUIPMENT 



C. R. Knowles, Chairman; 

G. A. W. Bell, Jr., 

G. E. Boyd, 

Walter Constance, 

w. o. cudworth, 

J. J. Davis, 

J. R. Derrick, 

J. T. Derrig, 

J. F. Donovan, 

C. R. Edwards, 

G. J. Ermentrout, 

Robert Faries, 

C. L. Fero, 

Paul Hamilton, 

J. G. Hartley, 



R. C. Haynes, 
F. S.Hewes, 
L.B.Holt, 
C. H. R. Howe, 

J. S. HUNTOON, 

E. C. Jackson, 
E. A. Johnson, 
S. A. Jordan, 
Jack Largent, 
E. H. Mills, 
C. E. Morgan, 
R. A. Morrison, 
C. H. Morse, 
E. H. Ness, 
C. H. Ordas, 



G. R. Westcott, Vice- 
chairman; 
E. Pharand, 
T. M. Pittman, 

E. L. Potare, 

F. H. ROTHE, 

J.C.Ryan, 
J. G. Sheldrick, 
H. E. Stansbury, 
N. M. Trapnell, 
J.M.Trissal, 
L. J. Turner, 
R. P. Winton, 
Fred Zavatkay, 

Committee. 



To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual. Progress in study — no report. 

(2) Standardization of parts and accessories for railway maintenance motor cars. 
Progress in study— no report. 

(3) Depreciation of work equipment. Progress in study — ^no report. 

(4) Electric tie tampers. Appendix A. Complete. Presented as information. 

(5) Use and adaptability of crawler- type tractors in maintenance of way work. 
Appendix B. Progress report. 

(6) Methods of keeping data on work equipment and labor-saving devices. 
Progress in study — no report. 

(7) Scheduling the use of work equipment. Progress in study — no report. 

(8) Machines for laying rail and their auxiliary equipment. Appendix C. Com- 
plete. Presented as information. 

(9) Track welding equipment. Appendix D. Progress report. 

(10) Power bolt tighteners. Appendix E. Complete and presented as information. 

(11) Power saws. Progress in study — no report. 

(12) Outline of complete field of work of the Committee. Appendix F. 

The Committee on Maintenance of Way Work Equipment, 

C. R. Knowles, Chairman. 



(4) 



Appendix A 
ELECTRIC TIE TAMPERS 



C. R. Edwards, Chairman, Sub-Committee; G. R. Westcott, J. F. Donovan, J. G. Hartley, 
L. B. Holt, E. A. Johnson, S. A. Jordan, C. H. Ordas. 

INTRODUCTION 

The report of the Committee affords a medium of information to the Association of 
the progress in the design of electric tools and the principles of their operation. 

No attempt is made to compare the merits of the various tools studied or to 
recommend any type for any class of tamping. 



Bulletin .589, .'^eptembrr, 1936. 



lis 



116 Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 



COST FACTORS 

The largest cost factor of tamping is the labor cost. Experience has shown that a 
low unit cost will be realized only by providing such equipment that the output p:r 
man-hour will be increased. 

Since the labor cost is the largest factor, we need not, within reason, be greatly 
concerned about the power pi. nts, transmission medium and the tools, provided the 
units be of reasonable efficiency and of ample capacity to furnish the energy required 
for all tools. 

There is then but one important objective — Increased Feet Per Man-Hour. To 
accomplish this, the tools must be operated the maximum number of hours possible dur- 
ing the working day. It naturally follows that the power plants and transmission 
medium must be sufficiently mobile to permit the minimum of man-hour expenditure in 
moving the equipment. 

CLASSIFICATION OF TOOLS 

There are five types of electric tools now available which we have classified as 
follows: 

Vibrating 

Direct blow 

Magnetic 

Electric-pneumatic 

Electric or mechanical pneumatic 

Description of Tools and Their Operation 
Vibrating 

The vibrating type has a spring blade bolted to a % H.P. electric motor. The motor 
is 3 phase, 60 cycles, 2 pole and operates at 3600 r.p.m. This speed is obtained by in- 
creasing the frequency to compensate for the slip. The rotor of this motor is mechan- 
ically unbalanced, and is supported by two ball bearings. The unbalanced rotor sets up 
rapid vibrations that are transmitted to the tamping bar. (About 3600 vibrations per 
minute.) The motor and bar are suspended in a cradle by canvas belting which serves 
to absorb and prevent the shock being transmitted to the operator. A renewable tip of 
alloy steel is riveted to the blade. 

The forward stroke of the tamping blade is approximately one-eighth inch and 
there is in addition a motion in practically all directions, thus imparting a vibratory action 
to the blade in addition to the definite stroke. 

Both rock and gravel blades can be furnished and in addition a fork blade for 
breaking cemented ballast. 

This tool weighs 60 pounds with the rock blade and 65 pounds with the gravel blade. 
The tool uses approximately 2 amperes per phase. 

Direct Blow 

This tool weighs 83 lb. with a ^ inch by 3 inch bar. The motor is a 4 pole star 
connected, operating at 110 volts 3 phase 60 cycles at a synchronous speed of 1800 r.p.m. 
The stroke or blow is accomplished thru a cam on the rotor shaft coming in contact with 
a heavy plunger which strikes directly on the upper end of the tamping bar. The rotor 
is supported by three ball bearings. The intensity of the blow can be varied by length- 
ening or shortening the travel of the plunger. The slip is compensated by slightly 
increasing the frequency as has been done in the vibrating type. 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 117 

Magnetic 

The magnetic tool operates on a principle entirely different from the other tools and 
for this reason its operation will be given in detail. 

In the power units, the mechanical energy of the internal combustion engine is con- 
verted to alternating current energy having a frequency of 25 cycles per second. 

The alternating current energy is converted by thermionic tubes to a direct pulsating 
current having a wave form somewhat similar to the wave of the alternating current that 
produced it. 

Without going into the theory of alternating currents and thermionic conversion, it 
will be sufficient to state that a single phase 25 cycle current starts at zero value and rises 
to its maximum value, either positive or negative, then returns to zero value and again 
rises to its maximum opposite value and again returns to zero value in 0.04 of a second. 
It is seen there are two waves, one negative and one positive, each wave existing 
for 0.02 of a second. 

A thermionic tube is a device that permits a current to flow in one direction only 
and utilizes only the wave that may be in agreement with its connection to the plate 
member of the tube. 

There are two tubes in each phase so connected that the negative a.c. wave is con- 
verted to a d.c. pulsation to operate one tool and the positive a.c. wave is converted to 
a d.c. pulsation to operate the second tool. 

The tool is a single wound solenoid having a 4.5 lb. armature with a 4 inch travel 
which strikes the end of the tamping bar in its downward movement. The weight of 
the tool is 62 lb. 

Princitle of Operation 

With the armature in its lower position resting on the tamping bar, suppose a nega- 
tive wave of a.c. voltage is generated and converted to a d.c. pulsation which energizes 
the winding and starts the armature at high velocity towards its magnetic center. The 
time values following are only approximately true but the value of the complete cycles 
is correct. The variations from the theoretical values are caused by the effect of gravity 
and the reaction of the spring and bar. Since the duration of the negative wave is 0.02 
of a second, the wave has died down to zero or approximately so. The high self induct- 
ance of the winding will cause the current to lag behind the voltage which tends to pre- 
vent the rapid demagnetizing of the solenoid causing the d.c. pulsating voltage to also 
drop and de-energize the magnet but the kinetic energy imparted to the armature carries 
it to its upper position in another 0.02 of a second where it strikes a spring and rebounds. 
However, this rebound occurs at the beginning of the rise of the negative wave of the 
second cycle and the d.c. pulsation again energizes the winding and accelerates the arma- 
ture towards its magnetic center. The time is again 0.02 of a second. The d.c. pulsa- 
tion decreases with the decreasing value of its a.c. wave and the kinetic energy of the 
armature carries it from the magnetic center to its lower position in 0.02 of a second 
when it strikes the tamping bar a hard blow. 

It is seen that the time of one cycle of the armature is 0.08 of a second. That is 
the time it takes the armature to start from its lower position, travel to its higher 
position and return to its lower position. This gives 60/0.08 or 750 blows per minute. 

The input is 800 watts or 1.07 H.P. Two conductors are required per tool. 

Electric-Pneumatic 

The motive power of this tool is obtained from a squirrel cage induction motor 
wound for 180 cycles, 3 phase, 115 volts, known by the trade name of "Hicycle". This 
motor operates a relatively short throw crank thru the medium of spiral bevel gearing. 



118 Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 

The crank in turn drives a reciprocating cylinder, so constructed as to form a part 
of a variable volume compression chamber in which the air is alternately comprci-sed and 
rarified. A straight cylindrical hammer piston slides in an extension of the reciprocating 
cylinder, being driven forward by compressed air admitted through ports in the cylinder 
wall. These ports are arranged to delay admission of air behind the hammer or striking 
piston until almost full compression has taken place in the com.pression chamber, so that 
the full force of the compressed air is suddenly released to drive the hammer piston for- 
ward to strike its blow on the tamper bar. Due to the differential areas of the com- 
pressor piston and hammer piston the stroke of the latter is ly'z times the length of the 
former. At the end of the normal stroke there is still considerable pressure remaining 
back of the hammer piston to force it farther forward in case the tamper bar advances 
in the retainer to follow through on the ballast to drive it home. At the end of the 
stroke of the hammer piston, exhaust ports in the cylinder extension and the outer barrel 
of the tamper register to allow the air in the system to exhaust to atmospheric pressure. 
When the compression piston starts on its upward stroke, this air is rarified and the ham- 
mer is drawn to its upward position. When the compression piston reaches the top of 
its stroke, ports are opened to take in a charge of fresh air and restore the system to 
atmospheric pressure, ready for another downward stroke. 

The gear and crank compartment are filled with a good engine oil which lubricates 
gears, ball journal and crank pin bearings. The oil also flows sparingly past packing 
rings to lubricate the reciprocating parts. A counterweight on the crankshaft compen- 
sates for the unbalance of the reciprocating parts to a very large degree. 

The tool delivers 1500 blows per minute and weighs 60 lb. 

Electric or Mechanical Pneumatic 

This tool differs from the Electric-Pneumatic described in the foregoing para- 
graphs. The tool may be operated by an electric motor mounted on the tool or by a 
flexible shaft. The exchange can be made in the field in a short time. 

For spot tamping, a small gasoline unit with two flexible shafts is mounted on a 
pneumatic tire barrow which is moved along the right-of-way as the tamping progresses. 

For general or out of face tamping, the flexible shafts are replaced by electric motors 
connected to a junction box by 30 feet of 3 conductor cable. 

Principle of Operation 

A flexible shaft or an electric motor rotates an impeller or cam mounted on specially 
designed bearings. A compression chamber is closed at the top and has an inlet port 
centrally located in the cylinder. As the impeller starts to revolve, the cam drives a 
heavy piston toward the top of the cylinder compressing the air therein. When maximum 
compression is reached, the air expands and drives the piston rapidly downward where it 
strikes the tamping bar at the end of its downward travel. Fresh air is now admitted to 
the top of the cylinder. The piston rebounding from the bar is caught by the cam on 
its upward travel and again accelerated to the top of the compression chamber. 

The weight of the tool with flexible shaft is SO lb. and with electric motor is 60 lb. 

The tool delivers 1300 blows per minute. 

The electric motor is of the squirrel cage induction type, approximately % H.P. llS 
volts, 3 phase, 60 cycles. 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 



119 



Comparison Data 

Type Voltage Phase 

Vibrating 110. 3. 

Direct Blow 110. 3. 

Magnetic 110. 1.2&3. 

Elec-Pneu 110. 3. 

Elec-Mech-Pneu 115 3. 

Type Blows per min. 

Vibrating 3600. 

Direct Blow 1800. 

Magnetic 750. 

Elec-Pneu 1500. 

Elec-Mech-Pneu 1 300. 



Frequency 
60. 
60. 

25. 

180. 

60. 


Weight of Tool 
60 lbs. 
83 lbs. 
62 lbs. 
60 lbs. 
60 lbs. 


Conductors 


Capacity of Units 
in number of tools 


3 
3 
2 
3 
3 




1,2, 4, and 8. 
1,2,4, and 8. 
2,4, 6, and 8. 
4, 6, 8, and 12. 
2, 4, 8, and 12. 



Cap.^city of Power Plants in Kilo-Volt Amperes 

Type 1 tool 2 tool 4 tool 6 tool 8 tool 

Vibrating ^ IJ^ S .. 5 

Direct Blow % 1^ 5 .. 5 

Magnetic 4 7^/^ 12. 15 

Elec-Pneu . . 8 Data not avail. 16 

Elec-Mech-Pneu ..1 .. 2 .. 4 



12 tool 



24. 
S 



Weight of Power Plants in Pounds 

Type 1 tool 2 tool 4 tool 6 tool 8 tool 

Vibrating 195. 275. 820 820. 

Direct Blow 195. 275. 820 820. 

Magnetic 650. 1050. 1250. 1650. 

Elec-Pneu ... 1000. 1250. 1600. 

Elec-Mech-Pneu 260. 500. 760. 



12 tool 



2000. 
1020. 



Conclusions 

(1) The Committee is of the unanimous opinion that the motors furnished for 
electric tools should have removable stators to permit a completely rewound stator to be 
inserted and that exchange service should be established. 

(2) While not unanimous, it was, however, the opinion of the majority of the 
Committee that the manufacturers of electric tamping power units should give thoughtful 
consideration to providing internal combustion engines whose makers would have exchange 
service for a factory reconditioned engine at a reasonable cost. 

(3) It is the opinion of the Committee that all power plants should have a suitable 
circuit breaker that will quickly open at least two lines of 3 phase 3 wire circuit; two 
lines of a 2 phase four wire circuit and one line of a single phase two wire circuit, unless 
the generator is of special design that will limit the current output to a safe value under 
any accidental or sustained short circuit that may occur. 

(4) There is a wide difference of opinion among maintenance officials on the meth- 
ods of tamping. It is therefore evident that the subject is of such importance and the 
opportunities for improvements and cost reductions so great that the official who will 
give thoughtful consideration to the many methods of tamping will be amply repaid for 
his efforts. 



120 Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 

Appendix B 

(5) USE AND ADAPTABILITY OF CRAWLER-TYPE TRACTORS 
IN MAINTENANCE OF WAY WORK 

T. M. Pittman, Chairman, Sub-Committee; G. A. W. Bell, Jr., J. R. Derrick, J. T. Derrig, 
F. S. Hewes, Jack Largent, R. A. Morrison, C. H. Morse, H. E. Stansbury. 

In previous reports your Committee has presented the general design and operation 
of crawler type tractors and described some of the attachments that have been designed 
to work with them in performing various classes of maintenance of way work. 

A recent survey disclosed a general acceptance of the crawler type tractor by rail- 
roads, and a wide range of applications. The use of welding equipment, air compressors, 
front end loaders, post hole diggers and various types of earth moving equipment mounted 
on crawler treads has advanced rapidly. These machines appear to have passed the ex- 
perimental stage and have become established units of work equipment. Bulldozers, snow 
plows, brooms and front end loaders are universally accepted as economical and effective 
snow fighting equipment. 

There have been numerous developments during the past few years, most of which 
consist largely of improvements in the devices already described with a view of making 
them more efficient. 

An outstanding departure from the basic design, however, has been the recent devel- 
opment of a Diesel motor suitable for use with the smaller tractors which have proven 
more suitable for maintenance of way work. 

Diesel-motored crawler type tractors are now available in the 35 horsepower class, 
which are mounted on chasses about the same size as the gasoline thirties. This brings 
the Diesel tractor within the range of practicable maintenance of way work. 

The difference in the operation of the gasoline and Diesel motors is well known and 
many advantages and economies have been claimed for the Diesel. While the Diesel is 
more economical in certain respects it is felt a note of warning should be sounded against 
accepting the superiority of the Diesel in all cases or without careful investigation. 

In a gasoline engine the gasoline and air, mixed outside the cylinder, is exploded in 
the cylinder by means of an electric spark, and the piston is driven by the force of the 
explosion. The piston strokes in a Diesel engine are exactly the same as a gasoline engine, 
the primary difference in them being the method of getting the fuel into the combustion 
chamber and igniting it. In the gasoline engine the gasoline and air are mixed in the 
carburator before being delivered to the cylinder. In the Diesel engine pure air is drawn 
into the combustion chamber and compressed. Just before the period of maximum com- 
pression the fuel is forced into the pure air. The compression in the cylinder is three or 
four times greater than in a gasoline engine and the heat generated by this high com- 
pression causes the mixture to explode when the fuel is injected into the cylinder. 

The outstanding advantages of the Diesel over the gasoline engine are: 

1. They have a flatter torque curve which increases what is known in tractor service 
as greater "lugging abihty". 

2. They are more economical to operate, consuming 40 per cent to 60 per cent less 
fuel than gasoline. 

3. Their economy is further enhanced by the use of low grade fuel oil, which, in 
most instances is substantially cheaper than gasoline. 

4. Lesser fire hazard. 

While these advantages may appear controlling, other important features should be 
considered before discarding gasoline tractors in favor of Diesel. The advantages de- 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 121 

scribed consist largely in fuel economy, whereas, the fuel expense ordinarily constitutes 
only from 25 per cent to 35 per cent of the total operating cost of a gasoline tractor and 
only 15 per cent to 25 per cent of the total operating cost of a Diesel. The first cost of 
the Diesel is from 25 per cent to 30 per cent higher than the gasoline motor, which in- 
creases the interest and depreciation items. With a sufficient increase in interest on the 
investment, depreciation and maintenance, which constitutes from 75 per cent to 85 per 
cent of the total operating costs, a large portion of the economies in fuel consumption 
will be dissipated. 

Therefore, the following questions should be decided before purchasing a Diesel: 

1. Is proper Diesel fuel available? 

2. Can a Diesel motor be serviced and maintained properly with the present 
organization ? 

3. Will the fuel economy justify the high price in increased first cost, interest, 
depreciation and maintenance? 

The increased use of Diesel engines in construction work outside railroad service has 
created a demand for Diesel fuel that has resulted in a rather general distribution of a 
satisfactory grade of fuel. With further expansion in the use of this type motor the 
availability of this fuel should not be a difficult problem. 

While a great deal is being said about training men for servicing and maintaining 
Diesel motors and numerous schools have sprung up for this purpose, there is no reason 
why a mechanic competent to maintain a gasoline motor cannot learn to maintain the 
Diesel motor in a very short while with a few instructions. In general, a Diesel motor is 
less complicated than a gasoline motor and the greatest problem would be to became 
familiar with the Diesel principles. 

The question of fuel economy requires close study. In general the price level of 
Diesel fuel oil is substantially below that of gasoline and in some states the Diesel fuel is 
not taxed. Some states already have a tax on Diesel fuel, as well as gasoline, and it is 
logical to assume that the tax will soon be applied by other states. The increased use 
of Diesel engines and the resultant increase and the demand for Diesel fuel may also have 
a tendency to raise the price. 

The great increase in the use of Diesel motors in other industries would indicate a 
decided superiority of this type of motor over the gasoline motor, but it should be noted 
that the Diesel engine has had its greatest success in fields where its work is nearly con- 
tinuous, while in railroad maintenance work the tractors are idle more or less of the time. 
Since the economy of the Diesel is dependent largely on its fuel consumption, and the 
fuel consumption depends upon the number of hours worked, while the fixed charges do 
not vary, it follows that a Diesel might prove economical when it is kept working, 
whereas, it will not prove economical unless it is worked a certain amount of hours per 
year. For this reason a machine that would be economical in levee or highway work, 
might not prove economical in railroad maintenance work. 



122 Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 

Appendix C 

(8) MACHINES FOR LAYING RAIL AND THEIR AUXILIARY 

EQUIPMENT 

C. L. Fero, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. O. Cudworth, J. J. Davis, J. T. Derrig, F. S. 
Hewes, L. B. Holt, C. H. Morse, C. H. Ordas, E. L. Potarf, F. H. Rothe, H. E. 
Stansbury, N. M. Trapnell, L. J. Turner. 

No group of roadway machines and small tools developed in recent years designed 
especially for maintenance of way track forces have made their appearance at a more 
opportune time or filled a greater need than the pneumatic and gasoline powered rail 
laying units. 

The increase in the weight of rail per yard and a concurrent decrease in the available 
number of man hours created a want that was filled by the introduction of certain spe- 
cialized machines for rail laying, possessing speed, efficiency and portability. 

In this report your Committee has covered only those machines that are in general 
use. 

PNEUMATIC TOOLS 
Track Wrenches 

Reversible pneumatic track wrenches for running track bolt nuts on or off are made 
in three sizes. The second of these three sizes is the most generally used and is described 
below : 

The wrench weighs about 59 lb. and the average working speed at 90-lb. pressure is 
85 revolutions per minute. Over-all length (including throttle handle) 42 in., width 
over-all lO^-s in. 

Square end spindles for taking snap type chucks, and a rail or dolly wheel for 
wheeling unit along the tracks when moving from point to point are provided. The 
chucks are furnished for hexagon or square nuts to fit any size track bolt, and can also 
be had with interchangeable bushings for various sized spindles. 

Through the use of this type of wrench it is claimed that nuts can be tightened to a 
set and uniform tension. 

Rail Drills 

The type of pneumatic rail drill most widely used drills holes from % in. to 1J4 in- 
and has a 3-in. feed. Such a unit weighs approximately 97 lb. and its average working 
speed is 140 revolutions per minute at 90 lb. pressure. Over-all length is 30^4 in- 

A steel frame adjustable to the various sizes of rails, and a hand lever for feeding 
the drill are provided. 

Rail Bonding Drills 

The type of pneumatic rail bonding drill in general use has a capacity up to 9/16 in. 
holes and a feed of 3 in. This tool weighs AZYz lb. and operates at a speed of 700 
revolutions per minute at 90-lb. pressure. Length over-all, 26 in. 

It is set in a steel frame and has a lever for quickly bringing the drill up to the 
work. Provision is made for adapting this unit to any size rail through the medium of 
an adjustable plate permitting the drilling of holes at various distances from top of rail. 

This machine is available in reversible and non-reversible models. 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 123 

Wood Boring Machines 

There are two sizes of pneumatic wood borers in general use for rail laying. 

The first and lighter machine weighs 17^4 lb. and has an average working speed of 
705 revolutions per minute at 90-lb. pressure. 

It is suitable for boring holes in wood up to one inch diameter. 

The second weighs 26 lb. and operates at an average working speed of 730 revolutions 
per minute at 90-lb. pressure. 

This tool has a capacity to bore holes in wood up to two inches in diameter. 

Both of the above are reversible. 

Screw Spike Drivers 

The tool most favored for running in and removing screw spikes weighs about 81 lb. 
light and has an average working speed of 174 revolutions per minute at 90-lb. pressure. 

Weight of this unit complete with adaptors and chucks is 90 lb. 

Over-all length, 3S}A in.; without chucks, 17^/2 in. 

A No. 4 Morse taper socket accommodates the adapter; straight or "Y"' type dead 
handles are available. 

GEO Drill 

For running down clamp bolts on GEO track and on special track fittings a pneu- 
matic machine is available weighing 33 lb. light and having an average working speed 
of ISO revolutions per minute at 90-lb. pressure. Weight with chucks, 39 lb.; over-a!l 
length, 31 in.; without chucks, 15 in. 

Spike Puller 

A pneumatic tool for pulling spikes is available if desired. This tool is furnished 
with rail carriage if specified. Jaws are renewable. 

Over-all length, 30^ in.; length of travel of jaws, 5 in.; weight without rail car- 
riage, 77 lb.; with carriage, 100 lb. 

Spike Drivers 

The pneumatic tool for driving cut spikes weighs 65 lb. and has an over-all length 
of 25 in. 

The length of its stroke is 4 in. and number of blows per minute is 1500. 

Rivet Buster 

In dismantling the old rail when it becomes necessary to split "frozen" track bolt 
nuts the pneumatic tool used is known as a rivet buster. This machine weighs 27J/2 lb. 
with chisel and 22J4 lb. without chisel. 

Spike Setting and Driving Machine 

A new pneumatic machine operated from a portable air compressor has been intro- 
duced for cut spike setting and driving. 

The mechanism is mounted on a push car having a channel guide along the front 
edge of the platform and extending beyond the sides sufficiently to permit the driving 
of spikes on either side of either rail. 

A carriage holding the hammer in a fixed vertical position can be moved across the 
front of the car in the channel guide with a hand wheel clamping device to hold it in 
place for the driving operation. A feature of the carriage is that the castings or barrel 
which supports the hammer is free to move vertically in ratchet guide and is normally 



124 Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 

held up by compressed air allowing individual spikes to drop from the magazine into 
driving position. 

When the air is released barrel and hammer drop to driving position, setting the 
spike. Air is applied to the gun and the spike driven in perfect alinement with the rail 
base. 

The magazine is a hollow grooved casting fixed rigidly to the hammer supporting 
casting and curved inward at the bottom to deliver the spikes to a pair of jaws directly 
beneath the driving steel of the hammer. These jaws hold the spikes firmly in place for 
driving, and release when spike is driven home. 

The spikes are released from the magazine by a hand-grip lever which is loaded 
manually. 

Maintenance engineers are watching this machine's development with keen interest, 
as an efficient power spiker is urgently required. 

GASOLINE-ENGINE-DRIVEN COMPRESSORS 
Air Compressors 

A most important member of the Rail Laying Equipment family is the "Air Com- 
pressor", mounted on flange wheels. This type machine needs very little introduction 
here. The numerous uses developed for railroad track and bridge and building work 
makes the compressor a year-around machine. 

Different concerns manufacture the so-called tie tamper compressor in four, eight, 
twelve and sixteen-tool sizes. They are operated by four-cylinder four-cycle, heavy- 
tractor-type gasoline engines and can also be furnished with electric motor drive. 

These four sized machines are essentially similar in design and construction. Units 
manufactured prior to 1934 consisted of two-cylinder, vertical, single-acting air com- 
pressors directly coupled to gasoline engines, both being mounted on a single frame, with 
self-propelling feature optional. 

Some of the manufacturers have now presented the two-stage air-cooled compressor 
for use by railroads. The advantages of this type are cooler air, increased cubic capacity, 
lighter weight and greater gasoline economy. 

CRANES 

On certain roads the actual setting in and removing of rail is accomplished with 
special rail laying cranes or various sized locomotive cranes operated by steam, gasoline 
or Diesel. Gasoline or Diesel power is preferred. 

The special rail laying cranes range in size from small, non-self-propelling machines, 
to self-propelling cranes of about five tons capacity. 

The small non-self-propelling machine consists of a light steel frame having a fixed 
boom extending laterally. The frame is carried on rollers or small flanged wheels, run- 
ning along the rail opposite the one being renewed, on the one side, and on an auxiliary 
rail resting on the ties just inside the rail being changed, on the other side. 

The rail is raised by means of a chain operating from the end of the boom to a 
hoisting drum at the other side of the machine, and carried laterally into position by a 
carriage moving along the top of the boom. 

Any necessary moving of the rail longitudinally is accomplished by moving the 
machine along the track. 

The hoisting drum may be operated by hand, but in most cases a small gasoline 
engine is used, serving as both power plant and counterweight. 

The design of the machine is such that rail on one side only can be changed out at 
one time. Where work is being done with small gangs, however, this limitation is of 
small importance, and is offset by the low first cost and the lightness of the machine. 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 12S 

However, the crane is the pacemaker for the entire rail laying gang, hence where a 
large gang is used, a five-ton four wheel locomotive gasoline or Diesel powered crane is 
generally used for faster operation and greater economy. 

One of the popular makes of five-ton gasoline cranes is equipped with a four- 
cylinder, sixty horsepower water cooled gasoline engine with generator, storage batteries, 
high tension magneto and self starter. 

Car body is constructed of heavy I-beams, channels, angles and gusset plates securely 
riveted. 

This fully revolving crane is equipped with completely enclosed steel cab and 33-foot 
box section type steel boom. When used on double track roads the crane can swing 
completely around and rear end of the rotating deck will not foul the adjacent track. 

ROADWAY MACHINES 
Adzing Machines 

The power adzing machine which performs the entire operation of adzing replaces 
all hand adzers. The unit consists of a triangular shaped frame of welded structural 
steel channels and sections with all welding strains relieved. 

The power plant is a four-cylinder, 16 horsepower, water cooled gasoline engine, 
mounted on frame member that forms the base of the triangle. It is equipped with 
governor, magneto, air cleaner, suitable gasoline tank and strainer. 

The cutter head is at the point of the triangle and is made of chrome nickel alloy 
steel, machined and balanced. It is similar to a vertical milling tool with seven or more 
adjustable bits of special alloy high speed steel. The heads can be supplied in three sizes, 
rotating at 1800 to 1900 revolutions per minute, and to cut grooves 13^^ in., ISJ/2 in. 
and 17 in. wide. 

Drive is by quarter turn, endless cord belt from engine to cutter spindle. Quarter 
turn pulley and spindle pulley mounted on ball bearings. Belt tension is adjusted through 
sliding base upon which engine is mounted. 

The spindle housing is held rigidly in slotted guides by set screws, for adjustment as 
to angle of cut to give proper cant to rail. 

A plate three inches in diameter is set at the same height as the edges of the cutting 
bit and is in the center of the cutter head. This plate coming into contact with the seat 
left by the old rail or tie plate prevents adzing below this level. 

The machine travels on four 14-in. wheels, two under the engine end insulated and 
two on a removable frame on the cutter end. Wheels under the engine end have man- 
ganese steel tires and cast steel centers, while those under the removable frame have 
manganese tires but cast iron centers. 

The removable frame, known as the truck wheel frame, is held in position by a lock 
connection when the unit is traveling to work. When adzing, this frame is carried around 
to the back of the machine and swung on a bracket under the engine frame to act as a 
counterbalance. 

Two adjustable guide rollers on each end, at the engine side of the machine, are 
provided to maintain accurate and proper position of unit during adzing. Those are 
pivoted and can be swung out of position when planked grade crossings, frogs and 
switches are encountered. 

A circular cutter guard to prevent the throwing of chips, broken spikes and the like 
is an important part of the equipment. 

Each unit is provided with a double head emery wheel cutter bit sharpener, driven 
by a one horsepower gasoline engine through an endless cord belt. 



126 Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 

Power Unit Spike Puller 

This mechanical spike puller consists of a welded steel frame carried on four wheels, 
at one corner of which is mounted a small air cooled gasoline engine bolted to a heavy 
flywheel over the other axle. 

This wheel carries a pinion which drives a large gear at one end of the shaft, while 
at the other end is a crank and connecting rod for conveying lifting action up to the 
horizontally mounted lifting arm from which the actual pull on the spike is made. 

Two spike tongs are suspended from springs at one corner of the machine directly 
over the hooked end of the lifting arm. At that same corner is a heavy steel shoe welded 
to the frame and so arranged to take the reaction of the pull, thus relieving the wheels 
and axles of any load other than the weight of the machine. 

This shoe is held in a raised position about % in. above the rail. As soon as the 
downward pull is exerted springs holding the shoe off the rail are compressed, thus allow- 
ing it to rest on the rail. The shoe automatically returns to the raised position when the 
pull is removed. 

The machine is equipped with a heavy screw jack mounted in the center for turn- 
ing the machine, so that spikes may be pulled from either rail or to remove the machine 
from the track. 

The tong jaws are made of hardened steel and are easily replaced. 

Three men are required to operate this machine. 

Power Rail Drills 

This machine, easily handled by section or extra gang, can readily be moved about 
the job and quickly set up. It can be adapted to almost any arrangement of track and 
is equipped with a two and one-half horsepower gasoline engine. 

Drive is through friction clutch to speed reducing gear set, through roller chain to 
drill spindle and automatic feed gears with four feed speeds. 

The drill spindle is carried on ball bearings, has a speed of 75 r.p.m. and a length of 
feed of four and one-half inches. 

The frame is of rolled steel sections and plate, welded to secure strength, durability 
and lightness. The engine and gear set are bolted in place and then doweled to insure 
perfect and permanent alinement. 

Adjustment of the drill for height is accomplished by an adjusting screw located at 
the drill end of the machine. 

A feature of this drill is its convenience and adaptability to all kinds of rail drilling 
due to the design of the rail clamp, which has three different fastening notches making 
it adjustable for any width and height of rail or length of drill bit. It holds the 
machine in position on rail that is either in or out of the track, allowing the drilling of 
holes within one and one-half inches of end of rail and does not interfere with drilling 
at switches or guard rails. 

A roller, located beneath the machine and held by a locking pin, can be dropped 
and unit pushed along the rail like a wheelbarrow. The total weight is approximately 
350 lb., and one man can easily push the drill along the rail when it is to be moved some 
distance. For short distances handles on either side projecting beyond the ends of the 
frame are provided for use by two men in lifting machine on or off the track. 

This description covers most of the important details found in other power rail drills 
available. 

Power Unit Track Wrench 

This unit, one of the recent developments, is operated by a single cylinder four 
horsepower air-cooled engine, carried on a substantial platform, which is mounted on 



i 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 127 

two rollers with frictionless bearings and an insulated supporting arm and flanged wheel 
riding the other rail. 

These patented rollers are of an inside flanged cone shaped design and keep the 
wrench centered over the rail at all times. They have a further advantage in that they 
allow the machine to be easily pushed through frogs, switches, and crossings, eliminat- 
ing the necessity of lifting over such places in the track. 

The wrench arm projects from the rear of the unit, its weight supported by long 
coil springs. 

At the lower end of either side of the arm are sockets for the nuts, which can be 
quickly changed. The entire machine pivots from a point near the back, allowing the 
wrench arm to be shifted to either side of the rail. 

An overload release functioning through a spring action is provided, which can be 
adjusted to the desired bolt tension. All bolts can then be drawn up to the same uni- 
form tension, allowing for variance of not more than five per cent plus or minus, when 
bolts with finger free threads are used. 

On some machines roll-off hoops are attached at either end of the platform to allow 
operator to roll machine off the track in case of an emergency. 

Power Track (Wrench) Machine 

Another gasoline engine driven machine for running track bolts on and off weighs 
350 lb., has a high speed chuck turning at 60 r.p.m., a low speed chuck turning at 
14 r.p.m. and provides instantly available tension from 1000 lb. to 42,000 lb. 

The power plant is a single cylinder, four horsepower, four cycle engine, air-cooled 
and the frame is constructed of aircraft alloy steel tubing for maximum strength and 
minimum weight. 

Power connection is through a disc clutch of 40 horsepower capacity, used to measure 
the bolt tension through a graduated dynamometer arm which determines the frictional 
contact. The operating head is exactly counterbalanced, and the chuck housing swings 
around in a horizontal plane, so either chuck can be presented to any nut on either side 
of the joint. 

Rolls are provided for running the unit along the rail, and an attachment for run- 
ning down screw spikes is available. 

Power Tie Borer 

For boring holes for screw or cut spikes there is a gasoline engine driven tool avail- 
able weighing 225 lb. and operating a bit at 1200 to ISOO r.p.m. 

The boring head can be swung from one side of the rail to the other and its weight 
is supported by heavy springs. The feed is by hand pressure downward on a handle 
projecting from the head, an adjustable stop regulating the depth of the hole. Rollers 
are provided for pushing the machine along the rail. 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Pneumatic Hose Trailer 

A device designed to convey air for (10) pneumatic spike drivers consists of two 
3S-foot lengths of two-inch pipe carried overhead and coupled to the rear end of a 
twelve-tool compressor and supported at the rear by an inverted "A" frame mounted 
on two 16 in. motor car wheels. 

Air is taken directly from the air reservoir and delivered through one pipe, to the 
rear end and back through the other pipe which is provided with 54 i"- outlets and 
shutoff valves spaced approximately four feet apart. A six-foot length of ^ in. air 
hose is connected from each outlet to each spike driver. 



128 



Maintenanc e of Way Work Equipment 



Suitable overhead brackets are provided for carrying the drivers when not in use. 
This device acts as an after-cooler, providing cool air to the spike drivers, preventing 
burned hose and eUminating use of long lengths of hose. 

A gang of eight men with this device will drive approximately 60 spikes per minute. 

Tie Plug Driver 

A tool used for driving treated wooden tie plugs in old spike holes. 

Consists of a H-in. X 6-in. square plate with 1% in. pipe handle approximately 
five feet long. 

This tool permits driving plugs by man standing in upright position, eliminating 
fatigue and increasing production. 

Conclusions 

The Committee recommends that this report be accepted as information and the 
subject continued. 

Appendix D 

(9) TRACK WELDING EQUIPMENT 

(b) Electric Arc 

J. M. Trissal, Chairman, Sub-Committee; G. R. Westcott, W. O. Cudworth, Robert 

Faries, J. G. Hartley, E. C. Jackson, E. H. Mills, C. E. Morgan, E. L. Potarf, 

J. C. Ryan, R. P. Winton. 

In the 1933 and 1934 reports your Committee described briefly the various types 
of welding equipment which were then available. Since that time a new design incor- 
porating some novel features has been developed. 

The construction of the machine is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1. 




Fig. 1. — Diagram of Cross-Section of Generator, Showing Paths of Magnetic Flux. 



4 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 129 

The generator is of the two-pole type with only series excitation. The brushes 
b b, which are in the position between the main poles usually occupied by the brushes 
of a two-pole generator, are short-circuited. The flux 0i, produced by the series exci- 
tation of the series coils 5 on the main poles, therefore acts to induce a current t to 
flow between brushes b b. Since this current flows only through a short-circuited arma- 
ture very little flux 0i is required to induce a reasonably large current i between brushes 
bb. 

This current i in the armature of course creates a magnetic field, which in this 
generator is given an excellent path in which to produce flux. This is contrary to 
usual DC-generator practice, in which the generator usually is so proportioned as to 
decrease this cross flux as much as possible. This flux 02 flows through the abnor- 
mally large main pole shoes M, as shown, and is used to generate the output voltage 
of the generator between the main brushes B B. The welding current from brushes B B 
flows through the series coils S, thus indirectly exciting itself— that is, the current / in 
the coils 5 produces the flux 0i, which induces the current i, which produces 02 which 
induces /. 

The current / in the armature induces flux 03, just as current i induces 0i . A path 
is provided for this flux by placing steel plates P P between the main pole tips as shown. 
Flux 03, opposes flux 03 , and reduces current i. Current i, and in turn output current /, 
are therefore produced by the difference between flux 0i and flux 03 . 

08 can never exceed 0, because it is produced by / and if 03 equaled 0i then / 
would be zero. 

At no load (that is, / = O) a small residual magnetism exists in the field structure, 
creating a small flux 0i, which induces a certain current i in brushes b b and in turn a 
certain load voltage between brushes B B. Hence the no-load voltage of this welding 
generator does not have very high value, as the curves in Fig. 2 show. 

Immediately an external load circuit is created, current / flows and, as explained 
above, indirectly induces the output voltage, which increases rapidly from the no-load 
residual value with increasing load current until, because of saturation of the main poles 
at the narrow portion inside the series coils, 0i can no longer increase with increased 
exciting current /. This saturation of the main-pole bodies is materially increased by 
the addition of a field leakage flux 04 to the exciting flux 0i at this point. 

Flux 03 has a path which is carefully proportioned to eliminate the possibility of 
saturation and although 0i does not increase beyond a certain value, 02 continues to 
increase with increasing welding current /. The output voltage will therefore decrease 
rapidly with increasing welding current beyond the point of pole saturation. 

The volt-ampere curve, or load-regulation curve, of the generator will therefore 
show a rapidly increasing voltage with increasing current, followed by a sharp decrease 
of voltage to zero with further increase in current, as is shown in Fig. 2. 

Flux 03 must cross an air gap between the main poles and plates P P, and these 
plates have been made movable so that this air gap can be adjusted. By this means 
03 can be increased or decreased for a given value of /, by which means the generator 
can be adjusted for any desired welding current over an exceptionally wide range. 
A few of the infinite number of possible curves are shown in Fig. 2. 

Movement of plates P P is accomplished by turning handwheel W and shaft R. 
Right- and left-hand nuts on this shaft engage arms N N, and their movement causes 
movement of plates P P, having a fulcrum on the bottom main pole. 

The commutation of the short-circuited brushes b b is said to be excellent because 
of the low voltage involved. Commutating poles C C imbedded in the center of the 
main-pole faces are provided to insure good commutation at load brushes B B. 



130 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 



The generator responds quickly to variations in the arc voltage because the only 
field coils are series coils and any effect these coils may have in delaying flux changes 
in the generator is compensated for by the reactive voltage this changing flux induces 
in the series coils. 

The major problem in this generator is the necessity of preventing 0i and 0a from 
changing at different rates. This is guarded against by putting correctly proportioned 
copper damping coils around plates PP. These coils delay changes in 03 sliphtly, and 
thus 03 can be kept nicely in step with 0i. 



loo 



60 



40 



20l 

















^ 


^ 


\, 






^*N. 


\ 


V 


\^ 


\ 




^ 


A 


\ 


\ 


\ 


\ 


^ 1 \ 




\^ 


\ 


\ 






\ 


\ 





Z5 50 75 100 125 

PERCENT RATED WELDINO CUBRENI 
Fic. 2. — Volt- Ampere Curves. 



150 



A study of Fig. 2 will indicate that the following desirable characteristics are 
obtained. 

1. The short circuit current is only slightly greater than the welding current, and 
this tends to prevent sticking when the arc is struck. 

2. The open circuit voltage is comparatively low which minimizes the danger due 
to shock. It will also be noted that the open circuit voltage is the same for all current 
settings. 

3. The voltage when operating on small currents is relatively high which makes it 
easy to strike and hold arcs at low current settings. 



5IS0 



iFF- 

02 04 06 



08 10 
TiME- 



18 20 22 24 



12 14 16 
- SECONDS 

Fig. 3.— Oscillogram of Welding Current During Short Circuit. 

Fig. 3 shows an oscillographic record of welding current during a short circuit. 
It will be noted that instead of the characteristic "overshoot" obtained with ordinary 
generators, a very slight "undershoot" results which is very desirable. 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 131 

While no curve showing characteristics at various speeds is available, it is under- 
stood that no appreciable change in characteristics results in a variation of speed of 
generator from 80 to 120 per cent of normal. This is particularly desirable for gas 
engine driven sets. 

The effect of temperature of windings on welding current has been reduced to a 
minimum as the circuits which heat up have very little effect on current output. 

As no exciter, field rheostat, reactor, or meters are required, the simplicity of overall 
construction and portability is considerably enhanced. 

The following table shows the weight of this type of machine in comparison with 
an older type of portable motor driven machine having a separate exciter and trans- 
former reactor manufactured by the same company. 

Current Rating of Machine Weight of Weight of 

1 Hr., 50°, 40 Volt Basis New Machine Old Machine 

200 1100 ISSO 

300 1350 1700 

400 1700 3000 

Appendix E 

(10) POWER BOLT TIGHTENERS 

Jack Largent, Chairman, Sub-Committee; G. E. Boyd, J. J. Davis, R. C. Haynes, F. S. 
Hewes, C. H. R. Howe, C. E. Morgan, C. H. Morse, E. H. Ness, H. E. Stansbury. 

Prior to ten years ago practically all track bolts assembled in new rail were tight- 
ened with ordinary hand wrenches, and maintenance retightening was handled entirely 
by section forces similarly equipped. Various so-called ratchet wrenches had been de- 
vised to expedite this work, the most satisfactory and durable of which embodied merely 
a specially designed jaw. 

The first efforts toward mechanical tightening of bolts was confined almost alto- 
gether to rail relaying operation, and a manufacturer of air tools produced a so-called 
corner motor which was equipped with a long tubular gooseneck handle and a double- 
end spindle carrying two chucks of the desired sizes. This pneumatic tool was non- 
reversible but the optional use of chucks permitted the nuts to be run either on or off. 
This tool showed considerable improvement over hand methods which led to quite 
extensive adoption of the method. Stripping joints from the relieved rail had not always 
been assigned to steel laying gangs but the use of the air driven wrenches for removing 
old bolts indicated that the economies thus effected were sometimes greater than those 
realized in tightening new joints. 

Other air driven wrenches of various types have been produced by the various man- 
ufacturers. Three machines now on the market adapted to varying bolt sizes range 
in weight from 46 lb. to 57 lb. and with a torque in the larger machine sufficient to 
set nuts to a tension of 22,000 lb. with air pressure of 90 lb. The present type machines 
are reversible and are equipped with chucks of the snap-on type. The heavier machine 
weighing 57 lb. will require 59 ft. of air at 80 lb. pressure and 65 ft. at 90 lb. pressure 
which gives a maximum tension of 22,000 lb. The torque on the chuck spindle is gov- 
erned by the air pressure used and the desired stalling torque is arrived at by regulating 
the air pressure instead of clutches on other types of machines. 

Sweeping maintenance economies made necessary by the depression lent impetus to 
the demand for light, portable, gasoline-motor-driven bolt tighteners adaptable to use 
by a few men in maintenance out-of-face tightening of joints. In many cases reduced 



132 Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 

crews and lengthened sections had made it impracticable for section gangs to properly 
maintain joints, and certain mechanically-minded officials had begun to suggest that 
methods of machine tightening should be evolved which would assure a more positive 
and uniform type of joint maintenance than had been effected by hand-tightening with 
section forces. 

One of the first machines designed to meet this demand was the Woolery Bolt 
Tightener, a machine driven by a reversible, water-cooled, two-cycle motor and carried 
on a pair of monorail rollers, with light outrigger to the opposite rail to give stability. 
Drive on this machine is through reduction gearing and a special sprocket chain to a 
spindle carrying two chucks. Reverse action on chucks is obtained by reversing motor, 
and an overload clutch release regulates maximum bolt tension. 

The Nordberg Co. began in 1933 to offer a machine weighing around 900 lb. which 
is powered with a one-cylinder, four-cycle, air-cooled m.otor. This machine is mounted 
similarly to the Woolery on grooved track rollers with outrigger. Transmission of 
power in this unit embodied three innovations in design; dual opposed clutches, which 
provide for quickly reversing rotation of chuck spindle; selective high and low speeds, 
giving 85 r.p.m. and 30 r.p.m. respectively on chucks; and a cam-and-spring actuated 
overload release. Torque at chuck spindle is governed by adjustable tension on this 
spring which maintains contact at the ends of two opposed arms carrying rollers bear- 
ing on the two ends of a specially designed cam, torque above the desired point serving 
to force the arms apart and permit rollers to follow entirely around the cam. The 
chuck spindle is driven by a special heavy-duty sprocket chain. The extension arm 
carrying chucks and driving assembly is counterweighted vertically, and is arranged to 
pivot laterally at its outer end to give access to bolts on both sides of joints, the inner 
or driving end swinging on rollers on a semi-circular track. An extension handle at a 
convenient height above chuck spindle is provided for guiding chucks to position on nuts, 
and reverse and selective speed controls are assembled on this operating handle. Clear- 
ance requirement from outside chuck housing to center of chuck spindle is 1^ in. The 
Briggs and Stratton Model "Z" engine used is provided with a governor, and with special 
air circulating duct and flywheel-mounted fan. 

A bid for popularity on the basis of lightness (355 lb.) and fully-enclosed shaft and 
bevel gear drives throughout recently has been made by the Railway Accessories Cor- 
poration with a power nutter known as the "Raco". This machine utilizes a power 
unit practically identical with that used by Nordberg. Drive to reduction gearing is 
through a single-plate clutch on which maximum desired torque is adjusted by movement 
of a weight on a lever or so called dynamometer arm. Drive to chuck spindle is through 
a shaft provided with fully-enclosed tubular bousing. Reverse gearing is assembled in 
the case at the outer end of this shaft, and the vertical shaft and gear drive downward 
to chuck spindle is arranged to permit chuck spindle to be rotated radially and either 
chuck on the double-end spindle to be engaged with nuts on either side of joint. In- 
ternal reduction gearing in the chuck sphidle assembly is arranged to rotate one chuck 
at 60 r.p.m. and the other at 14 r.p.m., lower speed on this and the Nordberg machine 
being employed in the starting off and final setting up of nuts. Clearance requirement 
on the "Raco" nutter is 2^ in. from outside chuck housing to center of chuck spindle 
assembly. The extending power transmission assembly is provided with adjustable coun- 
terweight, and machine is mounted on a special double-swivel castor equipped with 
roller bearings. A wide outboard roller bearing on opposite rail permits pivoting entire 
machine to any angle required to apply chucks to nuts. A unique feature of this 
machine is the assurance that chucks are not tending to cramp nuts in the tightening 
operation, being always in perfect alignment. Screw spike driving equipment is available. 



Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 133 

The general technic of joint bolt-tightening with power machines will scarcely be 
identical on any two systems, but some few operating rules may prove generally appli- 
cable. Some type of torsion-checking device such as the "Du-Wel Gilken" wrench should 
be employed and operators should check and reset overload releases not less than twice 
daily. In out-of-face retightening all nuts should be backed off one full turn before 
final retightening. Bolts with frozen nuts must be replaced and all bolts which turn in 
angle bars. Wrench should be taken off nuts promptly when overload release operates. 

Conclusions 

In addition to economy, some benefits claimed to have been shown by power 
tightening are: 

1. That proper and uniform tightening gives track bolts the equalized tension 
necessary to assure uniform expansion and contraction, reduce rail batter, contribute to 
better riding track, and materially reduce wear of angle bars. 

2. Utilization of machines for out-of-face joint maintenance ranges in practice from 
assigning machines alternately to sections, to use of two or more units in tandem, one 
or more on each rail, and provision of camp car facilities for crews permanently assigned 
to the work. Some roads have formulated definite schedules for joint maintenance 
covering the entire system. 

3. The percentage of time usefully expended by section forces while engaged in 
hand tightening bolts has often been problematical, and combining release of section 
forces from all but periodic joint inspection with a more positive and systematic method 
is one of the newer angles of mechanized maintenance seeming to offer most attractive 
possibilities. 

4. Wrenches which best combine lightness, speed, power, simplicity and sturdy 
construction are most desirable. Sufficient power should be available to break bolts 
where nut is frozen to the extent that it cannot be removed. 



Appendix F 

(12) OUTLINE OF COMPLETE FIELD OF WORK OF 
THE COMMITTEE 

G. E. Boyd, Chairman, Sub-Committee; J. T. Derrig, C. R. Edwards, Paul Hamilton. 
J. S. Huntoon, E. A. Johnson, Jack Largent, E. H. Mills, G. R. Westcott, Fred 
Zavatkay. 

1. Motor Cars 

(a) Section 

(b) Heavy duty 

(c) Light inspection 

(d) Heavy inspection 

2. Tie Tamping Machines 

(a) Pneumatic 

(b) Electric 

(c) Gang organization 

(d) Operation and maintenance 



Track Oiling Machines 


(a) 


Roadbed 


(b) 


Joints 


(c) 


RaU 


(d) 


Oil specifications 



134 Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 

4. Paint Spraying Equipment 

(a) Stationary 

(b) Semi-portable 

(c) Motor car outfits 

5. Sand Blasting Equipment 

(a) Portable 

(b) Stationary 

6. Ballast Discers 

(a) Light discers 

(b) Heavy discers 

7. Ballast Cleaning Machines 

(a) Screens 

(b) Moles ^ 

(c) Locomotive cranes 

(d) Plows 

8. Weed Destroying Equipment 

(a) On track mowers 

(b) Off track mowers 

(c) Chemicals 

(d) Burners 

(e) Steam 

(f) Discers 

9. Rail Laying Machines 

(a) Hand operated machines . 

(b) Small machines with power attachments 

(c) Air operated machines 

(d) Self-propelled machines 

(e) Gang organization 

10. Tie Adzing, Scoring and Boring Machines 

(a) Stationary plant for adzing and boring ties before treatment 

(b) Portable machine for boring, adzing or scoring ties in the field 

11. Rail Saws 

(a) Stationary saws as used at central reclamation plants 

(b) Portable saws 

12. Welding Outfits 

(a) Oxy-acetylene 

(b) Electric arc 

(c) Welding in field and shop 

13. Concrete Mixers 

(a) Mixers for division use 

(b) Mixers for system or department gang use 

(c) Tilting and non-tilting type 

(d) Special mounting 

14. Gasoline and Electric Driven Portable Pumps 

(a) Centrifugal pump 

(b) Diaphragm pump 

(c) Reciprocating pump 

IS. 



7er Tools 








(a) 


Drills 








(b) 


Power wrenches 








(0 


Wire brushes 








(d) 


Grinders 








(e) 


Saws 








(f) 


Spike drivers 








(K) 


Caulking, chipping 


and 


riveting 


hammers 


(h) 


Boring machines 









Maintenance of Way Work Equipment 13S 

16. Lidgerwoods and Spreaders 

(a) Lidgerwoods 

(b) Straight spreaders 

(c) Ditcher spreaders 

(d) Spreader plows 

17. Power Shovels, etc. 

(a) Steam shovels 

(b) Gasoline shovels 

(c) Air operated shovels 

(d) Electric driven shovels 

(e) Ditching machines 

(f) Dragline equipment 

(g) Clam shells 

(h) Economical sizes for different work 

(!) Methods of handling 

18. Pile Drivers and Derrick Cars 

(a) Creeping drivers 

(b) Self-propelled drivers 

(c) Drop hammers 

(d) Steam hammers 

(e) Auxiliary equipment 

(f) Derrick cars 

(g) Equipment for driving and pulling sheet piling 

19. Snow and Ice Thawing Equipment 

(a) Electricity 

(b) on 

(c) Gas 

(d) Use of weed burners 

20. Scheduling the Use of Work Equipment 

(a) System equipment 

(b) Division equipment 

(c) Equipment used in seasonal work 

21. Care of Equipment When Not in Use 

22. Standard Color for Work Equipment and Motor Car? 

The above list will be extended as additional work equipment is designed and 
produced. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE XXIII— SHOPS AND 
LOCOMOTIVE TERMINALS 

J. M. Metcalf, Chairman; E. E. Kimball, L. H. Laffoley, Vice- 

W. J. Bennett, L. P. Kimball, Chairman; 

H. G. Dalton, H. C. Lorenz, W. A. Radspinner, 

A. G. Borland, J. S. McBride, E. H. Roth, 

E. A. Dougherty, F. E. Morrow, J. C. Ryan, 

Benjamin Elkind, B. M. Murdock, L. K. Sillcox, 

A. T. Hawk, E. S. Pennebaker, A. L. Smith, 

A. W. Johnson, V. B. W. Poulsen, H. W. Williams, 

A. S. Kent, R. P. Winton, 

Committee. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual. No report. 

(2) Welding equipment installations as applied to Shops and Locomotive Ter- 
minals. Progress in study^ — no report. 

(3) Adaptation of enginehouses, shops and engine terminal layouts for handling 
oil-electric locomotives and rail cars (Appendix A). Progress report. 

(4) Power plants (Appendix B). Progress report. 

(5) Outline of complete field of work of the Committee (Appendix C). 

The Committee on Shops and Locomotive Terminals, 

J. M. Metcalf, Chairman. 

Appendix A 

(3) ADAPTATION OF ENGINE HOUSES, SHOPS AND ENGINE 
TERMINAL LAYOUTS FOR HANDLING OIL-ELECTRIC LOCO- 
MOTIVES AND RAIL CARS 

H. G. Dalton, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. J. Bennett, A. G. Borland, E. A. Dougherty, 
B. Elkind, A. T. Hawk, A. W. Johnson, A. S. Kent, L. P. Kimball, F. E. Morrow, 
B. M. Murdock, W. A. Radspinner, L. K. Sillcox. 

The Committee last year presented a brief description of major facilities in use on 
one road for handling streamlined articulated trains operated by oil-electric locomotives. 
In addition the following auxiliary facilities are recommended for consideration: 

Air Conditioning 

Approved electric outlet boxes should be provided at suitable locations alongside of 
the inspection pit for air conditioning service to be provided to the train before being 
taken from the coach yard to the passenger terminal. 

Air Service 

High pressure air piping with suitable outlets located alongside of the pit should be 
furnished for service and testing air brakes and cleaning service. 

Service Water 

Suitable outlets should be furnished alongside of the pit and storage tracks to fur- 
nish water for the service water tanks under the train and for cleaning purposes. 



Bulletin 389, September, 1936. 

137 



138 Shops and Locomotive Terminals 

Storehouse Facilities 

Necessary store facilities should be furnished close to the passenger yard for carry- 
ing such supplies peculiar to this type of equipment. 

Shop Facilities 

The necessary shop facilities for turning wheels and axles and other necesrary re- 
pairs for this equipment should be located close to the passenger yard. 

Electric Lighting 

Electric illumination should be provided along both sides of the pit and storage 
tracks for use in servicing these trains during the night period. 



Appendix B 

(4) POWER PLANTS 

E. H. Roth, Chairman, Sub-Committee; B. Elkind, A. W. Johnson, A. S. Kent, E. E. 
Kimball, L. H. Laffoley, H. C. Lorenz, J. S. McBride, F. E. Morrow, B. M. Mur- 
dock, E. S. Pennebaker, V. B. W. Poulsen, W. A. Radspinner, J. C. Ryan, A. L. 
Smith, H. W. Williams, R. P. Winton. 

The Committee undertook this year, under this assignment, to make a study of 
power plants at important railroad terminals that are entirely self-supporting, that is, 
those generating steam and electric power for all demands within their own walls. 

There are comparatively few plants of this character and those in operation were, 
for the most part, constructed a number of years ago and present little information of 
real present value. Likewise the demands and functions of such plants are so varied 
that it is almost impossible to draw general conclusions. In the more modern installa- 
tions this study is further complicated by the introduction of Diesel engines for generat- 
ing current. This tendency is particularly prevalent in sections where petroleum fuel 
oil is cheap and coal expensive. 



J«..; 



Shops and Locomotive Terminals 



139 



Appendix C 

(5) OUTLINE OF COMPLETE FIELD OF WORK 
OF THE COMMITTEE 

Reference to Reports Made and 

Recommendations Adopted 
Report in Recommendations adopted 
Proceedings for Manual 

Bulletin 
Year Year or Manual Page 

(A) Locomotive Terminals 

1. Layouts — General Design 

a For Steam locomotives 1926, 1932 1932 B-347 73 

b For Electric locomotives 1932 

c For Oil-electric locomotives 1936 

2. Enginehouses 

a Design 1922,32,35 1935 B-379 80 

b Special Equipment 

1. Ventilation 192S, 26 

2. Equipment for drafting loco- 

motives 1930 

3. Wheel removing equipment . . 1934 
c Modernization and adaptation 

1. To eliminate use of steam plants 1932 

2. For electric locomotives 1932 

3. For oil-electric locomotives . . . 

3. Fuel and Sanding Stations 

a Coaling stations 1928 1928 Manual 1491 

b Fuel oil stations 1924, 25, 27, " 1489 

28 1925,27, 

29 
c Fueling stations for oil-electric 

locomotives 
d Sandmg stations 1929 1929 " 1499 

4. Other Facilities 

a Turntables 1922, 33, 34 1935 B-379 80 

b Cinder pits 1921,22,23, 

30 1930 B-327 90 

c Washing platforms 1931 1931 B-337 98 

d Inspection pits 1931, 32 1932 B-347 72 

e Firing up stations 1933 

f Locomotives supply stations 

g Service Stations for oil-electric 
locomotives and articulated trains 

h Water stations — See work of Com- 
mittee XIII. 

(B) Shops 

1. Locomotive shops 

a For Steam locomotives 1929, 1932 

b For Electric locomotives 

2. Passenger Car Shops 1922, 26 1926 Manual 1478 

3. Freight car shops 1921, 25, 31 1925 " 1481 

4. Subsidiary shops 

a Paint shops 1934, 35 1935 B-379 84 

b Wheel shops 1936 



140 



Shops and Locomotive Terminals 



Reference to Reports Made and 
Recommendations Adopted 
Report in Recommendations adopted 
Proceedings for Manual 

Bulletin 
Year Year or Manual Page 

(C) Accessory Facilities Serving Shops 

and Locomotive Terminals 

1. Power plants 1934,35 

2. Storehouses — 

a General 1926,27,32 1926 Manual 1482 

1932 B-347 72 

b Oil houses 1936 1936 B-381 71 

c Paint stores 1936 1936 B-381 72 

d Reclamation plants 193S 193S B-379 86 

3. Transfer tables 

4. First aid stations 

5. Sand blasting plants 

(D) Special Equipment and Accessories 

in Shops and Locomotive 
Terminals 

1. Unit heaters 1933 

2. Welding equipment 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE XXV— WATERWAYS 
AND HARBORS 

F. E. Morrow, Chairman.; E. H. Roth, V ice-Chairman; G. P. Palmer, Vice- 



H. B. Barky, 
H. T. Bradley, 
D. J. Brumley, 
M. F. Clements, 
A. F. Crowder, 
Benjamin Elkhto, 
W. D. Faucette, 
R. A. Feldes, 
R. P. Forsberg, 



I. W. Geer, 
G. F. Hand, 
N. D. Hyde, 
G. A. Knapp, 
Shu-t'ien Li, 
H. S. Loeffler, 
R. J. Middleton, 
W. G. Nusz, 



Chairman; 
A. N. Reece, 
G. R. Smiley, 
C. U. Smith, 
W. R. Swatosh, 
R. A. Van Ness 
Edwin F. Wendt, 

S. L. WONSON, 

R. C. Young, 

Committee. 



To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully presents its report covering the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual. Progress in study — no report. 

(2) Levees, dikes and mattresses. Progress in study — no report. 

(3) Breakwaters, bulkheads and jetties. It was the consensus of the Committee 
that this subject be held in abeyance for the present. 

(4) Warehouse piers, coal piers, car float piers and others on the Great Lakes and 
seacoast, collaborating with Committees VI- — Buildings and XIV — Yards and Terminals 
(Appendix A). It is recommended that the report be received as information and the 
subject continued. 

(5) Size and depth of slips required for various traffic conditions, including cost 
of construction and maintenance (Appendix B). It is the recommendation of your Com- 
mittee that the report be accepted as information and the subject discontinued. 

(6) Economic principles involved in clearances over navigable waterways. Progress 
in study — no report. 

(7) Seawalls and ocean shore protection, including effect of wave action and ice. 
Progress in study — no report. 

(8) Reasonable life of steel casings immersed in sea water. Progress in study — • 
no report. 

(9) What is navigable water in fact (Appendix C). It is recommended that the 
report be received as information and the subject discontinued. 

(10) Waterway projects of the United States. Progress in study — no report. 

(11) Outline of complete field of work of the Committee. Progress in study — 
no report. 

The Committee on Waterways and Harbors, 

F. E. Morrow, Chairman. 



Bulletin 389, September, 1$36. 



141 



142 Waterways and Harbors 

Appendix A 

(4) WAREHOUSE PIERS, COAL PIERS, CAR FLOAT PIERS AND 

OTHERS ON THE GREAT LAKES AND SEACOAST 

Benjamin Elkind, Chairman, Sub-Committee; M. F, Clements, G. F. Hand, Shu-t'ien Li, 
H. S. Loeffler, C. U. Smith, R. C. Young. 

WAREHOUSE PIERS 
This report attempts to cover warehouse piers, their place in a water terminal and 
the essential general features of their construction. It does not propose to deal with 
these details of construction which are governed largely by local conditions. 

Warehouses on piers are of two distinct types of construction, single-storied and 
multiple-storied. The length of the pier is generally governed by physical conditions of 
the harbor and the length of the vessels to be accommodated. The long piers are gen- 
erally considered more desirable as they are more adaptable to the various lengths of 
vessels. The width which varies according to the service for which the pier is designed 
should be sufficient to provide access to the outboard space of the pier at all times. 

The design of pier sheds varies with the demands of shippers. If storage be\ond the 
hmits of loading and unloading time is desired then the pier shed becomes a storage ware- 
house and should be of fireproof construction and of multiple stories. Design should be 
considered on the basis of requirements. It is of doubtful advantage to have structures 
of too permanent a nature, in view of the ever increasing dimensions and the general 
changing conditions. 

Pier sheds are often of light wood construction regardless of their being placed on 
concrete fireproof piers. There is small advantage in the construction of a fireproof 
shed, if it is to be filled with highly inflammable freight. As a fire control, sheds are 
often equipped with steel rolling doors and wire fire walls, spaced 90 to 120 ft., con- 
structed on a timber frame but covered with galvanized iron or cement plaster. The 
sheds are also equipped with automatic sprinklers, thus securing a low insurance rate. 
The warehouse pier as far as it is possible in design, should assure security against theft. 

The practice has been to place rail facilities down the center of the warehouse piers, 
one or two tracks on the wharf surface or depressed. Where freight is handled directly 
from ship slings to cars, track on the outside edges of the warehouse piers have been 
favored. This arrangement has also been recommended in warehouse piers where the 
freight moving to and from the piers are handled in part by motor trucks. It was 
found that the tracks in the center of the shed interfere with the loading process. 

A great many piers can be used as warehouse piers to some extent. A shed can be 
constructed thereon or it can be used to store materials in the open. The design of the 
pier will no doubt restrict its use to loads imposed and to its operation. In order to 
properly design the pier it is necessary to know the warehouse that is to occupy it, the 
type of construction, the space required, storage capacity, floor loads, trackage, mechani- 
cal handling devices, elevators, driveways and some of the functions of operation. To 
this end we have gathered and compiled information regarding warehouse piers and 
warehouses located on rail-water terminals. 

The Yards and Terminals Committee of this Association in 1931 assembled informa- 
tion on warehouses located on Rail-Water Terminals. The information is voluminous 
and has never been published but it is on file in the office of the Secretary of the AREA. 
Of the warehouses reported only about 25 per cent are less than 25 feet from the dock 
side. This seems to indicate that most of the warehouses are not located on piers and 
therefore do not come within the scope of this Sub-Committee's assignment, but the 
information, it is believed, is valuable for the designer of warehouse piers, for his con- 
sideration and for further investigation if desired. 



Waterways and Harbors 



143 



This Committee includes as information the following excerpts from the information 
assembled by the Yards and Terminals Committee: 

Warehouses reported — 
Rail and Water Terminals 
Type of construction ' Ocean Lake Rivet 

Wood frame 13 2 2 

Wood, steel and concrete 2 

Wood, brick and concrete 3 

Brick 9 

Brick and concrete 1 1 

Concrete reinforced 2 2 

Concrete reinforced and structural steel 1 

Structural steel 1 

Structural steel, brick and reinforced concrete 1 



Number of stories 



33 



24 



One story 

Two story 

Three story 2 

Four story 2 

Five story 2 

Seven story 2 

Eight story 1 

33 
Allowable load on first story 

Lb. per square foot 

125 to 199 3 

200 to 299 2 

300 to 399 1 

400 to 499 2 

SCO 10 



600 

750 

1000 

Over 1000 



29 
Allowable load on upper stories 

Lb. per square foot 

100 1 

250 3 

300 3 

400 2 

9 
Per cent of area reserved for aisles 

5 1 

10 4 

13 1 

15 1 

18 1 

20 1 

25 3 

30 2 

33 1 

40 1 

None 5 

21 



144 Waterways and Harbors ^__ 

Warehouses reported — 
Rail and Water Terminals 
Ocean Lake River 
Headroom in first stories 

10 to 12 ft ; 10 1 1 

13 to IS ft 10 1 1 

17 to 20 ft S 

Over 20 ft S 1 1 

Headroom in upper stories 30 3 3 

8 to 10 ft 4 

12 ft 2 1 

20 ft 1 

Distance from warehouse to dock side 7 10 

Less than 10 ft 2 1 1 

10 ft. to 15 ft 2 

16 ft. to 25 ft 1 

26 ft. to 50 ft 4 

51 ft. to 100 ft 4 

101 ft. to 200 ft 5 

201 ft. to 300 ft 1 1 1 

301 ft. to 400 ft 2 

401 ft. to 1000 ft 2 

Over 1000 ft 6 

Track arrangement 27 4 2 

One track 13 1 

One track each side 1 

Two parallel tracks 6 2 2 

Three parallel tracks 3 

One track inside 2 

Two tracks inside 1 

Three inside and two parallel tracks 1 

Four tracks inside 1 

Two tracks parallel, one inside 1 

Series of spurs 1 

Four sidings 1 

Tracks inside 1 

Track elevation 29 5 3 

Depressed 21 2 1 

Surface 8 2 2 

Both 1 

Facilities for movement of freight between stories 30 4 3 

Inside elevators and whip hoists 3 

Elevators alone 5 1 

Ramp 1 

Capacity of warehouses — Dry storage 8 2 

Reporting tons 

190, 750, lOOO(R) , 1200 3 1 

3060 1 

2500, 4500 per section 1 

5000, 6570(0), 9500 1 2 

10500, 25000(0), 36000 1 2 

142281, 288450 2 



Waterways and Harbors 



US 



Warehouses reported — 

Rail and Water Terminals 

Ocean Lake River 

Reporting square feet 

9900, 120000, 201,000 3 

500000, 500903 2 

750000, 811900 2 

3700000 1 

Reporting cubic feet 

314160, 528527, 560475, 494600, 600000, 667680, 724250, 764250, 
918750, 1373628, 1440260, 5054360 12 

Reporting ft. b.m. 

1500000 1 

27 5 3 

Capacity — cold storage 

250,000 sq. ft 1 

350,000 sq. ft 1 

500,000 cu. ft 1 

3,500,000 cu. ft 1 

22,500 tons 1 



Ship 
to car 
L R 
Racilities for move- 
ment of freight 

Hand truck only 5 1 

Hand truck and gasoline tractor 
Hand truck and fwrtable 

conveyor 1 

Hand truck and elevating truck 
Hand truck and electric tram 

Hand truck and derrick 1 

Hand truck and shiptackle ... 1 
Hand truck tractor and trailer I 
Hand truck, electric and gas 

tractors 

4 wheel truck 1 

Hand and elec. trucks 2 1 1 

Hand, gas and electric trucks 1 
Truck, motor or freight cars.. 

Tractors and trailers 2 

4 wheel tractor and trailer. . . . 
Hand, gas and elec. tractors . . 
Tractors, trailers and ship tackles 
Tractors and trailers via elevator 

or Burton Hoist 

Electric crane and electric 

tractor 

Electric crane to trailer or direct 1 

Conveyor 

Ships tackle 2 

Ships tackle and locomotive 

crane 1 

Gantry crane 1 

Locomotive crane 

Electric train 

Freight cars 

Misc'l gear 

Not identified 1 1 

No facilities __ 2 _ 

31 i 3 



Ship to 

Warehouse 

L R 


Car 

to ship 

L R 


Warehouse 

to ship 
L R 


Car to 
Warehouse 
L R 


Warehouse 

to car 
L R 


6 1 1 
1 1 


5 1 
1 


4 1 1 
1 

1 
1 


16 3 1 

2 

I 


15 3 I 

2 

1 



1 
9 




1 






5 
I 


1 

31 4 


1 

T 


1 

19 


2 
4 


1 


1 
26 



30 4 



146 Waterways and Harbors 



The greater portion of the terminal? reported one story warehouses. For the ocean 
terminals the average allowable load for the first floor was 500 lb. per sq. ft. The lake 
terminals averaged 300 and the river 500. Upper stories for all classes ranged about 
300-lb. per sq. ft. Privately owned terminals reserved on the average 25 per cent of the 
floor area for aisles and the publicly owned terminals about 15 per cent. Privately owned 
ocean and lake terminals had average headroom clearance of 13-14 feet while privately 
owned river terminals had 20 for the first floors. Publicly owned ocean and river ter- 
minals had 16 and 12 respectively. Upper stories for all classes averaged 10-12 feet. 

In general, public terminals are better equipped with mechanical handling devices 
than are the private ones. There is both a greater variety and a greater number of 
units at the public terminals. All warehouses seem well supplied with track facilities. 
One-half or more have depressed tracks. 

About the same ratio as reported warehouses reported dry storage. The units in 
which capacity was reported were not consistent, but in general the average private 
terminal warehouses had a capacity of 5,000-10,000 tons and the public terminals about 
double. Very little cold storage was reported. 

In many cases a steamer may have freight for all railroad warehouse piers, each of 
which may deliver freight to the same steamer. This results in the use of tugs, barges 
and lighters with the result that there is much .sorting and spreading out of freight at 
the piers where deck floor space should be provided for this handling. It should be 
located so as to minimize interference with the loading process of freight cars. 

The piers are subject to rough usage in the berthing of shipj, lighters, barges, etc., 
and there is the further effect of corrosion and deterioration due to salt water and its 
active marine growths. Report of this Committee on Fender Systems in Volumes 35 
and 36 deals with this subject. Reference should be made to it in this connection. 

The following are descriptions of existing warehouse piers of various types: 

This pier (Fig. 1) is located on the Norfolk and Western on the east shore of the 
Elizabeth River, just inside of Hampton Roads, accommodates export, coastwise and 
intercoastal commerce. All kinds of merchandise are handled. This warehouse pier is 
also used as a freight house. Highway trucks move on to it to handle freight locally. 
The water depth is maintained at 35 ft. below mean low tide on each side and at the 
outshore end affording 2,600 linear ft. of berthing space. 

The pier is 222 ft. wide and 1200 ft. long. The shed is 208 ft. wide and about 1210 
ft. long. A 7 foot apron is located on each side of the shed. The substructure gen- 
erally is of creosoted material while the superstructure consists of steel columns and roof 
trusses, supported on steel cylinders and concrete pedestals. The roof is covered with 
five ply tar and gravel. The floor was designed for 500 lb. per sq. ft. loading, trucks 
operating thereon are limited to 8 tons gross. The minimum headroom is 20 feet. 

The shed is equipped with motor operated rolling steel doors and a complete system 
of concrete driveways is provided for trucks to drive on to the pier. There are four de- 
pressed railroad tracks located at the center of the pier with a total capacity of 100 cars. 

The total area of shedded pier is 251,680 sq. ft. of which 24 per cent (60,000 sq. ft.) 
is occupied by tracks, 14 per cent (36,000 sq. ft.) is occupied by traffic aisles and 6 per 
cent (15,000 sq. ft.) is occupied by escalator ramps leaving 56 per cent (140,680 sq. ft.) 
available for temporary storing and sorting. The cargo capacity is about 30,000 tons. 
Metal traffic aisles in the shed are 12 ft. wide and extend along each side with 4 cross 
aisles, one at each end and two others located between the end aisles. The metal traffic 
aisles are used as driveways for highway trucks and for the motor truck trains. Transit 
sheds supplementing the pier are located back of the bulkhead and are indicated on the 
plan which is a part of this report. 



im 



Waterways and Harbors 



147 



^ ^Creosoted pine fender 
X^ piles. Salter J^'per foot. 

^Outside floor 3'VPftrealed) 




148 Waterways and Harbors 

Escalator ramps are provided for transfer equipment between ship and pier and 
motor truck trains consisting of a small industrial truck and trailers handle cargo to 
railroad cars and transit sheds. 

Fire protection on pier consists of a complete automatic dry pipe sprinkler system. 

The pier originally 800 ft. long was constructed in 1914 at a cost of about $3.50 
per sq. ft. (An extension of 400 ft. was added in 1930). This figure includes bulk- 
heads, dredging, tracks, fire walls, sprinkler system, etc. 

The service life of the pier is estimated to be at least 40 years. There has been no 
serious depreciation. Recent examination of piling indicated no serious damage by 
marine borers which good condition is due to the creosote preservative. The floor which 
has not been renewed since the pier was constructed appears to be in good condition 
after 20 years service due to the use of metallic traffic treads. The steel superstructure 
shows no reduction in metal from corrosion while the roof appears to be in as good 
condition now as when originally placed. 

The most vulnerable part of the warehouse pier has been the rolling steel doors, 
damage being caused by careless handling of merchandise. One cent per sq. ft. of floor 
area covers the annual maintenance cost. 

This pier (Fig. 2) is located on the Northern Pacific at the downtown waterfront 
in Seattle, Washington, and accommodates ocean and inland coastal water commerce 
consisting of package freight, baggage and steamship passengers. It has 1600 linear feet 
of berthing space on the sides and 130 feet at the end with a minimum water depth of 
24 ft. and maximum 55 ft. below mean low water. 

The substructure is 130 ft. wide and 850 ft. long and consists of creosoted pile and 
timber construction. The warehouse shed, a two story 100 ft. X 830 ft. timber con- 
struction, has a 25 ft. apron on one side, 5 ft. on other side and 20 ft. along the end. 
All cargo is handled on the main floor with passenger facilities and offices on the second 
floor. The headroom of first story is 18 ft., second story 10 ft. Allowable load on 
main floor is 700 lb. per sq. ft. Access to second floor is by stairways and gangway 
from upper deck of ships. 

Doors are the steel rolling type in the outside walls of the freight section. One 
railroad track located in the 25 ft. apron, depressed 3 ft. 2 in. below main floor, runs the 
full length of the pier. The car capacity of this track is cut down by the necessity of 
opening for slips, giving access direct from boats to warehouse. An asphalt driveway 
40 ft. wide along center of pier is provided for trucking at the same elevation as the 
main floor. 

The total capacity of the warehouse main floor is 39,385 sq. ft., divided as follows: — 
General freight 35,000 sq. ft.; bonded freight 1,385 sq. ft., and baggage 3,000 sq. ft. 
This is the total available floor space exclusive of full width deduction for trucking slips 
to boats and access to stairs and does not include the paved driveway or offices. 

The cargo transfer equipment consists of 11 adjustable trucking slips or heavy 
bascule gangways whose outer level is adjustable to varying deck levels; one stiff leg 
derrick and several portable conveyors. Fire hydrants are provided as fire protection 
with main reliance on city fire department including fire tugs. 

No data was given on cost of construction, service life or maintenance cost. 

About three-fourths of the cargo handled in and out of boats is conveyed by trucks 
to other points in the city and freight is not lightered to ships. 

The pier, constructed in ]Q14, is now 22 years old. It is described here as the only 
one on the western coast about which the information was available to this Committee. 



Waterways and Harbors 



149 




150 



Waterways and Harbors 



This pier (Fig. 3) is located on the Erie Railroad at the west shore of the Hudson 
River at Weehawken, NJ., and accommodates ocean commerce. The substructure of the 
pier is 757 ft. long and 101 ft. wide and has 5,809 piles 80 to 110 ft. long and the average 
length of bearing piles is 90 ft. The foundation piles are cut off about one foot above 
mean low water, capped with 12 in. X 12 in. timbers on which 6 in. spliced timber deck- 
ing is applied. Concrete walls around the edges of the pier, track and elevator pits and 
stairwalls, footings for columns and fire walls were constructed upon the timber deck- 
ing. The remaining spaces below the first floor slab and tracks were filled with engine 
cinders. All concrete below high water level was precast in blocks and above high- 
water level was cast in place and reinforced. The total live load is 1,000 lb. per sq. ft. 
of pier. 



RooP-Live load 4-0' per square foot 



Third Floor- Live load 
200* per square foot 



Second Floor - Live load 
300 * per square foot 



First Floor -Live load 
500* per square foot- 




Trolley Beano 
-Dockstdc Elevator 



11^^^ Closed position 
^^^^orelev<3tor 

_ Iv "/t N 



-Rail Runway 
■rMsan Hign Water 

^Mean Low Water 



-Fender Piles 
Fig. 3 



Fig. 3. — Modem Multiple-Storied Warehouse Pier Located 
in the Hudson River at Weehawken, N. J. 



The first two floors of the pier shed are used for handling autos, trucks and tractors 
and the third floor for storing rubber. Because of the fireproof construction of this 
pier the insurance rate for storing rubber here is much lower than on the other piers 
in the harbor. The pier is also used for passenger service. Baggage and LCL freight 
are handled. 

The full length of pier on both sides is available for wharfage. The slip on the 
east side is 200 ft. wide for the full length of the pier and the slip on the west side is 
290 ft. wide for a distance of about 340 ft. from the offshore end of the pier whDe 
the remainder is restricted to 100 foot width by a mooring rack. Both slips are dredged 
to a depth of 30 ft. below mean low water. 

The shed, one of the first of the three story type constructed in New York Harbor 
is 101 ft. wide, 757 ft. long and 44 ft. 9 in. average height. The first floor has a 13 ft. 
headroom and is designed for a live load of 500 lb. per sq. ft.; second floor with 11 ft. 
3 in. headroom is designed for live load of 300 lb. per sq. ft. and third floor which has 
10 ft. headroom is designed for live load of 200 lb. per sq, ft. The pier shed is of 



Waterways and Harbors 151 

structural steel frame with corrugated iron siding and steel deck roof. An innovation in 
floor design is the so-called "channelplate" system used on the two upper floors, more 
particularly described later, which is covered with a heavy duty asphaltic mastic. The 
shed is equipped with pre-action system of automatic sprinklers, remote control stand- 
pipe system, fireproof stairways and reinforced concrete fire walls divide the pier into 
two sections. An electric fire alarm system and a watchman protect the shed against 
fire and theft. 

The pier is equipped with steel sash vertical lift-swing steel doors and has four in- 
side freight elevators and four dock side freight elevators, serving all floors of the pier. 
All elevators have 4-ton capacity. The dock side elevators, the first of their type in 
New York Harbor, are intended primarily for the loading of automobiles on their own 
wheels into steamships. They are entirely outside the pier shed and their platforms 
are hinged at one end so that when not in use they may be folded up in a vertical posi- 
tion against the sides of the pier shed. At present two of the dock side elevators are 
raised, lowered and moved along the pier by ship's tackle and two are independently 
cperated by electric power. Provision has been made for the future installation of elec- 
tric machinery on the structural steel frame for the other two. 

The total floor area of the shed is 183,150 sq. ft. of which 45,450 sq. ft. is on the 
first floor, 68,700 sq. ft. on the second floor and 60,000 sq. ft. on the third floor. This 
is the total available floor space and does not include area occupied by track pit, ramps, 
elevators, stairs, toilets, storerooms and offices. The storage capacity, if used for rubber, 
is 100 carloads on first, 160 on second and 135 on third floor. 

Two railroad tracks each 730 ft. long are located along the center of the pier and 
extend within one bay of the full length of the shed and have a total capacity of 32 
cars 45 ft. long. The tracks are centered at 17 feet and are in a pit 29 ft. wide with the 
top of rail 3 ft. 6 in. below the first floor level. 

Two driveways each 12 ft. wide enter the first floor of the pier by ramps on 6 per 
cent grade and are used by trucks to carry LCL freight and baggage to and from local 
points. Personal cars to be used in foreign countries by passengers are also brought to 
the pier via these driveways which are considered a very important advantage of the 
pier. 

Cargo transfer equipment consists of the eight elevators heretofore mentioned and 
of two, four and six wheel trailers which are hauled in trains by gasoline tractors. Ship's 
tackle is also used to transfer a cargo. 

Harbor lighter service is available from all points in the harbor within lighterage 
limits. 

The pier was originally designed to carry a two story shed but the three story shed 
was constructed without increasing the loads on the foundation piles. This was ac- 
complished by using a new lightweight steel plate floor construction known as the 
"channelplate" system consisting of %-in. thick steel plates, die formed from the blank 
by a hydraulic press. The sections are crowned J-^-in. and are 24-in. wide by 8-in. 
deep on the second floor and 19-in. X 9-in. on the third floor. The bottom flanges are 
from 2J/2-in. to 3^-in. wide and sections are l5-ft. long. The vertical sides of these 
channelplates are bolted together to prevent any difference in deflection with adjacent 
sections. The channelplates are supported on the top flanges of the crossbeams at 
column bents. The floor is surfaced with heavy-duty asphaltic mastic having a mini- 
mum thickness of IJ/^-in. over the crown and 2-in. at the edges. 

The pier was completed in July, 1931, at a cost of about $18.70 per sq. ft. area of 
first floor. 



152 Waterways and Harbors 

Appendix B 

(5) SIZE AND DEPTH OF SLIPS REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS TRAF- 
FIC CONDITIONS, INCLUDING COST OF CONSTRUCTION 
AND MAINTENANCE 

C. U. Smith, Chairman, Sub-Committee; A. F. Crowder, Benjamin Elkind, G. F. Hand, 
R. J. Middleton, W. R. Swatosh, R. C. Young. 

Description 

For the purpose of this report, the type of slips herein referred to are the waterways 
between piers or other structures providing access to general cargo and ferry facilities. 

General 

In determining the size and depth of a slip to serve any particular facility, the 
proposed uses and requirements of that facility must be carefully considered. These 
uses and requirements vary to such a large degree that it is practically impossible to set 
up definite dimensions for slips even by classifications such as passenger, passenger and 
cargo, cargo, coal, ore, grain, etc. 

A further consideration in the determination of slip dimensions, particularly width, 
is the value of the land behind the established bulkhead line which is generally the 
line along the base of the piers. Where land values are high and the maximum usage 
is to be made of the available waterfront, it might be considered good practice to make 
the slips as narrow as possible, consistent with the required operations. On the other 
hand, when plenty of waterfront is available, more consideration should be given to 
the ease of operation for a given purpose, thus tending to wider slips. 

The usage of slips must be kept in mind when determining their dimensions. As a 
suggestion of possible usage, the following is submitted: 

(1) Passenger service: 

(a) Where only one side of the slip will be occupied at a time. 

(1) One berth 

(2) Two berths 

(b) Where both sides of the slip will be occupied at a time. 

(1) One berth 

(2) Two berths 

(2) Passenger and cargo service; general cargo service. 

(In addition to (a) and (b) above noted, it must be determined if 
lighter service is to be provided for.) 

(3) Special services such as coal and ore docks. 

(Careful consideration must be given to the proposed methods of 
operation, and when a method is determined the dimensions of the 
slip must be sufficient to permit of this method being followed.) 

In the above tabulation of usage, more than two berths to a length of the slip has 
not been considered. The reason for this is that only in special cases such as fish 
piers, excursion boat landings and similar usage is it found that more than two berths 
are provided at a pier or wharf. The generally accepted length of a standard berth 
is 500 feet (for general cargo ocean piers). 

Inasmuch as slips are generally located between piers, it is important to call atten- 
tion to the effect of the length of the pier on the width of the slip. To pass a vessel 
of ordinary size to the inner berth in a slip being used on both sides, obviously requires 
a greater slip width than where this operation is not to be performed. In such cases, 
allowance for lighters must be made if they are to be used. 



( 



Waterways and Harbors 153 

An important and necessary factor to be considered in the determination of slip 
dimensions, is the size and type of vessel that is proposed to use the slip. In this 
connection, it should be noted that there is a considerable difference between types 
of vessels on the Great Lakes and in ocean service. 

Other things to be considered include: (1) Currents at the mouth of the proposed 
slip; (2) weather and water conditions such as prevailing heavy winds, tides and ground 
swell or wave action in the slip; (3) the use or non-use of tugs by vessels proposing to 
enter or leave the slip; (4) character of material to be excavated or dredged to deter- 
mine the location of the piers where suitable slips or berths can be provided and 
maintained at reasonable expense. 

Passenger and Car Ferry Slips 

At numerous places throughout the country, ferry boats are operated to handle: 
(1) passengers, automobiles and trucks and (2) railroad cars across waterways. These 
operations definitely require the use of slips. 

In the first class, which may be generally designed as passenger service, the slips 
are between fender walls so constructed as to receive the ferry boat in a tight fit and 
assure it against lateral motion. In this service, the location of the slip is principally 
determined by requirements for public service and convenience. The dimensions of such 
sUps are such as may be required to conform to the size and shape of the ferry boats 
and the depth of slip to conform to the ferry draft and loading and tidal fluctuations 
if any. 

In the second class or car ferry service, the slips are also between fender walls 
or a series of pile clusters so constructed as to conform to the outline of the after end 
of the ferry. (Refer to Vol. 38, No. 387, July 1936 issue of the Bulletin of the 
American Railway Engineering Association for a complete description of car ferry 
facilities.) The location of slips in this service is primarily determined by the track 
layout to service the slip and can usually be arranged so as to take into consideration 
the physical situation as reflected in the matter of expense. The dimensions of slips 
are in these cases also determined by the size and shape of the ferry boats in use. The 
depth of slips in the case of car ferry service is generally greater than that required in 
passenger service by reason of the greater draft of the ferries imposed by the loads they 
carry. The draft and fluctuation in water levels combine to determine the proper 
and required depth of slip. 

Statistical Data 

The following notations have been developed from statistics taken from various 
reliable sources, and are considered as helpful in determining the proper size of slips 
to service various passenger and cargo facilities and vessels. 

The approximate dimensions of ocean vessels, not including such super-liners as the 
Queen Mary, Normandie and Bremen are as shown: 

Length from 250 to 900 feet. 

Beam from 37 to 98 feet. 

Draft (loaded) from 22 to 40 feet. 

From information obtained through questionnaires by a Sub-Committee of Com- 
mittee XIV — ^Yards and Terminals, the following data has been compiled: 
At 30 ocean ports, 

for general cargo slips: 

Depths range from 8 to 40 feet. 
Widths range from SO to 450 feet. 



154 Waterways and Harbors 

Slips at coal docks show: 

Depths range from 20 to 33 feet. 

Widths range from 30 to 260 feet. 
Slips at ore docks show: 

Depths range from 20 to 40 feet. 

Widths range from 70 to 260 feet. 
Slips at general merchandise piers show: 

Depths range from 10 to SO feet. 

Widths range from SO to 4S0 feet. 

Such a wide range of depths and widths for slips emphasizes the difficulty of making 
specific recommendations and indicates the necessity of careful study with reference 
to the use of adjacent facilities, and the type and size of vessels that may come to these 
facilities. 

Probably the longest cargo piers in the world are at Seattle, Washington, where two 
piers 310 ft. X 2530 ft. and 367 ft. X 2543 ft. form the Smith's Cove unit. The slip 
width between these piers is 3S0 ft. with a 25 ft. depth of water at extreme low tide. 
At New York there have recently been completed three of the longest passenger piers 
in the world. These are used to berth the Queen Mary and the Normandie. They are 
1000 ft. long and 125 ft. wide, with slips 400 ft. wide between them, providing a water 
depth of 46 ft. at extreme low tide. 

Depth of Slips 

To determine the depth of a slip in any development, the primary consideration, 
of course, is the draft of the vessels that are proposed to use the slip, care being taken 
to provide sufficient slip depth for the deepest draft vessel at low tide, if in tidal waters. 

It may be necessary to provide a depth of water in a slip or berth in excess of the 
depth of the approach channel, so that boats with draft in excess of channel depth at 
low water may lie safely in the slip or berth during low water periods. However, unless 
this condition is to be met, the depth of slip should be arranged to meet the maximum 
future channel depth. In all cases, the existing and proposed navigable depth of 
channels should be determined. This can generally be obtained from the U. S. District 
Engineer. 

Construction and Maintenance Costs 

The construction cost of slips will vary with their size and the amount and char- 
acter of material that has to be removed to provide the slip of desired dimensions. 
These factors are so variable that your Committee does not feel that it is possible 
to furnish any worthwhile information in this respect. A compilation could be made, 
by questionnaire, to determine the costs of some of the later slips (costs of the old slips 
being practically impossible to obtain) but this would involve considerable work and 
in the end it is not felt that the results would warrant the effort, as each slip cost 
would be governed by local conditions, geographical location, etc., and would not rep- 
resent typical conditions. 

As to maintenance costs, the same conditions prevail as are referred to in the 
remarks on construction costs. The cost of maintenance, which is almost exclusively the 
cost of periodical dredging, depends upon: (1) the character of material in the slip 
and waterways approaching it; (2) tides and currents; (3) wind and weather; and (4) 
condition of the retaining walls or structures around the slip which may permit material 
to infiltrate into the slip. By reason of these varying conditions, each slip is an inde- 
pendent problem and the comments made with reference to costs of construction apply 
also to maintenance costs. 



Waterways and Harbors ISS 

Conclusions and Recommendations 

Your Committee submits as its conclusions and recommendations with reference 
to its assigned subject, the following: 

1. Size and depth of slips depends upon so many variables that it is the opinion 
that each layout must be treated on the basis of the local information, but as an average 
it is recommended that for two-berth slips (approximately 1000 ft. long) for servicing 
general merchandise cargo vessels, a width of 300 ft. is satisfactory, with a depth to 
correspond to the depth governing in the approach channels or to account for tidal 
range. 

2. Cost of construction and maintenance is so variable that such can only be 
developed by questionnaires, and then it is felt that the information obtained would be 
so specific as to make it of no general value. The circulation of questionnaires is not 
recommended. 

3. The Committee is of the opinion that the determination of slip dimensions is so 
dependent upon the design of the facility the slip serves, that the study of design of 
such facilities with recommended slip dimensions included would not be of benefit to the 
Association, and therefore recommends that this report be published as information 
and the subject discontinued. 

Appendix C 

(9) WHAT IS NAVIGABLE WATER IN FACT 

N. D. Hyde, Chairman, Sub-Committee; H. B. Barry, R. P. Forsberg, W. G. Nusz, 
G. R. Smiley, Edwin F. Wendt. 

REVIEW OF COURT DECISIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS 
The Federal Government is given control over navigable waters by the commerce 
clause of the Federal Constitution. (See footnote 1.) The case of Leovy vs. United 
States, 177 U.S. 623, comments on this grant of power as follows, at page 633: 

"When it is remembered that the source of the power of the general 
government to act at all in this matter arises out of its power to regulate com- 
merce with foreign countries and among the States, it is obvious that what the 
Constitution and the acts of Congress have in view is the promotion and pro- 
tection of commerce in its international and interstate aspect, and a practical 
construction must be put on these enactments as intended for such large and 
important purposes." 

Navigable waters which are navigable in fact are included within the scope of this 
clause. Whether a water body is navigable within the clause or not depends upon the 
facts in each particular case. The Supreme Court has set out a few general rules and 
requisites for the determination of navigability. One of the best definitions is given in 
the early case of The Daniel Ball, 77 Wallace's Reports, 557, at page 563: 

"Those rivers must be regarded as public navigable rivers in law which 
are navigable in fact. And they are navigable in fact when they are used, or 
are susceptible of being used, in their ordinary condition, as highways for com- 
merce, over which trade and travel are or may be conducted in the customary 
modes of trade and travel on water. And they constitute navigable waters of 
the United States within the meaning of the acts of Congress, in contradistinc- 
tion from the navigable waters of the States, when they form in their ordinary 
condition by themselves, or by uniting with other waters, a continued highway 
over which commerce is or may be carried on with other States or foreign coun- 
tries in the customary modes in which such commerce is conducted by water." 

Footnote No. 1 — Article 1, paragraph 8, provides: "Congress shall have power to regulate com- 
merce with foreign nations and among the several states . ." 



^56 Waterways and Harbors __^_^__ 

The State governments, as well as the Federal government, exercise control over 
navigable waters within their boundaries. It should be pointed out that generally the 
States' requisites to make water navigable are more liberal than the Federal Govern- 
ment's (See footnote No. 2). That is, the capacity for navigation has to be reason- 
ably large to bring it within the meaning of the commerce clause, while a State may de- 
clare water navigable which has the barest possibilities for navigation. (See Footnote 
No. 3.) The State Court may make a finding that certain water is navigable, but this 
would not give the Federal government control unless there is also a finding that the 
water body is navigable within the meaning of the commerce clause. Justice Hughes 
makes this distinction in the case of United States vs. Utah, supra. At page 75 he says: 

"The question of navigability is thus determinative of the controversy, 
and that is a federal question. This is so, although it is undisputed that none of 
the portions of the rivers under consideration constitute navigable waters of the 
United States, that is, they are not navigable in interstate or foreign commerce, 
and the question is whether they are navigable waters of the State of Utah." 

Also, in the case of United States vs. Doughton, 62 fed. 2nd 936, the followinK language 
is used on page 940: 

"and the sole question in both cases was as to navigability, not as to whether 
the streams and waters in question were navigable waters of the United States 
subject to the control of Congress by virtue of the commerce clause of the 
Constitution." 

Therefore this review of the cases is confined almost completely to those which had 
to do with the determination of "navigability" within the Federal sense of the term. 
In the definition which was quoted from The Daniel Ball, supra, it will be seen that 
there are three important factors which the courts looked to in making their findings 
on navigability of water bodies, viz: (a) its present use; (b) its potential use; (c) its 
physical condition when in its natural state. 

The courts have passed on the present use of water bodies in great varieties of situ- 
ations. Some of these were considered navigable where navigation was possible for but 
a few months of the year, (See footnote No. 4) where portages were necessary, (See 
footnote No. S) where a stream had artificial obstructions in it, such as dams, (See 
footnote No. 6) where sand bars and rapids interfered, (See footnote No. 7) where the 
principal use was limited to floating logs, (See footnote No. 8) where there has been 
little use because of the locality not being settled. (See footnote No. 9). It has been 
held that the Federal Government's power extends beyond the limits of the navigable 
portion of a stream if the navigable portions are to be materially affected by inter- 
ference at a point in the non-navigable portion." (See footnote No. 10.) 

"The Government invites a comparison with the conditions found to exist 
on the Rio Grande River in New Mexico, and the Red River and the Arkansas 
River, above the mouth of the Grand River, in Oklahoma, which were held to be 



Footnote No. 2— United States vs. Utah, 283 U.S. 64. 

Footnote No. 3— United States vs. Holt State Bank, 2 70 U.S. 49. See also: Webster vs. Harris, 
69 SW 782 (Tenn.). The court here held a water body to be in the anomalous catagory of beins 
"navigable", though not in "the common acceptation of the term." 

Footnote No. 4— Clark vs. Pigeon River Improvement Slide & Boom Co. 52 Fed. 2nd SSO. 

Footnote No. S— The Montello, 87 U.S. 430. 

Footnote No. 6 — Economy Light & Power Co. vs. United States, 256 U.S. 113. 

Footnote No. 7 — United States vs. Utah, supra. At page 87 the court says: 

Footnote No. 8 — St. Anthony Falls Water Power Company vs. St. Paul Water Commissioners, 168 
U.S. 349. 

Footnote No. 9— United States vs. Utah, supra. 

Footnote No. 10 — U.S. vs. Rio Grande Dam and Irrigation Co., 174 U.S. 690. 



Waterways and Harbors 157 



non-navigable, but the comparison does not aid the Government's contention. 
Each determination as to navigability must stand on its own facts. In each of 
the cases to which the Government refers it was found that the use of the stream 
for purposes of transportation was exceptional, being practicable only in time of 
temporary highwater. In the present instance, with respect to each of the 
sections of the rivers found to be navigable, the Master has determined upon 
adequate evidence that 'its susceptibility of use as a highway for commerce was 
not confined to exceptional conditions or short periods of temporary high water, 
but that during at least nine months of each year the river ordinarily was sus- 
ceptible of such use as a highway for commerce.' " 

On the other hand water bodies have been held to be "non-navigable" where the 
evidence of the navigation was scanty, such as in the case of Leovy vs. United States, 
supra. The court, at page 627, reviews the evidence as follows: 

"As respects navigation through Red Pass, there was some evidence, on 
the part of the government, that small luggers or yawls, chiefly used by fisher- 
men to carry oysters to and from their beds, sometimes went through this pass; 
but it was not shown that passengers were ever carried through it, or that 
freight destined to any other State than Louisiana, or, indeed, destined for any 
market in Louisiana, was ever, much less habitually, carried through it." 

The same finding was made where the navigation was confined to short periods of 
high water during the year, and then when conducted under difficulty. (See footnote 
No. 11.) Artificial improvements will not make a stream navigable which would other- 
wise have been non-navigable. (See footnote No. 12.) Where natural conditions of 
the stream have been changed by accretion through natural means, the court may de- 
clare a stream non-navigable which might previously have been considered navigable. 
(See footnote No. 13.) A good statement on the use and condition of a stream is found 
in Harrison vs. Fife, supra, page 783: 

"To meet the test of navigability as understood in the American law a 
water course should be susceptible of use for purposes of commerce or possess 
a capacity for valuable floatage in the transportation to market of the products 
of the country through which it runs. It should be of practical usefulness to 
the public as a public highway in its natural state and without the aid of arti- 
ficial means. A theoretical or potential navigability, or one that is temporary, 
precarious, and unprofitable, is not sufficient. While the navigable quality of 
a water course need not be continuous, yet it should continue long enough to be 
useful and valuable in transportation; and the fluctuations should come regu- 
larly with the seasons, so that the period of navigability may be depended upon. 
Mere depth of water, without profitable utility, will not render a water course 
navigable in the legal sense, so as to subject it to public ser\dtude, nor will the 
fact that it is sufficient for pleasure boating or to enable hunters or fishermen 
to float their skiffs or canoes. To be navigable a water course must have a use- 
ful capacity as a public highway of transportation." 

In regard to the water bodies' susceptibility for navigation, there must be a reason- 
able probability that such use will be made of the water, as well as that if there be a 
demand for navigation in the future that it would be physically possible. This is set 
out in United States vs. Utah, supra, at page 82: 

"The question of that susceptibility in the ordinary condition of the rivers, 
rather than of the mere manner or extent of actual use, is the crucial question. 
The Government insists that the uses of the rivers have been more of a private 
nature than of a public, commercial sort. But, assuming this to be the fact, it 



Footnote No. 11 — Oklahoma vs. Texas, 258 U.S. 574. 

Footnote No. 12 — No. American Dredging Co. of Nevada vs. Mintzer. 245 Fed. 297. 

Footnote No. 13 — Harrison vs. Fite, 148 Fed. 781 



158 Waterways and Harbors 

cannot be regarded as controlling when the rivers are shown to be capable of 
commercial use. The extent of existing commerce is not the test. The evidence 
of the actual use of streams, and especially of extensive and continued use for 
commercial purposes, may be most persuasive, but where conditions of ex- 
ploration and settlement explain the infrequency or Hmited nature of such use, 
the susceptibility to use as a highway of commerce may still be satisfactorily 
proved." 

Also in the case of United States vs. Doughton, supra, the court states at pace 938: 

"On the other hand, it is not sufficient to bring a stream under the regula- 
tory power of Congress that it merely be susceptible of some sort of navigation. 
If this were true, there is scarcely a creek or stream in the United States that 
would not be navigable water of the United States or that could be bridged 
by the State highways or the railroad without the approval of the Secretary of 
War. Congress would thus be enabled under the commerce clause to exercise 
control over internal affairs of the states in relation to streams where interstate 
commerce has no existence, actual or potential; and the states would be de- 
prived of vital power in regulating matters of domestic concern, having no re- 
lation to commerce. This would clearly contravene the whole theory of the 
Constitution as to the division of the powers of sovereignty between state and 
national governments. We think that the true rule is that to come within the 
regulatory power of Congress, the stream must be susceptible in its natural 
condition of becoming a highway of interstate or foreign commerce; i.e., it 
must be of such a nature and so situated that there is at least a practical possi- 
bility of its being used as a highway for such commerce; for, as has been said, 
the power of Congress over navigable waters of the United States, arising as 
it does under the commerce clause of the Constitution, 'has reference to com- 
merce of a substantial and permanent character to be conducted thereon.' " 

The State government would retain control over bodies of water which the Federal 
Government has not, by some affirmative act, taken jurisdiction of. (See footnote 
No. 14.) That is, a State statute regulating bridges is valid, even though the stream 
be navigable within the Federal sense of the term. In fact, the State government and 
Federal government may regulate simultaneously, the Federal government prevailing, how- 
ever, in case of conflict in the regulations. (See footnote No. IS.) Furthermore, the 
Federal government may affirmatively relinquish its control of certain streams which 
would leave the States alone to carry out whatever regulation they can within their 
police powers. (See footnote No. 16.) 

In cases where Federal bureaus attempt to treat water bodies as navigable within 
the commerce clause and there is some question about the navigability, it is important 
that a careful study of the entire situation be made by the parties in opposition to such 
action. The history of the stream should be gone into to find whether in the past 
the body had been put to any such use. If it was, then the extent of the use is im- 
portant because courts will disregard insignificant uses as shown above. If other forms 
of transportation have displaced navigation, the present navigability may be put in doubt, 
especially where the early navigation was impractical. The navigation, or possibility of 
such should be such as would be of some material consequence in the trade and com- 
merce of the locality. The mere fact that there is a stream which might be navigable 
does not automatically give the Federal government control of it. A sensible construc- 
tion must be given to the commerce clause as the cases above illustrate. Such a con- 
struction would definitely delimit the Federal government's powers to only those streams 
which are navigable in the commercial sense of the word. As we have seen from the 



Footnote No. 14 — Pound vs. Tureck, 95 U.S. 459. 

Footnote No. 15— Leitch vs. City of Chicago, 41 Fed. 2nd 728. 

Footnote No. 16 — Leitch vs. City of Chicago, supra. 



Waterways and Harbors 159 



cases above, the Federal government cannot extend its control to the tributaries of 
navigable waters, (See footnote No. 17.) and there is authority to the effect that there 
must be evidence of actual or possible interstate or foreign commerce before the Fed- 
eral government can take control of the water body. (See footnote No. 18.) 

Except for the few general principles which have been crystallized by constant 
reiteration down through the cases, navigability depends almost completely on the facts 
in each particular case. A common sense analysis of the use or possibilities of the use of 
a stream in its natural state has to be made in every instance. The courts make the final 
determination of navigability but the attitude the courts will take may be fairly well de- 
termined if the facts of the navigability are thoroughly investigated. 

In connection with this subject attention is directed to a paper presented by G. B. 
Pillsbury, Brigadier General, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, before the Waterway 
Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers on January 19, 1933. A full report 
of this paper may be found in the March, 1933, volume of "Civil Engineering", pages 
165 to 167, inclusive. This paper is especially valuable as an outline in developing the 
facts necessary to determine the navigability of streams. 



Footnote No. 17 — Leovy vs. United States, supra. 
Footnote No. 18 — Leovy vs. United States, supra. 



REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON COMPLETE 
ROADWAY AND TRACK STRUCTURE 

John E. Armstrong, John V. Neubert, J. E. Teal, Vice -Chair man; 

Chairman; C. H. Tillett, A. R. Wilson, 

C. J. Geyer, Committee. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

(1) Complete roadway and track for various loads and traffic densities. Progress 
in study — no report. 

(2) Classification of railways. Progress in study — no report. 

The Special Committee on Complete Roadway and Track Structure, 

John E. Armstrong, Chairman. 



161 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE I— ROADWAY 



Geo. S. Fanning, Chairman; 

L. L. Adams, 

J. B. Akers, 

F. W. Alexander, 

E. J. Bayer, 

E. J. Beugler, 

F. W. BiLTZ, 

H. F. Brown, 

G. H. Burnette, 
Paul Chipman, 
S. N. Crowe, 

L. J. Drxtmeller, 



L. C. Frohman, 
J. A. Given, 
Albert Haertlein, 
H. H. Harman, 

F. W. HiLLMAN, 

D. A. Hultgren, 

G. E. Ladd, 
W. J. Lank, 
Harold W. Legro, 

E. R. Lewis, 

H. T. Livingston, 
J. A. Noble, 



A. E. Botts, Vice -Chair man; 

M. C. Patton, 

W. C. Pruett, 

C. S. Robinson, 

L. S. Rose, 

P. T. Simons, 

E. M. Smith, 

W. C. Swartout, 

H. M. SwopE, 

J. B. Trenholm, 

A. W. White, 

W. H. Woodbury, 

Committee. 



To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the subjects assigned. Under each general 
subject we were directed to include in the study: 



(a) Revision of Manual 

See Appendix B — Specifications for Cast Iron Culvert Pipe. 
See Appendix D — Concrete slab roadbed. 

(b) Adherence to recommended practice. 

(c) Progress in the science and art. 

(d) Outline of Work. 

The subjects assigned are as follows: 

1. Physical properties of earth materials, particularly 

Their effect upon roadbed performance. 
Structural bearing power. 
(Appendix A). Progress report. 

2. Natural waterways, particularly 

Drainage areas, water runoff, and size of openings. 
Progress in study — no report. 

3. Culverts, particularly 

Factors determining their location and type. 

Progress in study — no report. 

Specifications for cast iron culvert pipe. 

(Appendix B). Complete, recommended for publication in the Manual. 

Service Life of culverts, collaborating with Committee 

XI — Records and Accounts. 

Progress in study — no report. 

4. Formation of the Roadway, particularly 

Width of roadbed and angle of slopes. 
Progress in study— no report. 



Roadway drainage 
(Appendix C). 



Progress report. 



6. Roadway protection, particularly 

Concrete slab roadbed. 

(Appendix D). Complete with recommended conclusions for publication in 

the Manual. 

7. Tunnels, particularly 

Specifications for construction. 
Progress in study — no report. 



Bulletin 390, October, 1936. 



163 



164 Roadway __^_ 

8. Fences, particularly 

Fence posts and braces. 

Corrosion-resisting fence wire, collaborating with appropriate Sub-Commit- 
tees of Committee A-S on Corrosion of Iron and Steel, ASTM. 
Progress in study — no report. 

9. Signs, particularly 

Roadway signs required. 
(Appendix E). Progress report. 

The Comimittee on Roadway, 

Geo. S. Fanning, Chairman. 

Appendix A 

(1) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF EARTH MATERIALS 

H. W. Legro, Chairman, Sub-Committee; J. B. Akers, E. J. Beugler, S. N. Crowe, Albert 
Haertlein, G. E. Ladd, L. S. Rose, H. M. Swope. 

Developments in the science of soil mechanics and the art of using materials of the 
earth as foundations focused in the first International Conference on Soil Mechanics and 
Foundation Engineering, held at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., from June 22nd 
to 26th, 1936. At this Conference, attended by over 200 engineers of the United States 
and eighteen foreign countries, 156 papers were presented, all of which were printed in 
full or in abstract form and distributed to the members in two large volumes prior 
to the Conference with a third volume to follow. 

The AREA was represented by two delegates — W. R. Wilson of the Committee on 
Wood Bridges and Trestles and H. W. Legro of the Committee on Roadway. 

The stated purposes of the Conference were: 

(1) To make a survey of investigations in progress in the various soil 
mechanics laboratories. 

(2) To collect as much information as possible on the recent developments in 
earth and foundation engineering and to make them available to aU 
interested engineers. 

(3) To compare and coordinate experiences and the result of research. 

(4) To initiate closer cooperation for the purpose of advancing scientific 
methods on earth and foundation engineering. 

The foUowbg notes are under the same designations as the groups by which the 
contributed papers were classified. 

Section A — Reports from Soil Mechanics Laboratories on Testing Apparatus 
— Technique of Testing and Investigations in Progress 
Equipment and methods of twenty soil testing laboratories, nine of which are in the 
United States, were described. Nearly all laboratories are equipped to classify soils by 
grain size and shape, to determine relative moisture content and to study the properties 
fundamental to engineering use of soils, viz:— shearing resistance, compressibility, con- 
solidation and permeability. Some of these laboratories are at the sites of large en- 
gineering projects, — many others are primarily for research purposes in technical in- 
stitutions whose services are also available to practicing engineers. With respect to soil 
research by railways it is of interest to note that although there are a number of labora- 
tories in the universities and higher technical schools of Japan, the Japanese Government 
Railways have established their own laboratory under the direction of the Geotechnic 
Committee. The Committee is at present carrying on investigations along the following 
lines: 



Roadway 165 

(1) Determination of economical slopes of embankment and cut, measuring 
internal friction and cohesion of soils by shearing test machines. 

(2) Determination of economical form and thickness of tunnel linings. 

(3) Economical design of the foundations of various structures, especially on 
weak strata. 

(4) The physical and mechanical properties of soils. 

(5) Geophysical prospecting by electrical and seismic methods. 

(6) Pressure distribution under the foundations of various structures. 

Section B — Exploration of Soil Conditions and Sampling Operations 

The papers in this section described equipment designed to extract from the ground 
as nearly undisturbed samples as possible, particularly of cohesive soils. It has been 
demonstrated that change of moisture content and remoulding of soil affect bearing 
capacity, therefore accurate laboratory classification depends upon extraction practice 
that minimizes disturbance due to driving and squeezing at the cutting edge, to friction 
of the sample along the driven container wall and to loss of moisture in transportation 
to the laboratory. 

Section C — Regional Soil Studies for Engineering Purposes 

Regional studies were stated as having the purpose of determining the characteristics 
of typical soils in their various layer formations with the view of correlating the informa- 
tion obtained with such settlement records as may become available, thus making im- 
proved foundation design possible and the prediction of settlements more accurate. A 
comprehensive survey has recently been made of Flushing Meadow, an area of about 
900 acres on Long Island, N. Y., which is the site of the proposed 1939 World's Fair 
and ultimately of a public park of the Department of Parks, New York City. The low, 
marshy character of the area, a large part of which had been covered with ash fill, 
furnished problems of loading with structures and large amounts of fill. Sub-surface 
conditions were explored by borings, samples obtained and tested, soil profiles plotted, 
estimates made of soil consolidation, and recommendations submitted covering methods 
of filling, sequence of operations, permissible loading, and foundation requirements. 

Section D — Soil Properties 

The papers in this section were largely descriptive of the technique of research 
undertaken in laboratories to learn ihe effects of a multitudinous variety of conditions 
in which soils are found (shape, size and relative position of particles, moisture content, 
etc.), and which are produced by the manner of loading, on the recognized fundamental 
physical properties. In many cases this research was productive of working hypotheses, 
but in general, there remains admittedly a vast area of uncharted knowledge, particularly 
concerning the clay soils. 

Section E — Stress Distribution in Soils 

This very complex study was represented in some of the papers by modifications 
of the theories for elastic, homogeneous materials to soil materials by comparing observed 
effects of tests with theoretical conceptions. A paper of interest to practicing engineers 
described measurements taken on the new Midtown Hudson Tunnel at New York with 
specially designed pressure plugs installed in the tunnel lining, to ascertain both normal 
and tangential pressures of the soil on the tunnel. 

Section F — Settlement of Structures 

Data from observations of settlements of various types of structures in conjunction 
with data obtained from tests of the soils enabled application of remedial measures, 



^66 Roadway 

described in papers of this section, which covered a wide variety of soil conditions. In- 
cluded were the records of settlements in river data material of Cairo, Egypt, and 
Shanghai, China, in the light, flocculent subsoil of Mexico City, of the Texas Centennial 
Exposition Buildings at Dallas, and of three bridges in the United States, including the 
new Mississippi River Bridge at New Orleans. 

Section G — Stability of Earth and Foundation Works and of Natural Slopes 

Critical height and slopes of embankments were analyzed in some of these papers 
and determinations made of the surface of rupture. The importance of drainage methods 
to prevent bank slides was emphasized. 

Section H — Bearing Capacity of Piles 

This group of six papers treats theoretically of the lateral bearing capacity of piles, 
of point resistance and lateral surface resistance; contains computations of capacity from 
pile loading and pulling tests; and develops a modification of Hiley's pile driving formula 
for inclusion in the proposed revised building code for the City of Boston. 

Section I — Pile Loading Tests 

Detailed observations of pile driving and test loading were recorded covering many 
types of piles in various parts of the world. 

Section J — Earth Pressure Against Retaining Walls, Excavation Sheeting, 

Tunnel Linings, etc. 

Experimental research was the basis of some of the papers submitted, from which 
elaborations of the theories of earth pressure were derived. Dr. Karl Terzaghi discussed 
limitations of the validity of Rankine's and Coulomb's theories. 

Section K — Ground Water Movement and Seepage 

Four papers presented developed in technical terms theories of water movement 
through soil, particular reference being made to seepage under dams. 

Section L — Soil Problems in Highway Engineering including Frost Action 

in Soils 

The great advance made in subgrade procedure in the past two decades by high- 
way engineers was illustrated by papers describing in detail the methods employed in 
the state highway departments of Michigan, New Hampshire and Texas. In these and 
many other states, engineers trained in soil technology obtain and interpret data from 
soil surveys, so that stable subgrade with respect to loads, weak underlying materials, 
drainage, and climate effects may be provided. The importance of this work is not only 
manifest in new construction but is recognized also in economies of maintenance. In 
this field the problems have many points in common with those of the railway roadbed. 

Frost action in soils is being studied at Harvard University under carefully controlled 
conditions. 

Section M — Methods for Improving the Physical Properties of Soils for 

Engineering Purposes 

In the few papers submitted in this group a wide range of devices for improvement 
of soils for various purposes was covered. A method of injecting bituminous emulsions 
into non-cohesive soils where excessive permeability is undesirable in foundation pits and 
where, in other situations, loose soils above water level require consolidation, is prac- 
ticed under European patents. For soft clays an electro chemical process is being de- 



Roadway \^ 

veloped by experiment in Germany with encouraging results in increased bearing 
capacity. Operations were described by which a French river bridge whose foundations 
had begun to fail was restored in strength by means of injections of cement which 
effected consohdation of the soil in which the piles had been driven. Foundation stabi- 
lization in Italy by use of chemical coagulants was illustrated in a lecture. Increasing 
the density of soil in embankments and dams by compaction equipment and methods 
obtains desired improvement as brought out by lecture and discussion. 

Section N — Modern Methods of Design and Construction of Foundations 

In this section the design and construction of foundations in difficult situations was 
described in papers having much detail of engineering interest. Settlements were 
found to be predictable and effects controlled in instances where the material was 
excavated to the equivalent of the total weight of the structure and ingenuity of design 
exercised to prevent deformations of the soil during construction. 

Section Z — Miscellaneous 

There were 21 papers grouped in this section principally for the reason that they 
were not ready at the time the classified sections were made up. Without attempting 
reference to all of them, there were reports on procedure carried out utilizing the prin- 
ciples of soil mechanics at various foundations and dams in the United States, Hawaii 
and Europe, experiments relating to the effects of machinery vibrations on foundations, 
soil pressure studies, hydrostatic uplift, frost heaving, and new provisions of the pro- 
posed Boston building code relating to foundations, allowable loads, pile driving and 
loading tests. 

It is expected that the 1936 Conference will be followed by others which will ben- 
efit in the direction of coordination and practicability from the most complete inter- 
change of ideas yet made in the field of soil mechanics and foundations. 



Appendix B 
(3) SPECIFICATIONS FOR CAST IRON CULVERT PIPE 

A. E. Botts, Chairman, Sub-Committee; L. L. Adams, E. J. Bayer, F. W. Biltz, D. A. 
Hultgren, W. J. Lank, M. C. Patton, C. S. Robinson. 

Adopted from A.S.T.M. Specification A 142-35T 
Scope 

1. These specifications cover cast iron pipe intended for use in the construction 
of culverts. 

Classes 

2. These specifications cover three classes of pipe: namely, Standard Cast Iron 
Culvert Pipe; Heavy Cast Iron Culvert Pipe, and Extra-Heavy Cast Iron Culvert Pipe. 

Type of Pipe 

(3) (a) Each length of pipe shall be cast as a unit and shall have a full circular 
cross-section with outside and inside circumferences concentric. Unless otherwise speci- 
fied, the pipe may be smooth, corrugated or ribbed. 

(b) The pipe shall be provided with suitable device>, such as hub ends or 
interlocking ends, to prevent displacement at joints. 



168 Roadway 

MANUFACTURE 
Material 

4. The pipe shiall be manufactured of cast iron of good quality and of such char- 
acter as shall make the metal of the castings strong, tough and of even grain, and soft 
enough to admit satisfactorily of drilling and cutting. The metal shall be made with- 
out any admixture of cinder iron or other inferior metal, and shall be remelted in a 
cupola, air-furnace, or electric furnace. 

Casting 

5. Pipe may be cast either vertically or horizontally in dry or green-sand molds 
or by centrifugal processes. 

Coating 

6. (a) All pipe shall be completely coated inside and out by immersion in coal-tar 
pitch varnish to which sufficient oil shall have been added to make a smooth coating, 
tough and tenacious when cold, and not tacky nor brittle nor with any tendency to 
scale off. 

(b) Prior to dipping, the pipe shall be thoroughly cleaned of rust, loose scale, 
grease and dirt. 

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND TESTS 
Chemical Composition 

7. (a) The iron shall conform to the following ladle analysis requirements as to 
chemical composition: 

Phosphorus, maximum, per cent 0.90 

Sulfur, maximum, per cent 0.12 

(b) The metal in the barrel of the finished pipe shall contain not more than 
0.90 per cent of combined carbon. The test sample for the determination of combined 
carbon shall be composed of drillings representative of the full thickness of the pipe 
barrel. 

(c) The manufacturer shall maintain a daily record of chemical analyses, and 
the portions of this record which concern pipe ordered by a purchaser shall be open to 
the inspection of the purchaser at all times. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND TESTS 

Strength Requirements 

8. (a) The pipe shall not fail and shall develop no cracks when tested under 
the following loads by the three-edge-bearing method: 

Load, Lb. Per Foot 
Class of Pipe of Laying Length 

Standard pipe 2000D 

Heavy pipe 3000Z) 

Extra-heavy pipe 4000D 

Note. — D z= nominal inside diameter of pipe in feet. 

(b) Pipe specimens tested for strength shall not be tested to destruction if they 
will sustain, without cracking, a load 10 per cent in excess of the specified load. If the 
purchaser desires tests to destruction he shall specify on the order the number of such 
tests which will be required. 



I 



Roadway l^ 

Three-Edge- Bearing Method 

9. (a) Smooth Pipe. — The lower bearing for the pipe shall consist of two wooden 
strips with vertical sides having their interior top corners rounded to a radius of ap- 
proximately y^ in. The strips shall be straight and shall be securely fastened to a rigid 
block with the interior vertical faces spaced at a distance apart not less than J/2 in. 
nor more than 1 in. for each foot of nominal pipe diameter, with a minimum spacing 
of 1 in. for any size of pipe. The upper bearing shall be a rigid wooden block, straight 
and true from end to end. The upper and lower bearings shall extend the full length 
of the outside of the barrel of the pipe exclusive of the bell, if any. The pipe shall be 
placed symmetrically between the two bearings and the center of the application of 
load shall be at the center of the length of pipe, as illustrated in Fig. 1 and 2. In test- 
ing pip)e which is "out of line" the lines of the bearings chosen shall be from those 
which appear to give the most favorable conditions for fair test. In testing pipe, the 
specimen shall be placed so that the upper bearing will be along the thinnest element. 

(b) Corrugated or Ribbed Pipe. — For corrugated or ribbed pipe the require- 
ments for the three-edge-bearing method shall be the same as described in Paragraph (a) 
for smooth pipe. In the case of corrugated pipe, the bearing blocks shall be placed in 
contact with the outside crests of the corrugations. In the case of ribbed pipe, the bear- 
ing blocks shall be placed in contact with the tops of the transverse ribs. If the ribbed 
pipe has longitudinal ribs, the pipe shall be placed so that the bearing blocks will be, 
as nearly as possible, midway between the longitudinal ribs. 

Testing Apparatus 

10. Any mechanically driven or hand-power device, which meets the following 
requirements, may be used: 

(a) It shall be substantially built and rigid throughout so that the distribution 
of the load to the specimen will not be affected appreciably by the deformation or yield- 
ing of any part. 

(b) It shall provide for an approximately continuous application of load by means 
of a head which, during the test, moves at an approximately uniform rate not to 
exceed : 

0.05 in. per minute for pipe less than 24 in. in diameter 
0.10 in. per minute for pipe 24 to 36 in. in diameter 
0.20 in. per minute for pipe more than 36 in. in diameter 

(c) It shall provide means for the determination of load with an error not greater 
than 2 per cent. 

Number of Tests 

11. The purchaser may require strength tests in such numbers as he may deem 
necessary, provided that if the pipe meets the requirements as to shell thickness and 
weight, the number of specimens tested shall not exceed three pipe or S per cent, which- 
ever may be larger, of each size and class ordered. In placing an order the purchaser 
shall specify the number of strength tests which will be required. 

Selection of Test Specimens 

12. All pipe for purpose of tests shall be selected at random by the purchaser from 
the stock of the manufacturer, or from the pipe as delivered to the work, and shall 
be pipe which would not otherwise be rejected under these specifications. 



170 



Roadway 



Length of Test Specimens 

13. The laying length of test specimens of pipe shall be not less than 3 nor more 
than 4 ft. If the manufacturer proposes to furnish, for use in the work, pipe having 
a length greater than 4 ft., he shall furnish for the required tests a sufficient number 
of test specimens of the required length. 

Testing and Disposal of Test Specimens 

14. Pipe specimens shall be tested under a load 10 per cent in excess of the load 
specified for the particular class of pipe. Shipments represented by specimens which 
sustain the specified load without the development of cracks shall be accepted as ful- 
filling the strength requirements. Specimens of pipe which meet all other requirements 
of the specifications and which sustain a load 10 per cent in excess of that specified 
without the development of cracks shall be accepted for use. The cost of specimens 
which fail to sustain the specified load, or a load 10 per cent in excess of that specified, 
shall be borne by the manufacturer. 

Note. — It is recommended that a test specimen which has been accepted for use 
be marked with a suitable identification symbol and be installed in the culvert structure 
in such location as will subject it to the least severe loading. 

Retests 

15. Pipe shall be acceptable under the strength tests when all test specimens fulfill 
the strength test requirements. Should any pipe fail to meet the test requirements, 
then the manufacturer will be allowed a retest on two similar specimens for each 
specimen that failed, and the pipe shall be acceptable only when all of these retest 
specimens fulfill the test requirements. No further retests shall be permitted. 



SIZES, WEIGHTS AND PERMISSIBLE VARIATIONS 
Diameter 

16. (a) The minimum nominal diameter of pipe shall be 12 in. 

(b) The minimum inside diameter of any pipe shall be not less than the 
nominal diameter by more than % in. 

Table I. — Dimensions and Weights of Smooth Cast Iron Culvert Pipe 





Standard Pipe 
(2000D) 


Heavy Pipe 
(3000D) 


Extra-Heavy Pipe 
(4000D) 


Nominal 
Diameter, in. 


Nominal 

Thickness, 

in. 


Nominal 
Weight per 

Foot of 
Barrel, Ib.^ 


Nominal 

Thickness, 

in. 


Nominal 
Weight per 

Foot of 
Barrel, Ib.^ 


Nominal 

Thickness, 

in. 


Nominal 
Weight per 

Foot of 
Barrel, Ib^ 


12 


0.37 
0.37 
0.40 
0.42 
0.47 
0.56 
0.70 
0.84 
0.98 
1,12 


45 

52 

64 

76 

94 

135 

211 

304 

414 

540 


0.37 
0.40 
0.46 
0.52 
0.57 
0.69 
0.86 
1.03 
1.20 
1.38 


45 
57 
74 
95 

lis 

167 
261 
374 
509 
669 


0.40 
0.46 
0.53 
0.60 
0.66 
0.80 
1.00 
1.20 
1.40 
1.60 


49 


14 


65 


16 


86 


18 


110 


20 


134 


24 


195 


30 


304 


36 


438 


42 


597 


48 


779 



• All weight values are per foot of barrel exclusive of hub. 



Roadway 



171 



-K, 





/ \ 




Lower 
bearing 

^At least G"x6 

Fig. 1. — Three-Edge Bearings for Pipe with Bell End. 




—^i-i— 



'^ ^ ^ >v: 



\ 




At Least G xG' 

Fig. 2.— Three-Edge Bearings for Pipe Without Bell End. 



172 R o a d w a y 



Table II. — Dimensions and Weights of Corrugated Cast Iron Culvert 
Pipe and Ribbed Cast Iron Culvert Pipe 

Standard Pipe (2000D) 
Nominal 
Weight per 
Nominal Nominal Foot of 

Diameter, in. Thickness, in. Barrel, lb. 

15 0.2S 45 

18 0.25 SO 

24 0.31 85 

30 0.38 125 

36 0.44 165 

Length 

17. Unless otherwise specified, pipe shall have a minimum laying length of 3 ft. 

Dimensions and Weight 

18. (a) The shell thickness and the weights per linear foot for pipe of the various 
classes shall conform to the requirements given in Tables I and II. 

(b) The shell thickness at any point shaU be not more than IS per cent under 
the thickness specified in Tables I and II. 

(c) The weight of any section of pipe shall be not more than 5 per cent under 
the weight specified in Tables I and II. 

Waiver of Strength Tests 

19. After the strength, shell thickness and weight of pipe of a particular class and 
size furnished by the manufacturer has been established by tests, the purchaser may elect 
to waive further strength tests and to accept pipe of that particular class, size and manu- 
facture on the basis of the shell thickness and weight thus established, subject to the 
tolerances specified in Section 18 (b) and (c). Under these conditions the acceptability 
of the larger sizes of pipe shall not be based on the results of strength tests on 
smaller sizes. 

WORKMANSHIP AND FINISH 
Character of Castings 

20. (a) Pipe shall be practically straight and of true circular cross-section. They 
shall be sound, smooth and free from cracks, scales, lumps, blisters, sand holes, "cold 
shuts," or other defects which would render them unfit for the use intended. 

(b) All pipe shall be carefully examined for defects and sounded with a ham- 
mer before shipment. No fillings with metal, cement or other material, or so-called 
"burning on" of iron wall be permitted. 

WEIGHING AND MARKING 
Weighing 

21. If required by the purchaser, each pipe shall be weighed and, after coating, the 
weight plainly marked thereon with white paint. 

Marking 

22. The brand of the manufacturer shall be legibly stamped-in or cast or stencilled 
on the metal of each pipe. 



_^____ Roadway ^^3 

INSPECTION AND REJECTION 
Inspection 

23. (a) The inspector representing the purchaser shall have free entry, at all 
times while work on the contract of the purchaser is being performed, to all parts of 
the manufacturer's works which concern the manufacture of the pipe ordered. The 
manufacturer shall afford the inspector, without charge, all reasonable facilities including 
labor to satisfy him that the pipe are being furnished in accordance with these specifica- 
tions. All tests and inspections shall, if possible, be made at the place of manufacture 
prior to shipment and shall be so conducted as not to interfere unnecessarily with the 
operation of the works. 

(b) The purchaser reserves the right, if deemed necessary, to inspect and test 
the pipe after delivery on the work. 

Rejection 

24. (a) All pipes which fail to conform to any of the provisions of these 
specifications shall be subject to rejection. 

(b) Pipes which show injurious defects subsequent to their acceptance at the 
manufacturer's works will be rejected, and the manufacturer shall be notified promptly. 

Appendix C 

(5) ROADWAY DRAINAGE 

H. M. Swope, Chairman, Sub-Committee; L. L. Adams, L. J. Drumeller, J. A. Given, 
Harold W. Legro, M. C. Patton, W. C. Pruett, J. B. Trenholm. 

The section on Roadway Drainage in Chapter 1 of the Manual is the outcome 
of an emphatic request from the floor of the convention. It covers a subject most 
important to the maintenance man. The Committee, having completed the subject for 
the Manual, is now studying the adherence to this recommended practice and progress in 
the science and art of roadway drainage. A number of Class I railways have been con- 
tacted for such information, with the thought that such contact would accomplish some- 
thing towards further "selling" of proper roadway drainage to the railways. The 
Committee urges maintenance men on every railway to study these recommended prac- 
tices and solicits criticisms and suggestions concerning them and any information as to 
new developments in roadway drainage. 

Appendix D 

(6) ROADWAY PROTECTION, PARTICULARLY CONCRETE 
SLAB ROADBED 

Geo. S. Fanning, Chairman, Sub-Committee; J. B. Akers, E. J. Beugler, G. H. Burnette, 
Paul Chipman, F. W. Hillman, D. A. Hultgren, H. T. Livingston, A. W. White. 

History 

The use of concrete slabs on the roadbed has been previously considered by com- 
mittees of AREA at various times since 1920 as follows: 

1920. Committee II— Ballast (Proceedings, Vol. 21, p. 447) described a number of 
concrete slab installations on American railroads. 

1927. Committee I— Roadway (Proceedings, Vol. 28, p. 8S2) reviewed the existing 
published matter on the subject. In particular an abstract of a paper read before the 



174 Roadway 

American Concrete Institute in 1919 and published by the Portland Cement Association 
was reprinted. In this paper are described a number of installations of what were 
intended to be more or less "permanent" roadbeds. These installations were followed 
up by the Committee and reports obtained from the railroads upon which they were 
located as to costs of installation and maintenance, condition, advantages and disad- 
vantages, etc. 

In succeeding years, the Committee continued to report on these and other installa- 
tions which came to its attention, obtaining the data from the interested railroads and 
by inspection: 

1928, Vol. 29, p. 548; 

1929, Vol. 30, p. 216; 

1930, Vol. 31, p. 601; 

1931, Vol. 32, p. 175; 

1932, Vol. 33, p. 310. 

The subject was then discontinued for a time pending results from longer service 
of the various installations on record. 

In the present report the record of these installations will be reviewed and brought 
up to date and such conclusions as may be fairly drawn will be stated. 

Analysis 

The foremost material of construction considered in designs of "permanent" road- 
beds has been reinforced concrete. Designs vary with the theories of the desirability 
of more or less resiliency to that of absolute rigidity in the track structure. 

(A) The type of construction which preserves the resiliency of ordinary track con- 
struction while attempting to correct the faults of an unstable roadbed consists of a 
concrete slab cast on the roadbed, upon which ordinary ballasted track is constructed. 
Reported examples of this type are the following: 

1. 1909. New York Central Railroad at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 15 in. reinforced 
concrete slab constructed over soft spots at cost of $6.70 to $9.30 per linear foot of 
single track. 

2. 1909. New York Central Railroad at Staatsburg, N. t. Timber piles and deck- 
ing were constructed to carry two tracks and a 12 in. reinforced concrete slab to carry 
two other tracks both over soft spots. Timber construction is reported to have cost 
$15.50 per linear foot of single track, the concrete slab $6.70 to $9.30. 

No maintenance has been required to date (July 14, 1936) on either of these New 
York Central slab installations. They have served their purpose extremely well. (See 
Proceedings, Vol. 21, p. 451; Vol. 29, p. 449). 

3. New York Connecting Railroad — 6 in. reinforced concrete slab across Juniper 
Swamp. Requires less maintenance than adjacent track with no slab, where the main- 
tenance is excessive and swamp clay works up through cinder ballast. (Proceedings, 
Vol. 21, p. 459). 

4. 1912-13. Long Island Railroad at Jamaica, N. Y. under 7300 feet of stone 
ballasted track, — crossings, switches and slips, — over which 700 trains operate daily. 
8 in. plain concrete slab cast on 21 ft. sandy gravel fill on a layer of loam overlying 
sand and gravel. This concrete slab cost $1.00 per linear ft. of single track, — a low cost 
because there was cheap excellent gravel at hand. The concrete has in no way cracked 
or broken in a sufficient degree to interfere with service. In 1924 there was a cave-in 
under one slab, which, however, held ballast and track intact. To 1916 there was prac- 
tically no maintenance on these tracks, and very little to 1919 (7 years), no renewal 
of frogs and only 2 switch points, no creeping of the locking devices; to 1925 there was 



Roadway 175 

no maintenance of track other than the renewal of worn out track parts and a small 
amount of surfacing; and in 1936 the Chief Engineer Maintenance of Way reports 
"There have been no changes in conditions of slabs, roadbed and tracks." (Proceedings, 
Vol. 21, p. 448; Vol. 28, p. 863). 

5. 1914. Long Island Railroad on the Woodside-Winfield Cut-off under 1500 feet 
of stone ballasted track behind bridge abutments over which 450 trains operate daily. 
8 in. plain concrete slab cast on 20 ft. sand and gravel fill over 4 or 5 ft. of soft ground. 
Situation as to condition and maintenance similar to installation described next above. 
(Proceedings, Vol. 21, p. 448; Vol. 28, p. 909). 

6. 1916. Long Island Railroad at Bay Ridge under stone ballasted slips and 
crossovers at heel of float-bridges just back of river bulkhead. 8 in. plain concrete slab 
cast over old crib work and rip-rap and silt fill. Situation as to condition and main- 
tenance as above. (Proceedings, Vol. 21, p. 451; Vol, 28, p. 909). 

7. 1920. Chicago Union Station — 21 miles of stone ballasted approach tracks. 
10 in. reinforced concrete slab cast on saturated blue clay at or below level of Chicago 
River. Cost $3.30 to $4.30 per linear foot of single track. To 1923, track maintenance 
was remarkably low — only occasional tightening of bolts, no tamping or additional 
ballast. Less than one quarter of that for track without slab and with less special 
work. (Proceedings, Vol. 25, p. 104). 

1936. In locations where, because of the tracks being so close to river level, proper 
drainage of the clay sub-soil is impracticable, there is a pumping of liquid clay up 
through cracks and expansion joints of the slabs and a resultant settlement of the slab. 
But without the slab, more severe pumping would occur over the entire track area, 
making it almost impossible to maintain safe track in a slip switch area. Concrete track 
slabs are an absolute necessity under such conditions. 

(B) A type of construction which preserves some of the resiliency of the track and 
at the same time eliminates the expense of ballast renewals and, if successful, the cost 
of lining and surfacing track consists of a concrete slab with embedded timber blocks 
which carry the rails. Reported examples of this type are the following: 

1. 1908-10. Michigan Central Railroad Detroit River Tunnel. 3.2 miles of track. 
Yellow pine blocks embedded in concrete. The track design seems suitable and continues 
to serve its purpose. The short soft wood ties absorb enough moisture to keep them 
tight. To 1919, tie renewals had been only on account of mechanical injury by derail- 
ment or because of splitting due to creeping joints. 

In 1928, 70 per cent of the original ties were still in place; in 1936 about 55 per 
cent. Untreated pine is still used for renewals; the organisms that induce decay do not 
seem to exist in the tunnel. 

The maintenance cost compares favorably with that of standard ballasted track. 
The rail wears somewhat faster, due in part to heavy grade and traffic. The original 
100-lb. raQ was replaced by lOS-lb. and later by 127-lb. rail. Rail renewals are required 
every 4 or 5 years as compared with 8 or 9 years outside of the tunnel. (Proceedings, 
Vol. 21, p. 461; Vol. 29, p. 551; Vol. 30, p. 219). 

2. 1909. Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. Second Bergen Hill Tun- 
nel. 4280 feet of reinforced concrete slabs with embedded creosoted wood blocks under 
each rail. Cost $6.59 per linear foot of track. To 1916 this construction stood up well; 
but in 1925 because of failure of the concrete, probably due to ground water conditions, 
was removed and replaced with standard stone-ballasted construction. Up to time of 
failure of concrete, maintenance cost on track was low. Rail did not last any longer 
than in ballasted track and occasionally developed battered joints. (Proceedings, Vol. 21, 
p. 462; Vol. 28, p. 864; Vol. 30, p. 220). 



176 Roadway 

3. 1909. Pennsylvania Railroad Terminal Station, New York. 15,000 feet of 
concrete slab with embedded red oak blocks. (Proceedings, Vol. 21, p. 458; Vol. 28, 
p. 864). 

4. 1911. Chicago Junction Railway. 654 ft. test section of concrete slab with 
embedded tie blocks (Evans patent). To 1919, this installation had not suffered from 
heavy traffic, with no maintenance except renewal of few tie blocks. In 1921 it became 
necessary to renew tie blocks, a very expensive operation. Subsequent to 1921 it became 
difficult to hold track in good surface. In 1928 a portion was removed and replaced 
with standard construction, partly because of construction of crossover, but also due 
to expense of maintenance. (Proceedings, Vol. 21, p. 462; Vol. 28, p. 866; Vol. 30, 
p. 220; Vol. 33, p. 311). 

5. 1914. Northern Pacific RaUroad, near Nicqually, 7 miles south of Tacoma. 
Experimental installation in well-drained gravel cut. Concrete slabs supported on ballast, 
and containing grooves or troughs for reception of stringers or blocks supporting rail. 

Type I. 594 feet. Short tie blocks on 2 longitudinal timbers in bottom of trough 
in concrete; space between blocks filled with ballast. Cost $8.60 per linear foot of 
single track. Line and surface was good for six years; then became rough. In 1924 the 
maintenance cost was three times that of adjacent ballasted track. Timber required 
renewal. In 1929 required considerable attention, periodic renewal of short ties, shim- 
ming for line and surface, drainage. 

Type II. 594 feet. Concrete curb outside each rail, tie blocks on sand cushion 
(later replaced with asphalt mastic). Cost $10.65 per linear foot of single track. Line 
and surface good for 3 years. Then trouble was experienced. In 1919 renewed asphalt 
cushion, tie sills and blocks. In a short time asphalt cushion worked up, resulting in 
poor line an<l surface. In 1921 the asphalt cushion was removed, depth of tie sills 
increased, tie blocks renewed, and tie pockets sealed. In 1924 maintenance was almost 
eight times that of adjacent ballasted track. In 1929 maintenance was 3J/2 times that 
of Type I. 

Type III. 810 feet. Concrete curb inside each rail, drainage to center, rail on 
longitudinal timber fastened to anchor blocks in concrete. Cost $7.00 per Unear foot 
of single track. Line and surface good for 6 years, then became rough due to creosoted 
sills crushing and splitting, augmented by moisture collected in recesses. In 1922 the 
siUs were renewed and sealed. In 1924 maintenance was nearly five times that of ad- 
jacent ballasted track. In 1929 the maintenance was twice that of Type I. 

No information available since 1929. 

(Proceedings, Vol. 21, p. 459; Vol. 28, p. 908; Vol. 29, p. 551). 

6. 1916. New York Rapid Transit Co. New York Subways. Plain concrete slab 
with embedded creosoted blocks. Originally used at stations and in river tunnels, where 
it proved so satisfactory that (1929) its use has been greatly extended for new City 
Subway System. In 1931, in service about 15 years requiring nothing but raU renewals. 
Annual maintenance cost $0.54 per linear foot of track in comparison with $0.83 for 
ordinary ballasted type. 

(Proceedings, Vol. 31, p. 605; Vol. 33, p. 311). 

7. 1920. Chicago Union Station, Station tracks. 10 in. concrete slab carrying 
creosoted wood blocks. On saturated blue clay at or below level of Chicago River. 
Cost $4.00 to $5.10 per linear foot of single track. In 1927 there was some settlement 
of the slabs directly supporting rails, mud being forced up through joints, corrected by 
grouting with air pressure. 

(Proceedings, Vol. 25, p. 104; Vol. 30, p. 221). 



Roadway 177 

8. 1928. Lehigh Valley R. R. Musconetcong Mountain Tunnel, New Jersey. 
9787 feet. Reinforced concrete slab with embedded creosoted oak blocks. To date 
(1936) line, surface and drainage remain satisfactory; the maintenance cost has been 
negligible. 

(Proceedings, Vol. 33, p. 310). 

(C) The ultimate type of concrete slab roadbed is one which eliminates all track 
maintenance costs except the renewal of rail due to normal wear. This the Pere Mar- 
quette has attempted to get in their experimental installations at Beech, Mich. 

1st Installation December 19, 1926. 1326 feet. Structural-steel-reinforced con- 
crete slab with rail resting directly on the concrete, except for insulating fibre under 
north rail. 

1927. No concrete failure. Line is not very good owing to difficulty of aligning 
bolt holes for rail clips; requires an adjustable fastening. Surface is fair; part of the 
roughness probably due to insulating pads. Insulation under rail crushed and squeezed 
out, allowing both rails to bear directly on the concrete, resulting in some signal failures 
in wet weather. Expansion was lost at 80 deg. ; a creeping tendency was noted. 

1928. There was some vertical movement of non-insulated rail under traffic; a few 
clip bolts were broken, but easily replaced; there was some spalling of concrete at joints 
due to expansion. (Uniform settlement was previously reported in error; bench mark 
had been raised). 

1929. Condition was practically same as last year; no unequal settlement; no dis- 
integration 01 concrete under rail; rails show no more than normal wear. 

1930. No change in condition of roadbed. South rail, which rested directly on 
the concrete was changed out July 11, 1930. Track was getting rough from battered 
joints near east end. Traffic pushes rail west, opening east end joints. 90-lb. rail new in 
1926 was taken out and replaced by selected relayer rail. 

1931. Rail batter was more noticeable than on ballasted track. In April, 1931, 40 
joints out of total of 68 were built up by oxy-acetylene process. 

1932. 273 feet of 90-lb rail replaced. 

1933. 78 feet of 90-lb. rail replaced. In September rail joints on west half were 
butt welded by oxy-acetylene process. 

1934. 312 feet of 90-lb. rail replaced which were not butt welded and battered 
ends built up by welding. 

1936. No change in condition of roadbed. 1287 feet of 90-lb. rail replaced, being 
most of section not butt welded. Excessive batter of rail joints was repaired by butt 
welding. No abnormal wear on the butt welded section. Remainder will be butt 
welded this fall. 

Maintenance cost (exclusive of cost of rail) to July '28, $18.22; Aug. '28 to July 
'29, $43.32; Aug. '29 to July '30, $306.08; Aug. '30 to July '31, $112.00; Aug. '31 to 
July '32, $80.79; Aug. '32 to July '33, $108.41; Aug. '33 to July '34, $262.79; Aug. '34 
to July '35, $196.27; Aug. '35 to July '36, $214.79. Total, 9J^ years $1342.67 plus 3000 
feet rail, $900, Grand total $2243, averaging about $940 per mile per year. 

2nd Installation, September 1929, 390 feet. 6-in. bar-reinforced concrete plat- 
form and concrete girders supporting rails, with a ^-in. board longitudinally under 
each rail. Improved adjustable fastenings. Cost per linear foot of single track, $7 to $8 
on a production basis. 

1930. No change in condition except two joints spalling. New rail seat and fasten- 
ings satisfactory. Board under rail showed no indication of wear. No creeping and 
very little batter of rail. 



178 Roadway 

1931. Three joints spalling. No settlement. No abnormal batter. Line and sur- 
face unchanged. Track rides very smoothly. 

1932. No change in condition of roadbed. 

1933. In September rail joints on east half were butt welded by oxy-acetylene 
process. 

1934. In October about one-half of the pine boards under the rails were replaced 
with oak boards. 

1936. No change in condition of roadbed. 

Maintenance Cost — to July '31, tightening bolts, $6.73; Aug. '31 to July '32, tighten- 
ing and oiling bolts, $9.70; Aug. '32 to July '33, tightening bolts, $7.88, lining rail, 
$20.26; Aug. '33 to July '34, nil; Aug. '34 to July '35, changing boards, $15.42, tighten- 
ing bolts, $6.08, lining rail, $19.85; Aug. '35 to July '36, lining rail, $9.15; grand total 
for 6^ years, $95, averaging about $191 per mile per year. 

(Proceedings, Vol. 28, p. 873; Vol. 29, p. 551; Vol. 30, p. 216; Vol. 31, p. 601; 
Vol. 32, p. 176; Vol. 33, p. 312). 

Conclusions 
601. Roadbed Protection 

The protection of the roadbed from deformation caused by increasing track loads 
has been effected by the use of concrete slabs. Designs vary with the theories of the 
desirability of more or less resiliency or of absolute rigidity of the track structure. 

(A) The type of construction which preserves the resiliency of ordlhary ballasted 
track while attempting to correct the faults of an unstable roadbed consists of a con- 
crete slab, plain or reinforced as the foundation conditions require, cast directly on the 
roadbed upon which ordinary ballasted track is constructed. Such construction greatly 
increases the bearing power of natural ground, supplies a continuity of bearing, prevents 
settlement back of bridge abutments and at soft spots, eliminates vibration and waving 
of track over saturated ground, and reduces the pounding of frogs and crossings. The 
use of this construction is recommended for heavy traffic track, particularly at stations, 
yards, turnouts and crossings, and at soft spots and elsewhere where maintenance 
costs are unusually excessive. Obviously it does not eliminate maintenance costs arising 
in connection with the renewal of ties and ballast, nor all costs for lining and surfacing 
track. 

(B) A type of construction which preserves some of the resiliency of the track and 
at the same time eliminates the expense of ballast cleaning and renewals and, if suc- 
cessful, the cost of lining and surfacing track consists of a concrete slab with embedded 
timber blocks which carry the rails. Any disturbance of the soil under this type of 
concrete slab construction, due either to shrinkage of the ground, saturation, or heaving 
from frost, is disastrous to line and surface; an absolutely stable foundation seems essen- 
tial. Another objection arises from the difficulty of making changes in the track such 
as the introduction or removal of turnouts and the impossibihty of changing its line 
or grade; permanency of location is a prerequisite of a permanent roadbed. For these 
reasons, this type of construction has been successfully used only in great terminal sta- 
tions, tunnels, and subways. For such locations it has the following advantages: (1) 
more satisfactory drainage, the center drain trough between tie blocks eliminates many 
under-drains ; (2) better riding qualities due to permanency of alinement and grade, 
with resulting favorable effect on equipment; (3) better maintenance conditions; the 
frequency of train movements makes maintenance of ballasted track difficult and very 
expensive; (4) better sanitation, easily kept clean; (5) increased safety by reducing to 
a minimum number of workmen required to maintain track; (6) economy of main- 



I 



Roadway 17? 

tenance, requiring only the renewal of rail and tie blocks. Consideration must be given, 
however, to the possible effect of ground waters on the concrete. 

(C) The ultimate type of concrete roadbed is one which eliminates all track main- 
tenance costs except the renewal of rail due to normal wear. This would require the 
rails to rest directly on the concrete. However, the experimental installations on the 
Pere Marquette at Beech, Michigan, indicate that rapid battering of the rail at the joints 
will result unless some cushioning material (such as an oak plank) is placed under the 
rail, or unless the joints are butt-welded. The cost of construction of this type of road- 
bed makes its use prohibitive except at locations where the cost of maintaining ordinary 
track is unusually high, such as at great terminals and in tunnels and subways. 

In constructing tunnels and subways, the continuous support of the rail on a cush- 
ioning plank instead of ballast and ties involves less construction expense, saves head 
room and, especially when combined with butt-welding of rail joints, offers the possi- 
bility of reducing track maintenance to a minimum. 

The conclusions are submitted for publication in the Manual. 

Appendix E 
(9) SIGNS, PARTICULARLY ROADWAY SIGNS REQUIRED 

E. R. Lewis, Chairman, Sub -Committee; F. W. Alexander, H. F. Brown, G. H. Bumette, 
L. J. Drumeller, J. A. Noble, P. T. Simons, E. M. Smith. 

Definitions 

Roadway, Right-of-Way, The permanent way: The land devoted to railway 

purposes. 
Roadway Sign: Any marker displayed on the right-of-way for the instruction of 

employees or for the information of others. 

901. Roadway signs required 

"Roadway signs required", is interpreted to mean the minimum number and 
classes of signs actually necessary for the proper operation of a line of railway. From 
this minimum requirement a multiplicity of signs of all manner of purpose and design 
has grown up on individual railroads, with little semblance of uniformity of treatment 
or economy. Any feasible eliminations would tend toward efficiency and economy. 

A. — ^Property 

(a) Land monuments. Of the markers required probably none are more neces- 
sary, nor more commonly not installed than land monuments. 

(b) "No Trespass" signs are warnings employed where trespass is dangerous or 
undesirable; they are required by law in some states before prosecution can be had for 
trespassing. 

B. — Location 

(a) Mileage indications afford a ready method of identification and reference to 
localities. Posts, signs and stakes preferably are of permanent construction. 

(b) Alinement markers similarly define correct positions of tangents, easement 
spirals and curves, 

(c) Grade markers indicate elevations and super-elevations required. 

(d) Political subdivision signs are set at intersections of the railway with state, 
county and municipal boundarj' lines. 



180 Roadway 

C. — Maintenance of Way 

(a) Maintenance limits markers define the ends of track maintenance by the rail- 
way or industry and interchange tracks. 

(b) Section limits. Section foremen's territories are marked usually by posts or 
signs bearing the numbers of the sections. 

(c) Snow plow markers, including flanger signs, are erected in advance of and to 
indicate obstructions to snow equipment. The flanger sign warns the operator to lift 
the flangers, while the wing marker indicates that the snow plow wing must be closed 
because of close horizontal clearance, such as freight platforms. Both indications, if 
required, should preferably appear on one sign. 

D . — Transportation 

(a) Speed control signs include all reduced speed, slow, and resume speed signs. 

(b) Whistle posts commonly are placed in advance of grade crossings, stations, 
railroad crossings and in other locations where locomotive whistles are required to be 
sounded. 

(c) Location markers. Hazards and locations such as railroad crossing, yard limit, 
drawbridge, are marked by advance warning signs. 

E. — Safety 

(a) Clearance markers are employed at points of close clearance of fixed structures, 
either narrow or low. 

(b) Fire risk signs warn of inflammable material storage, etc. 

902. Principles of design and rules for use 

A. — Distinguishing shapes of signs make recognition possible from distances too great 
to decipher legends on the signs. 

B. — Dimensions of signs may be diversified as are shapes, within limits determined 
by the legend. 

C. — Ground, the body of the sign, is best in sharpest contrast with the lettering. 
Black letters on white ground shows best against the greens and browns of foliage and 
earth. With a white background, such as snow, the post as well as the sign should be 
dark, preferably black, with white or perforated characters. 

D. — Legends on signs preferably are short, consisting of characters that are as 
large, as plain, and as widely spaced as necessary for legibility at the required distance. 
Care should be observed to diversify, as well as to minimize the characters on signs of 
similar classes and forms. Dark colors, preferably black, are recommended for the char- 
acters of legends. Proper spacing of characters is best determined by field tests. Bold 
stroked block letters are preferable. 

E. — Placement includes erection in a chosen or prescribed location of the sign, post 
and artificial base if any. 

Supports for signs commonly are posts tamped solidly in ground, frequently solidified 
by means of rammed stones, or set in plain concrete. In soft earth, cleats of wood or 
metal projections fastened on the side at or near the butt will tend to prevent vertical 
displacement. ■ 

Backgrounds behind signs merit consideration. Topography may serve to improve 
background. Signs are made to be seen and must be prominently displayed to be most 
effective. 



Roadway 181_ 

903. Economy of various materials 
A.— Wood 

(a) Untreated wood has been the common material for roadway signs since the 
inception of railroad operation. Comparatively low first cost, ready workability, light 
weight and plentiful supply are advantages. Wood is not easily damaged in transporta- 
tion, takes paint well and serves the purpose for which many signs are required. On 
the other hand, it must be repainted frequently, is subject to decay, especially near the 
ground line and offers only medium resistance to wear. 

(b) Chemically treated wood is much more lasting at small increase in first cost. 
While creosoted wood will not take oil paints well, carbonated zinc chloride treated wood 
will take paint and is coming into favor in the building industry. 

B. — Metal 

(a) Scrap rail is largely used for property posts, sign posts, markers, etc. This 
material involves little, if any, out-of-pocket expense to the railroad. It has enough cross- 
sectional area to stand solidly in fair ground when well placed in good earth, is stable 
in a concrete base and comparatively permanent. Low scrap value offsets the extrava- 
gance of weight and section while availability is an added advantage. 

(b) Scrap boiler tubes are of doubtful value as posts. The tubular section is 
unsuited to the purpose because of tendency to sweat and corrode. Artificial bases 
usually are required. 

(c) Scrap plate for sign boards is in rather common use. Little out-of-pocket 
expense is involved. 

(d) Sheet steel signs are frequently specified, usually bought furnished with special 
fastenings, sometimes painted or porcelain-enameled ready for placement. 

(e) Cast iron signs with raised letters are used on a few railroads. While ap- 
proaching permanency, first cost is high and a break usually means replacement. 

(f) Aluminum with sarid blast finish is used for flexible setting as on telegraph 
poles, to good advantage. They are rust resistant. 

C. — Concrete 

(a) Plain concrete is the recommended sign post base material. 

(b) Reinforced concrete is a modem sign and post material, though it is not al- 
together suitable for members of restricted cross-section, because water is likely to 
contact reinforcement steel and cause deterioration and ultimate failure. Concrete weighs 
three times as much as wood and is more likely to be injured in handling. An advantage 
of concrete is the minimum of painting required. Concrete takes the tint of the sand 
in the fine aggregate. White sand is preferable for visibility. 

D. — Paint 

Oil paints are most commonly employed. Enamel lasts longer unless misused when 
it cracks or breaks. Raised letters are readily repainted. Spare signs are commonly used 
for replacements while the sign removed is repaired and repainted in the shop. Field 
repainting in some instances is comparatively expensive. Local conditions will govern. 

The Committee submits the above notes on roadway signs required, principles of 
design and rules for use, and economy of various materials as information and as a 
basis of its further study of the design of signs, with an earnest request for constructive 
criticism and suggestions from interested members. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE VII— WOOD BRIDGES 
AND TRESTLES 

H. AusTiLL, Chairman; C. S. Johnson, F. H. Cramer, Vtce- 

H. M. Church, W. D. Keeney, Chairman; 

C. E. Close, J. A. Newun, W. R. Roof, 

G. M. Cornell, W. H. O'Brien, W. J. Ryan, 

G. S. Crites, W. a. Oliver, D. W. Smith, 

S. F. Grear, W. L. Peoples, L. W. Smith, 

R. P. Hart, G. W. Rear, G. L. Staley, 

W. E. Hawley, Arthur Ridgway, A. T. Upson, 

C. J. HoGUE, H. T. Rights, W. R. Wilson, 

Committee. 
To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual. — Progress in study — no report. 

(2) Simplification of grading rules and classification of timber for rjiilway uses, 
collaborating with other organizations interested. — Progress in study — no report. 

(3) Overhead wood or combination wood and metal highway bridges, collaborating 
with Committee XV — Iron and Steel Structures. — Progress in study — no report. 

(4) Design of wood trestles for heavy loadings (Appendix A). Progress report, 
with recommended plans for publication in the Manual. 

(5) Bearing power of wood piles, with recommendation as to methods of deter- 
mination, collaborating with Committee VIII — Masonry (Appendix B). Progress report. 

(6) Recommended relationships between the energy of hammer and the weight or 
mass of pile for proper pile driving, to include concrete piles, collaborating with Com- 
mittee VIII — Masonry (Appendix C). Progress report. 

(7) Improved design of timber structures to give longer hfe with lower cost of 
maintenance. — Progress in study — no report. 

(8) Review specifications for overhead highway bridges of the Association of 
State Highway Officials in so far as they relate to wood construction, conferring with 
that association (Appendix D). Progress report. 

The Committee on Wood Bridges and Trestles, 

H. AusTiLL, Chairman. 

Appendix A 

(4) DESIGN OF WOOD TRESTLES FOR HEAVY LOADING 

H. M. Church, Chairman, Sub-Committee; G. M. Cornell, S. F. Grear, J. A. Newlin, 
W. R. Roof, W. J. Ryan, D. W. Smith, L. W. Smith, G. L. Staley, W. R. Wilson. 

In last year's report of this Committee there was presented for discussion a proposed 
plan for a ballasted deck trestle for E-72 loading. 

No adverse criticism of this design has been received and by the action of the Gen- 
eral Committee change in details of the plan has been made to provide the same method 
of bracing as was included in the plan for open deck trestle for E-72 loading, which 
plan was accepted and approved in the March 1936 meeting for inclusion in the Manual. 

In the convention of 1935 with the report of this Sub-Committee there was pre- 
sented a table showing stresses developed in the limited members of a ballasted deck 
structure with various span lengths and various stringer sizes. 

Bulletin 390, October, 1936. 

183 



184 Wood Bridges and Trestles 

The table included in that report has received no adverse criticism, and is again 
presented with only a few minor corrections. 

Conclusion 

It is recommended that the design of ballasted deck trestle for E-72 loading sub- 
mitted with this report, together with the table of stresses, be adopted for inclu.sion in 
the Manual as recommended practice. 

Appendix B 

(5) BEARING POWER OF WOOD PILES, WITH RECOMMENDA- 

TION AS TO METHODS OF DETERMINATION 

Wm. A. Oliver, Chairman, Sub-Committee; C. S. Johnson, W. D. Keeney, W. L. Peoples, 
G. W. Rear, W. R. Roof, W. J. Ryan. 

The Sub-Committee again calls attention to the fact that a bibliography on the 
bearing power of piles is in preparation, copies of which interested persons may obtain 
in mimeographed form from Secretary Fritch. 

This bibliography supplements the material on piles which appeared in the "Bibli- 
ography of Physical Properties and Bearing Value of Soils" prepared by Morris Schrero 
and published in the Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers for August, 
1931. 

Appendix C 

(6) RECOMMENDED RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ENERGY 
OF HAMMER AND THE WEIGHT OR MASS OF PILE FOR 
PROPER DRIVING, TO INCLUDE CONCRETE PILES 

W. R. Wilson, Chairman, Sub-Committee; G. S. Crites, R. P. Hart, W. D. Kenney, 
W. L. Peoples, H. T. Rights, W. J. Ryan. 

The Sub-Committee has continued its studies this year but is not in a position to 
render a report at this time. 

This Committee was represented at the International Conference on Soil Mechanics 
and Foundation Engineering, held June 22-26, 1936, at Harvard University, as the 
engineering portion of the Harvard Tercentenary, by the Chairman of this Sub- 
Committee, who, together with Mr. H. W. Legro, a member of the Committee on 
Roadway, were the delegates of this Association. 

Dr. Karl von Terzaghi, Professor, Technische Hochschule, Vienna, Austria, was the 
President of the conference. Some fifty delegates from sixteen foreign countries and 
about 160 delegates from the United States were in attendance. Previous to the con- 
ference, over ISO papers were contributed and printed in two volumes of proceedings. 
These papers and the discussions at the conference covered the following subjects: 

(A) Reports from Soil Mechanics Laboratories on Testing Apparatus, Technique 

of Testing and Investigations in Progress 

(B) Exploration of Soil Conditions and Sampling Operations 

(C) Regional Soil Studies for Engineering Purposes 

(D) Soil Properties 

(E) Stress Distribution in Soils 

(F) Settlement of Structures 

(G) Stability of Earth and Foundation Works and of Natural Slopes 
(H) Bearing Capacity of Piles 



18S 



,mmgs, 



g Pur- 
>acting 



ounda- 
, Con- 
as the 
move- 
le was 
action 
future 

without 
. The 
?le pile 

le con- 
m was 
ine the 

aeering 
blished 
rd and 



lecord, 
ictions, 

VE 



Grear, 
Upson. 

ype of 

These 

d with 

ers are 

tor the 
le field 



-.^aL 




2>^^t:L T»;eER 



_] L. 

^===£ 

T 1 

1 — i 


STRINGER LAYOUT 
LAP CHORD DESIGN 


¥. 'Jji LiJ Lh 


111 ]' - ^1^ — ^ 



M U l ^r y..2,-o„,rT 




PEDESTAL DETAIL 



ANCHOR DETAIL 

FOR FRAMED BENT 

ON PILE FOUNDATION 



FRAMED BENT UP TO 19 FEET CAP DETAIL- LAP CHORD DESIGN 



CAP DETAIL- BUTT CHORD DESIGN 



SECTION FOR SUPER ELEVATED TRACK 



FRAMED BENTS ' ^'^ ' PILE BENTS 



LONGITUDINAL BRACING DIAGRAM 



RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 

6 PILE OR 6 POST 
BALLASTED DECK TRESTLE 



18S 



,inings, 



Total 
React! 



g Pur- 
jacting 



ounda- 
, Con- 
as the 
move- 
le was 
action 
future 



Tot I 
Seel 



vithout 
1. The 
;le pile 



Cro£ 

Unil 



le con- 
m was 
ine the 

neering 
blished 
rd and 



?.ecord, 
ictions, 



VE 



Grear, 
Upson. 

ype of 

These 
d with 
ers are 



tor the 
le field 



-r=""°------- 








■ALUUB EEcr THE3T1Z 
OF UNIT STRESSliS IN PROP05KD TD3EB 
























1 




TRESTLES F 


B COOPEB CL SS E-72 LOADIIiC NO ltT>CT 






















riTJ^isSS^^^P 


14-7- X 14- 


12-7-'ii°i»- 


12'_6' 


14-7- I 16- 


13 '-d^ 


13'-0- 


13'^- 


15'-0- 


15.^- 


15..0- 


15'-0- 


string"^ 


2310 
?e80 


i;s 


'.'« 


2310 
2060 






»7S 


''^ 


^SS 


2310 


10.10- . 16. 




34600 
16W}00 

M2600 


34500 
168000 

202500 


16900 
173000 




38400 


216000 


216000 


197000 


46600 


197000 


1970CK1 




Pllo_ 


FraDwd 


Pile 


Framed 


6 


Frejned 


Pll5_ 


Framed 


-£i^ 


Fr2«ed_ 


PJi^ 


Framed 


PU^ 


Framed 


Plia, 


Framd 


Pile 


Framed 


PU^ 


rramad 


P.l. 


;v=r..d 


feOSs^-^^^ — ^^ ^ 
















i=si±. 




12114 


li-i 


l;xl4 


L4"L 


12x14 


I4-I 


I21I4 


14"D 


l-xU 


li'd 


12jl4 


14"D 


l''xl4 


|uagyLgpgg^;v ;„„. .,..^,,.,„. 




201 


219 


201 


-^ 


208 




■■214 


^ 


214 


"201 


214 


^^^ 


J^0§_ 


Ti5^ 


"Su" 


^ii- 


^if- 


1077 




4ii-J 




^„,^ . 3.r.«.«^to^».ps 


1170 


980 


1120 


1176 


1120 




120 


^^•' \ ^"-^ 


1 


44 


1400 


1- 


„ 


1 




n^nr'"' "traas - Ibs./sa-ln. l^" cap 


173 


207 


167 


183 


192 


193 


214 


181 


17-1 


193 


11? 


— J^^ Ok iQ. - le" CaD 




1120 


1280 




1E80 


. 1260 


1152 


1536 


1600 




i^eo 




151 


lei 


164 


16u 


168 


169 


If? 


158 


152 




190 


"°Si^' iLd ^"nt - ft. Us./ track 




^^To 


2™oSo 


306^0 


306000 


56600 


306000 


4I50S 


415000 


,T^l 


41SS 


Total " „ - ^ 


296200 






36S200 


36^000 


3C2600 


362700 


49:-r>G0 


494900 


495100 


493500 




27 W 




3410 










4100 










1310 






1220 


1£80 


iseo 


1120 




1390 


irso 


1370 


Section ffioadulus - dressed size 


2550 






3o6D 


3£00 




3670 


3840 


4000 


4'50D 


w-o 


R«n,ii^^ fltrfl33 - lbs. /so. In. - dressed size 












136C 


1190 


1540 


1490 


1:'90 


I'tSO 


Lor.-Itudlnsl ahssr - Standard formula - First 
drlTer et quarter point 
D.ad load r a/£ 
Live lofid 


76300 


76300 


)Zl 


JS 


^^. 


JImo 


JeSo 


I^mS 


866?? 


?2400 


?6m2 


lotBl lead 


52600 


92500 


94900 


97100 


97000 


57200 


97200 


108500 


100000 


loecoo 


10P500 






1120 


1260 


1344 




isao 














118 




111 


• 106 


114 




112 


106 


102 


101 


n. 


CrosB - Section - sq. In - dressed alze 


1134 


1065 


1240 


130_ 


l.'^40 


12.10 


1260 


i-iee 


1550 


1575 


l.;co 


Dnlt atear-lbs./sq. In.^ 3 B 


122 


126 


115 


112 


117 




116 


109 


105 


104 


116 


L=n,ltudlaBl 3bear based on tests by Forest 
iToducts LGboratory. First driver at 
3 X ht. of beajn from support. 

-,.» ,~« » |L-2bl 




12400 


135CK, 


14300 




14400 


13900 


17900 
80400 


18200 


17700 


17 1C0 


Total lofld 


' 60700 


— 73^-Q 




82400 


82400 


82500 


762U0 


9B300 


96600 


91100 


9110U 




1176 






1344 


1260 


1260 


1C96 


1536 


1600 


1620 


1^.40 


Cnlt shear - Ibs./aq.in ,3 fl 


103 






92 


97 


.7 


B6 


96 


.3 


e5 


'■'' 


i-rosa - Section - so. In. - dressed size 




1065 


1240 


1302 


1240 


l^^O 


1260 


1488 


1550 


1575 


l-,oc 


Unit sbesr - lba./aq.ln.= 3 R 




10- 


95 


.5 




100 


91 


9. 


,6 


e. 


97 


™";'' Ifl'wstory ualng revised abasr 
tomla. First driver at 3 x bt. of beejn from 

Dead load = ,, (L-ahl 
Uv, tod^^lj p ,^.,1 -1 ^j 
Zlj'otal load El 


13000 


12400 


13500 


14300 
64000 


14300 


14400 
79300 


13900 


17900 


77500 


70600 


17400 

70600 
88000 


. 5£S£J_- «otloo - s,. „ •- nomlMl .l,e 

"bit sbe.r . lb../,,.i„. = 3 J 


1176 


y^9 


86 


66 


93 


93 


84 


,3 


1550 


82 


92 


~ "'"""I - "I- lb. - dr....J ,i;e 

"bit sbaar . lba./,,.i„. ; 3 „ 


1134 
102 


97 


91 


91 


96 


96 


67 


96 




84 


,4 


" • Total Dead L^ad'»";'iJ^'J?^ JJ'trl 
8«il and fastenlnes = 200 ///11a 

1 Sf }•«.= '20 "/"-.ft. 


for stringer 




h = Ha Igbt 

In csloulflt 
Strlnga 


of Stringer In feet 

ODB driving axle • 72000 

s of load from support in 

Ing baarlng, bending, and 
rs are considered ae cerr 


feet 
Id depth. 

Ing no load. 













■iaii 



185 



/inings, 



g Pur- 
jacting 



ounda- 
, Con- 
as the 
move- 
le was 
action 
future 

without 
1. The 
;le pile 

le con- 
m was 
ine the 

neering 
blished 
rd and 



lecord, 
ictions, 

VE 



Grear, 
Upson. 

ype of 

These 

d with 

ers are 

tor the 
le field 




SIDE Vl£k 

li\ 14: la'-O' C/9P - CI 













14 


o' 










rt 


f:>t 


f 


ii 


i'-3 /y . e'-3i' 


^•'3^- 


'•■2"', 






















,^[i L i 1 








„ 




i5>*/„ 










•'-y 




TOP 


VIEW 


^. 






JVf 


W \ \ \ \ M 


S \ 


: !! il il il 1! 



/4'« i4\/4'-o' C/9P - ce 




SIDE VIEW 

5^.6\ia'-o' rEnDER -fj 

a\3\l4'-0' TENDER -n 





n ^iternnf 


B stxictto m re' 


le'/o' 




TOP VIEW 


\ •■ \ \ \ \ f -• — ' — ' — ' — ■■ — H 






>4'-0' 




1 



, . SIDE VI EV 

S.&y^ia-O' TENDER -FZ 
4:3'.l4'-0' FENDER - Fe 




, , SjOE VIEW 

S.&.l&'-O' FENDER -F3 
4. a\lia'-d FENDER - F3 





7i' ,hH 




id^?sii:_^&!isSis»' III 




K'fi^ 


W^ 


TOP VIEW 


^^ 






ihii' i-o 


.f'0\ ///i' 
















ftfJU 




i; :; : ! i! ii ii 'i il !! 


"t^is*!^ 



TIE3 rOR 90"" R/^IL - M/9RK Tl-Tf a. T3 





rr I--.4 


■ f^^^i'i}( ^-ss: ^sii 


ff 


1-3%' lli' 




. S'l^i,', r* 


af'T^e ri''4>'J» 


ri'-W' 








-1 t:*-i^=^^^siiii 


^ 


ii^L 




H \] 








/-iif 


TOP VI ^V^ 


I'-o 


. i-iir 


Eor TJ-TS^TO) 






.SI SI SI 




i ii : S ii ii !i i! ii ii 


"srat! 



side: v/rw 
TIE3 rOR lOO^'e^m* R/9IL -M/=iRK T4-rS&T<B> 





,i-w 


7i\ /W^' 




iiM 3'ji' ■sinms^i'-oS i,r 






-\\ '■«<■ 




1 i. 4'»*/«7 


ifk*. 




a'-i^'io'-o ' 


M 








#^w/^ 


^ J "> 


1— 


^1 








I--I4 


/■-.y 


TOP VIEW 
















tlslR 






I ii 


ii ii i iil! iiii \ 


113, 



3/D£- V!E: W 

TJE3 FOR i3l*R/9JL -M/^RK T7'T&atT9 



r 7r«sf/es and f/>ose </*«■</ 



C/o»a /t'ot '«" 




C/VO P/f/VC'L 



METHOD orPLi^C/N<3 r^NOER. 



0oin a// Ties so ftiey »v/// /oy «^//* A 



Pitjg Qi/ard Rai/ S/sUte ho/e» ivhere naf uaedt 

£>rt3ncfeid erne cnc^ fh(ja iltg T I 

/^// 77<r» for- 30 ' f?a,/ or /ao» /a £>ar Si/vnt^^ 



h idcnfif/ca. 
&rane/ ofher tnci to ^o^y c/aao o/ ^r^a^ ' 

f^nc/er» /rtark^c/ F/ arv for /2'7i: -^X3<r/ng 



^/l a'dz^g. bormg t3/7d b^an^/ng foi^donc 
before fr^afmcnf. 

Do nof use bod/y c^ccA e<d 7i>7}£>e/' 

be piaced in a /tor/zor. 




^/ 3x13'' O' EEND €R - Ed 
4 . &\f3-0 FENDER ~ F^ 



PROPOSED 

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 

PREBORIN6 BRIDGE TIMBERS 

5 & 6 PILE OPEN DECK TRE5TLE5 

AREA 




COlfPAJUSOH 0? tmiT 3TRE33S3 IN lUPROTBD DESIGR 0? E 
COQPEB'3 (?JL33 £-52 UiPplO - BO DfPACT - - OP^ DECK THB3TL L^ 



13660_ 
U5512 



:jaalAfea iq-ln. li' Clil 



tf»«la.:tl la' Co 



_ f- rl f f ^^'^'" - ^^'- '^^ "■^' ^S' ^ 



P fl^ Lffid M-« fl' - "• l^"- °^^ ''♦^ 



BepdliK St^Mg - It^a. per i 



3bi1:ic 3:rM» - lbs, i 



litBdard ?o ROLLS 



IfflSladlaal at^j. _ bM«d on utti by 

a«u forna*. Flnt driver ^rs i height 

9f S«u frco Sttpport ^ .■ , - ? « ; 



- tPtftl l-B'fl 



1.U1. i«Mn^-| „^„ 






^685 2 
50962 






6fl 



64 



1400 IbB. per 



total dead load per III 
Hall 130# par yard 
raataQlnga & Tie Platei 
Ouard Timber 5"x 8" 
Ties 8"r6-xl0'0" 53.3 J 
Tr^-l^B ".r.—^ Rail 90 : 
TaaMnlsgB 
Per lln.ft. 



Ill timber ? 5# per F.B.il. 
H ■ flel«bt Stringer in Feot 
p ■ It* on ana drWliig axle 
X = DiBtoioe of lo4d fron Bapporl 
Dressed slie ■ nominal slse 1 
In depth only (atrlnger*) 







18S 
minings, 

g Pur- 
jacting 

ounda- 
, Con- 
as the 
move- 
le was 
action 
future 

vithout 
I. The 
;le pile 

16 con- 
m was 
ine the 

neering 
blished 
rd and 

?.ecord, 
ictions, 

VE 

Grear, 
Upson. 

ype of 

These 

d with 

ers are 

for the 


1 




le field 





















ooKPiiiaai or 

OOOPEB 


mil 3 

s ai3 


I-RSSSBS m D 
3 E-86 LOADIl 


ffUDVTO DESIflH OP STiHDAJ 

- 10 nipioT - - opm 


JD TDIBm TRB3TLB 
































1!' 


w 


12- 


. w 


13 • 


_-ii: — 1 


14' 


14- 


14- 


14' 


14' 


16- 


15' 


16' 












6- rut- 


8- rjif 


6- 8-I16" 


i- ?'llt' 


Jr.lS-jlt 


e- 8-,;6- 


6- 8-X16" 


?.- ?■*■ 


8- 10"xl6" 


6- 9-rt8- 


6- 10-X18- 


















w 


«» 


49(| 


490 


490 


490 


410 


490 


49? 


490 


490 


















Mt 


?7? 


sa 1 


s«) 


*ao-j 


430 


430 


_ 460 


636 


405 


460 




636 












-^'^*^^_ , 


m 


«H 


m 


860 


8M 


980 


929 


970 


1023 


896 


940 


970 


1026 












"^ZZ^^l— 


mo 


103» 


}71? 


IKBO 


llflTD 


11960 


I2e8« 


13680 


14360 


12640 


13160 


14S60 














_JS^» 




130646 


130648 


;°";' . 


13TB16 


137816 


146936 


146936 


lVi?36 


146936 


. 145936 


16n92 


162992 


162992 










_jiai.J 


18 


.«es_j 


141026 i 


140368 


148666 


149366 


149776 


166616 


169516 


160286 


168476 




9096 


167642 


168367 


167092 














BUM 1 

ltal4 


141) 


-5 1 

12il4 


14«D 


trm, 

6 
12x14 


mi 

14:;£ 


teas. 

12x14 


£il£ 
14=5 


6 
12x14 


jas 


12x}4 


mi 


6 


PUS 


6 
12x14 




12x14 


m. 


1^4 


Ptll 

14=0 


6 
12x14 


pua 


12.14 


PU. 
U=3 


Proa 
5 

12x14 


ms 


12x14 


PU. 

14^ 


?r-i 




fl«- 




Piai. 


. ■ 1 




n.o 


JS7 
14.0 


OSS 


166 

14,; 


_1S2 


167 
1^.0 


.153 
li.2 


(77 
U.S. 


^94 
li.2 


640 
178 

14.? 


16,2 


15.0_ 


15.9 


1,8? 
15,9 


_ilJ. 
_207 

16.0 


640 

190 
16.0 


206 


840 
. J91 

16.0 


15,6 


840 
189 


_27 
15,9 


B40 

les 

16.9 


_2ia 

16,6 


200 
16.8 


_212 


840 

400 

16,8 


_770 
16.7 


199 

16.7 


^SIS 


200 


_226 
17.6 


— e40_ 

339 
17j6 


17,6 


840 
209 


-J — L_L_; 


ml K-'.- "■ * 


M8 


764 


672 


756 


?« 


896 


8J1_ 


10?? 


1190 


766 


640 


1006 


"SO 


840 


1008 


1120 


1006 




f^,.» sir... - im. Mr u.tl. H- 1^ 


2M 


160 


SOS 


197 


176 


. 1«7 


177 


>56 


143 


210 


190 


166 


190 


199 






174 




l-n "•"'■ "■ "^ 


SJ? 


SSS 


7«6 


8«4 


960 


1024 


1024 


1162 


J?eo 


664 


960 


1162 


1260 


960 


1162 


1280 








206 


157 


16* 


172 


>6f 


146 


166 


138 


128 


184 


166 


146 


131 


174 










l*iilv tn 3trlD«.r. 




i?W 


IWW 


U>» 


169*3 


17493 


W410 


21650 


2276? 


19660 


20900 


24910 


26323 














196000 


196000 


196000 


236000 


236000 


236000 


280000 


280000 


280000 


280000 


280000 


322000 


322000 


322000 










f.nl 


206360 


SOJW 


?o?90O 


264160 


264923 


266493 




301660 


302780 


299680 


300900 


546910 


346323 


346140 


348460 




394270 






1792 


2369 


»46 


230^ 


26C0 


2730 


2730 


S072 


Mia 


2916 






MM 














1896 


1065 


1226 


1327 


1196 


U23 


1320 


1178 


1064 


1236 


1114 


1366 




1282 


1076 




1217 






1682 




1922 


2162 


2402 




2663 


2663 


3203 


2756 


3063 


2663 


3203 


3062 


3676 


3203 


3676 






1466 


1123 


1306 


1410 


1273 


1196 


1407 


1256 


1134 


1309 




1444 


1305 


1366 


1138 


1473 


1287 




flnt BrlTtr 4t Snartor ?olat ^v/ 
1.M lot : -i!^ 


*3TO 


4900 


4690 


6240 


6460 


6670 


6140 


6470 


6840 


697) 


6270 


6960 


7340 










































67368 


71232 


71232 




ln.i 








































































1296 


































87 






































1260 


1240 






_»;taii«,. Ik,.™, ,„,;,_= i ff 






























B9 


96 


94 




-osltBiliil smu - lu«S oa Utu It 
'mil ?rmu!U Ubontor o«li« rwlMi 
aeir hmaft. flnt drlTtr •t 5 x helxbt of 


















6469 


4630 




6660 


6961 


5326 


6836 


6493 


6360 










46060 


60466 


60466 


50466 


54880 


64880 


64880 


60624 


60624 






64766 


54766 


67312 


61712 




-JlMI.id 


























66126 


60093 


60603 


73605 


68062 




-Eaujjaim - ...In. .»„„, „„ 




















972 




1162 




1080 


1296 


1280 


1296 




-teajl.« - i*.. „r „ |j=J f 






























70 


86 


79 
























946 




1116 


1340 


1050 


1260 


12« 


1260 






111 


64 


98 


98 


86 


83 


91 


?1 


73 


62 


80 


69 


fO 


66 


72 


89 


61 








CLOag GRAIEEI) gg 
1400 IbB. per Bq.li 



Aa3D¥PTI0H3i 



I 



■ Dlatanos C to C of Benta for beftrlng on Caps 

! " f&ca to face of Caps ploa 6" for Stringer - bsadlng A ahe*r 

' Total dead load per lln.ft. of tmok aaame U" Cap 

Hall 130# per jwd e7# 

raatenlngs & Tie Flatea SI 

Guard Tlaber 5»r a- S9 

Ties e'xe-zlO'O" 63^ BU 9 6# 267 

Inside Goard Hall 90 lbs. 60 

/aatenlnea 12 

Per liB.ft. 490# 



1 limber ^ 5# per P.B.U. 
E Height Strtiiger in ?eet 

■ Vt< <ni one drlTlag axle 

■ Diatanee of load frm aoppoRt In ft. 
Dreaaed alae > Bomlnal alte leaa l/2" 
Is depth onl; (Stringer*) 



185 



minings, 



g Pur- 
jacting 



ounda- 
, Con- 
as the 
move- 
le was 
action 
future 

vithout 
1. The 
;le pile 

le con- 
m was 
ine the 

neering 
blished 
rd and 



Record, 
ictions, 

:vE 



Grear, 
Upson. 

ype of 

These 
d with 
ers are 

for the 
le field 



,..,^^^^- "'''"' 


















COHPIBISOB OP treiT STUB 
COOPEBM CL13S B- 


3B3 m lUPWJlTED DESICr OF STAIDARO TDIBBB TRESTLE 
60 LOADUro - 10 niPlCT - - OPm DSCI TBIHm.l! 
























12' 


«• 


13' 


!?• 


13- 


14- 


14' 


14* 


14' 




15' 














9- 7-iaf 


6- e-rtf" 


«- e-tf«- 


6- 9-I16- 


6- 10"ll6- 


n- >-il6" 


e- 9-X16" 


8- 10-X16- 


6- 9-118- 
















*" rr" ?t'«!jliS^Sii— 


490 


W 


W 


490 


490 


490 


490 


490 


490 


490 
















375 


?W 


432 


460 


400 


430 


480 


WP 


405 


















W 


eio 


SW 


970 


W 




970 


1025 


896 
















,„u«^B-______ 1 


10?S5 


9789 


119M 


12610 


.UP75 . 


12660 


J3W 


143S0 


1*540 
















„i^l 


i;?985 


139980 


H74S0 


147660 




166360 


166360 


166360 


166360 
















_^-UU 


_ia 


«<) 


149700 


16 620 


160270 


lE92a 


169240 


1699« 


170710 


168900 


169520 








18eo» 








Pile 


T"9 

5 


£ll£ 
141 


s 

12x14 


PllS 
14-II 


6 
Ull4 


tiii 


12114 


Pll« 
14"0 


12x14 


nil 

141 


?rane 

6 
l«tl4 


PUS 

Trv 


frame 
12il4 


me 
14-p 


12x14 


PUfi 
14=p 


5 


pia 


5 




¥r«p9 


til& 




nia. 


trmt 

6 


PU. 


6 


PSls 


6 






ilfi.O 


1 »w 1 

179 
15,P 


-121 
l&.O 


t7° 
16.0 




6« 


^6.0 


640 
191 

16.0 


16.9 


190 
1^.9 


una 

Las 
16.9 


UIO 

m 

16.9 


17.0 


17.0 


_772 
ZZZ 

17.1 


840 
203 

17.1 


.772 


640 
^91 1 


_72fl 


849 
_2P2 


_233 


840 




a4 . 




1QQ8 
18.^ 


:»« 


1008 
187 




1006 
166 




1«* M.UU 14'_CS 


7M 


if 


996 


W06 


6« 


696 


W9B 


UW 


7P» 


B40 


1120 












p^rlt* Str«» - lb», par HliU>, IV C«P 


192 


223 


176 


1E9 


190 


169 


i« 


m 


8*4 


202 


176 


ia> 


186 










m 


7M 


1024 


115? 


960 


1024 






















lUarln. St«..l - lb*. DBT M.lS. 16» CttD 


IW 


196 


IM 


IM 


166 


166 


1« 


138 


























1644.1 






























210000 


266000 


266000 


266000 


300000 


300000 


300000 


3D 0000 


















2«ee8 


21300S 


272493 


273443 


271917 


320440 


321655 




319870 


















2369 


2046 


2730 


X72 


2660 


2730 


30 72 


5413 


2916 


















IIM 


1306 


1196 


1068 


1276 


1409 


1256 


1136 


1317 




















1922 






2402 


2663 


2883 


3203 


2756 


3062 


3203 


3676 


367S 




3602 








1392 






























:aigltiiuii&l sha&r - SumUrt Poimla 
tlitt DrlTer *t ftnarWr Point ^^^ 


































LlTil^d 




























76320 


76320 




hU2 
































































UW 




_Ml3i«r - lb.. D«r ^.tT,.^ ? f 






























106 


































1170 




-JalS_aMr-lb.. C«r.n....-^ f 


























100 


91 


106 




Imrltadlul Slmt - bw«l m >•(• 1>7 fomt 
Protactt Ub«ntoi7 Ming mlMd Amt 






























69U 




^11^= ^"f^>^^, 




























66120 


SOOOO 




ntu u^ 


























T24TO 


78640 


































1440 






-BUUt«,- lb.. „,.,.,,,= ;?« 


" 




iai4_ 




















U 


76 


62 




-SlaiJS£llK - .o.ln. Br,„rt .,„ 


























1260 


1400 


HID _ 




-*"-»«-^llI._KI_«.l..= ^ f 


» 


103 


69 1 


60 


94 


96 


86 


76 




85 


86 


77 




76 . 


86 





•"'— • Hl»r ! 
'^r«Biim kcrni i 

Mogltadio*! Shear 
■o Intact addAd to : 



'• Dlitanee c to C of Bent* ) 

> " Ac« to fae« of I 

> Total dead load per lln.fl 
Ball 1301 per yard 
raatanlngs & Tie Plates 
Guard Timber 5" x 8- 
Tlaa 8"xfi"xl0'0" 53.3 BM < 
tnald* gWd raU 90 lb*. 
Paatasla^ 



rln^r - bending t abear 



111 tlmbar 9 6# per F.B.H. 

0= Het«bt Stringer In Peat 

pr ft. on one drlTlng axla 

X= Dlataaoe of l«d f>"" ■npport In ft 
DreBied Bite* B(»lnal alie leee 4" 
m depth only (Strlngera) 
All loads In lb*' V^ track 
All UonentB In Inoh lbs. per track 



185 



,inmgs, 



g Pur- 
jacting 



ounda- 
, Con- 
as the 
move- 
le was 
action 
future 

vithout 
1. The 
,4e pile 

le con- 
m was 
ine the 

neering 
blished 
rd and 



lecord, 
ictions, 

VE 



Grear, 
Upson. 

ype of 

These 

d with 

ers are 

for the 
le field 






-GH OP STAKDARD TIMBER TFtESTLE. 
GbnPEB*3 GLAp ^-M l.OADTSa - MO PfPAt?? - - OP m DECT TRB3TL ! 




-J 



rtwj f f ant 

ijjftLins — 

}^ la fom ^ ■ 



■Uf Stringers cm C^i 
<ltr»»» - Ibl. 



Vflae 3trf - Iba. pbt ao.in. W Cm 



Malli« In Strlngsra 



t JfTfJ tarnt - ^- i^'- """ ^'"^"'^ 



Stetlm titxtnlaa - Sanlaal ali^ 



'V"^'°g 9tr*«m - lh«. 



hadlJK 3tr«H - Iba. par ao.ln. 



6260 

72192 



Ml3«Ctl(m - .g.lr. Sqri^T].! 



■ teUShWr- Ibl. r^r .^,1., 




I 5# I 



'■ Distance C to C of Benta for bearing ( 
" face to face of C^a plna 6" 

= Total dead load per lln.ft. of traclc 
Rail 13D# per yard 87^ 

Tastenlngs & Tie Platea 31 



[ = Height Stringer in ?eet 
I s Wt. on one driving aile 
; = Dlstoioe of load fran airport In ft. 

Dreased alse ' nominal alse lea» 1/2" 

In depth only (Stringers) 



' 53.3 



I Iba. 



1 S# 267 

60 



185 



,inings, 



g Pur- 
)acting 



ounda- 
, Con- 
as the 
move- 
le was 
action 
future 

vithout 
1. The 
;le pile 

le con- 
m was 
ine the 

aeering 
blished 
rd and 



lecord, 
ictions, 

VE 



Grear, 
Upson. 

ype of 

These 

d with 

ers are 

tor the 
le field 



^j^^^,u,_Bjt£S=u«.-»t-ttSia_ 




(WPARiaOH op tnilT 3TRS3B3 IB DIPBOTBD DESIGH OF 3I1I71URD TIMBER TRESTLES. 
COQPR^*a r-i.i ?3 K-fie LOADIHO - BO DgACT - 



in* *i-^b' '** '^^ 



hi f'^ » ini i - ^^- ^'"' *°-'^- ^*' '^p 



r atrt" - ^^- f" *o-^' 16' Cte 



LIT! L«M "t tni - fii l""! r*' ^"^ 



auiniMttl 'B - nwi I'H 



hMlK llnii - in. 



liM - triim lUt 



'"in'f ■tmi - lHi 



IlIM hmlm - ■..In. f—-.. ,|„ 



■ ttm iiHia - M.iii. iir«iiM .!.. 



"■'iri^ in, 



J± 



l«rlta*laU Sli«»r - bu*d m t««ti by 




CLOSE GHi.IHm gIB 
1400 lbs. per iq.lj 
240 . ■> • • 

240 • - - . 



■ DlatSBOa C to C of Banta for be&rlne cm C«pa 
' ■ t*C9 to f«o« of C^a ploa 6* for Atrlai 

> Tot«l da»d load per lis. ft. of trftok 

Ball 130# p«r jd. S7t 

rutsnli^s i Tl« Platfli 81 

Ourd Timber 6"i fl" M 

TlM e-ifl"il0'0" 63,8 BH 



• b«Bdlie A ohe&r 



: Hel^t atrlngar tn Peot 

E ft. on oiQ drlvii% *xl« 

• Distance of load from aiqiport la f« 
Dreaaed else = Bcolnal alsa Isaa 1/; 
All loada In 1>>» P®' tracl 
All H^enta In Isch Itaa. p«r ti«ek 



1 d^th only (StrlBsera} 



Insld. 



nard 1 



185 



,inmgs, 



g Pur- 
Dacting 



ounda- 
, Con- 
as the 
move- 
le was 
action 
future 

vithout 
1. The 
;le pile 

le con- 
m was 
ine the 

neering 
blished 
rd and 



Record, 
ictions, 

VE 



Grear, 

Upson. 

ype of 

These 

d with 

ers are 

for the 
le field 







COMPAfllSOl 0? UIIIT 3TRE33E3 IF lUPROVED DJ3IGE 0? ST.UnURD TUBER TRESTLE 



Aff laf*^- ^*' 



f.. |.i» 3ir.i | - 1I-- "T ■o-lJ- M" C«> 



■ u- Cap 



v..i-!T» 3;r«ii - '»■■ ^«r .a .In. If Ca 



r..d LmJ JMJl - ft. 1 



Beodlae Straat - Ibi. 



n Moteloi - DreaiBd sUe 



aeMlag 3tr«i - Iba. i 



ami ,T.Wr - lb.. ~, ,1 l„.= f ^ 







IBSnUPTICOS: 



■ Dlstanoe C to of Bants for Besring ( 
" f»oa to face of Capa plno 6* 

» Total d®a4 load per lln.ft, of track 
Ball 130# par yard C 

raatsniiiea & Tie Plates < 

Guard Timber 5"i 9" ; 

Tlea fi"zB"zl0'0'' 53.3 Bll a 5f 2f 

IiiBld* guard i«U 90 Iba. ( 



Wood Bridges and Trestles 185 

(I) Pile Loading Tests 

(J) Earth Pressures Against Retaining Walls, Excavation Sheeting, Tunnel Linings, 
etc. 

(K) Ground Water Movement and Seepage 

(L) Soil Problems in Highway Engineering Including Frost Action in Soils 

(M) Methods for Improving the Physical Properties of Soils for Engineering Pur- 
poses, Including Recent Developments in Constructing and Compacting 
Earth Fills 

(N) Modem Methods of Design and Construction of Foundations 

In addition to the discussions were lectures on Bridge Foundations, Building Founda- 
tions, Settlements of Buildings, Earth Fill Dams, Methods of Compacting Soils, Con- 
struction of Harbor Works, and Frost Action in Soils. 

The need of observations on the behavior of full-sized structures, such as the 
settlement of buildings, embankments and bridge piers, also the pressures and move- 
ments on retaining walls and sheeted cuts extending over long periods of time was 
stressed. These observations are desired so that the theoretical analysis of the action 
of structures might be modified and fitted to practical use in the design of future 
structures. 

The dangers of the use of empirical formulae for the bearing value of piles without 
a study being made of the soil underlying the bottoms of the piles was stressed. The 
need of considering the relationship between the results of a load test on a single pile 
and the bearing capacity of a group of piles was also mentioned. 

A case was cited of the continued settlement of a structure on piles due to the con- 
solidation of a stratum of clay well below the bottoms of the piles. This stratum was 
not discovered until deep borings were made during the investigation to determine the 
cause of the settlement. 

A resume of the discussions during the conference is to be found in the Engineering 
News-Record of July 2, and July 9, 1936. Abstracts of some of the papers published 
in the proceedings are to be found in the Engineering News-Record of July 23rd and 
August 20th, 1936. 

In the following references, the basic work on soil mechanics will be found: 

"Principles of Soil Mechanics," by Charles Terzaghi, Engineering News-Record, 
Vol. 95, 1925, pp. 742, 796, 832, 874, 912, 987, 1064, and 1086. 

"The Science of Foundations" by Charles Terzaghi, with discussions, Transactions, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 93, 1928. 



Appendix D 

(7) IMPROVED DESIGN OF TIMBER STRUCTURES TO GIVE 
- LONGER LIFE WITH LOWER COST OF MAINTENANCE 

F. H. Cramer, Chairman, Sub-Committee; H. M. Church, G. M. Cornell, S. F. Grear, 
J. A. Newlin, W. A. OUver, W. L. Peoples, G. W. Rear, L. W. Smith, A. T. Upson. 

The plans and loadings as provided in the Manual recommend a standard type of 
timber pile and frame trestle designed for a live load of Cooper's E^O and E-60. These 
plans show a 5 or 6 pile bent and 4 or 5 post frame bents properly sway braced with 
iron fastenings upon which the deck, consisting of timber stringers, ties and fenders are 
supported, which has been a standard for a long time. 

The present Design for Open Deck shows continuous type of deck, except for the 
ballasted deck. For this type it is necessary to cut and butt end the stringers in the field 



186 Wood Bridges and Tre st les 

to fit the various panel lengths. These designs were made with the view in mind ot 
using untreated material. 

When considering treated material the design should meet the requirements for the 
purpose of treatment as it is imperative that the cutting and boring of the timbers in 
the field should be practically eliminated or held to the very minimum. 

The Committee has given this subject considerable study and has worked out a 
tentative improved design with a lower cost of maintenance. Table 1 shows a compar- 
ison of unit stresses for a selected number and size of stringers for open deck. This table 
also gives the two methods of computing horizontal shear in the stringers. With these 
stresses and span lengths the most desirable and economical stringers and bents can be 
worked out or determined from these tables. In determining the effective span lengths 
the usual center to center of bents is used for bent and stringer bearing loads, however, 
for figuring of stringer bending and shear the effective span length is taken as face to 
face of caps plus 6 in. This in line with present practice. 

The selections of Cooi>er's E-52 to E-72 loadings for figuring the bending moments 
and shears was adapted for the reason that it is easier to calculate account of its being 
divisible by 4. 

Plan 1 shows the spacing of fenders and ties the same as shown in the Manual, but 
the stringers are skewed slightly with the center of track or as termed lap chord. Atten- 
tion is called to the lapping of some of the stringers while others are butt end over the 
caps. 

With this design in no case is it necessary to cut a stringer at the ends and in addi- 
tion a larger bearing area is obtainable on the caps. Using the single span stringer is 
more economical in handling and in erection. Also attention is called to the design of 
stringer fastenings over caps that may be used to avoid the use of drift bolts in stringers. 
The stay rods have proven very satisfactory with this design of deck, in fact they appear 
to hold the stringer more firmly than drift bolts resulting in less maintenance of holding 
deck in proper alignment. 

These plans also show a concrete buUdiead, which is an improvement over the 
present wooden bulkhead and fireproof and requires practically no maintenance after 
once placed. 

Plan 2 shows an improvement in preparing and boring holes in caps, fenders and 
ties for open deck bridges. All timbers are covered by a marking diagram and general 
notes. 

It is recommended that this report be received as information and the subject be 
given further study. 

Appendix E 

(8) REVIEW SPECIFICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD HIGHWAY 
BRIDGES OF THE ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY 
OFFICIALS IN SO FAR AS THEY RELATE TO WOOD 
CONSTRUCTION 

S. F. Grear, Chairman, Sub-Committee; C. E. Close, G. S. Crites, W. E. Hawley, C. J. 
Hogue, W. H. O'Brien. 

The Committee has reviewed these specifications and finds some features which are 
not approved, and not entirely in line with the specifications of the American Railway 
Engineering Association. The Committee is only able to report progress. 



COMMITTEE XX— UNIFORM GENERAL 
CONTRACT FORMS 



F. L. Nicholson, Chairman; S. L. Mapes, 



E. H. Barnhart, 
W. D. Faucette, 
J. P. Hanley, 
B. Herman, 
J. C. Irwin, 

J. S. LiLLIE, 



A. A. Miller, 
O. K. Morgan, 
E. W. Metcalf, 
C. B. Niehaus, 
R. Owen, 
H. A. Palmer, 



* Died, May 6, 1936. 



W. G. Nusz, V ice-Chairman; 

W. M. Post, 

Chas. Silliman, 

*S. S. Roberts, 

Huntington Smith, 

w. r. swatosh, 

J. S. Thorp, 

Committee. 



To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual. — Nothing to report — A complete revision was reported 
at last convention. 

(2) Form of Agreement with Public Authorities for Highway Grade Crossing 
Elimination or Separation. — The Committee reports progress on this subject. 

(3) Form of Agreement for Cab Stand and Baggage Transfer Privileges. — Sub- 
mitted for approval of the Association and for inclusion in the Manual (Appendix A) . 

(4) Form of Agreement for Pick-Up and Store-Door Delivery. — The tentative form 
of agreement presented to the Association at the 1936 Convention, contained the essen- 
tial terms for such an agreement, was published in the Proceedings 1936 — Vol. 37 — 
pages 85-91, and is available to anyone interested. The form is continued as written 
and as information only. 

(5) Outline of complete field of work of the Committee. — The Committee finds it 
would be very difficult to set up any program, fixing subjects that have been covered 
by contract and those that have not yet been developed, but for which contracts are 
required. The Committee has, during the past years, drafted and presented to the 
Association for action, forms of agreement for nearly all of the subjects with which the 
Engineering Department of a railroad must deal. 

The future work of the Committee appears to consist of: 

To encourage the adoption by the railways of uniform forms of standard docu- 
ments, so far as consistent with the various state and national laws; 

To continue the study of agreements in the Manual, suggesting changes or revisions 
in the forms adopted, editing them that they may be uniform in form with other 
Manual material and including all important elements so the users of the agreements 
can readily adjust them to suit their particular situation; 

Conferring, collaborating and working with other AREA Committees and committees 
of other national organizations, to the end that there will be no overlapping of effort; 

To be on the alert at all times to discover and formulate new and additional forms 
required by changing conditions in the operation and maintenance of railroads. 
The Committee on Uniform General Contract Forms, 

F. L. Nicholson, Chairman. 

^fjclfap ^aufiep iXobertg 

With sorrow and a sense of loss, this Committee records the death of our esteemed 
member and co-worker, Shelby S. Roberts, on May 6th, 1936. 

Mr. Roberts became a member of Committee on Uniform General Contract Forms 
in 1935, and faithfully performed all service required during his membership — his 
wealth of experience and good judgment were valuable in the work of the Committee. 



Bulletin 390, October, 1936. 



187 



18S Uniform General Contract Forms 

Appendix A 

(3) FORM OF AGREEMENT FOR CAB STAND AND BAGGAGE 

TRANSFER PRIVILEGES 

E. H. Barnhart, Chairman, Sub-Committee; J. C. Irwin, S. L. Mapes, H. A. Palmer, 
J. S. Thorp. 

THIS AGREEMENT, made this day of , 

19. ... , by and between , a corporation organized and 

existing under the laws of the State of , hereinafter called the 

Railway Company, and * , hereinafter called 

the Cab Company. 

WITNESSETH: 

That in consideration of the covenants and agreements herein contained, it is mutually 
agreed as follows: 

1. Grant 

The Railway Company grants to the Cab Company, so far as it lawfully may, the 
sole and exclusive privilege of maintaining a public cab stand and baggage transfer on 

its premises at , and of soliciting passengers and baggage on 

the grounds and platforms at said location, including the right to check baggage through 
from residences and hotels to destination, subject to the rules and regulations of the 
Railway Company. 

2. Parking Space 

The Railway Company agrees to permit the Cab Company to park upon its prop- 
erty a sufficient number of cabs for transportation of passengers and others at a point, 
or points, to be designated from time to time by the Railway Company, but nothing 
herein contained shall make it obligatory upon the Railway Company to furnish such 
parking space. 

3. Transfer Cabs 

The Cab Company agrees to provide for regular service at said location suitable 
cabs and conveyances for passengers and baggage to fully accommodate all reasonable 
demands of patrons of the Railway Company, and that it wUl, at all times, keep them 
in proper repair. 

4. Transfer — Station to Station 

The Cab Company agrees to provide suitable cabs and conveyances for baggage for 
transferring through passengers and for baggage from said location to other stations, 
for account of the Railway Company, at stipulated rates to be submitted by the Cab 
Company to the Railway Company and approved by it as provided for in paragraph 6, 
prior to the effective date of this agreement. 

5. Agents and Employees 

The Cab Company agrees that its agents and employees shall not be considered 
agents or employees of the Railway Company; that at all times, its agents and employees 
will conduct themselves in an orderly and respectful manner when soliciting business 
from patrons or passengers of the Railway Company, and when on Railway property will 
be subject to such rules and regulations as the Railway Company may, from time to 
time, prescribe. 

6. Treinsfer Rates 

The Cab Company agrees that, from time to time, or when requested by the Rail- 
way Company, it will submit to the Railway Company a schedule of its rates for trans- 
fer of passengers and for baggage and that it, its agents or employees, will not collect 
or charge patrons or passengers of the Railway Company rates in excess of the schedule 
approved by the Railway Company, regular rates of recognized cab companies in the 
same zone or fares prescribed by law. 

• Insert name of company, followed by "a coiporation organized and existing under the laws of the 
State of ," or "a partnership", or "an individual," etc. 



Uniform General Contract Forms 189 

7. Hotel Solicitation 

The Cab Company agrees that neither it, its agents or employees will act as solicitors 
for any hotel, restaurant, lodging house or any business, or in any way endeavor to 
prejudice any patron or passenger of the Railway Company for or against any hotel, 
restaurant, lodging house or business, nor will they or any of them distribute or circulate 
any form of advertising whatsoever in behalf of any hotel, restaurant, lodging house or 
business. 

8. Baggage Records 

The Cab Company agrees that it will keep a record of the disposition of all baggage 
received from the Railway Company for delivery and agrees that all such baggage shall 
be considered in good condition unless a "bad order" receipt is accepted by the Railway 
Company. 

9. Claims 

The Cab Company will handle all claims for loss or damage, other than heretofore 
specified, direct with the claimants and they will assume all costs thereof. 

10. Waybills 

The Cab Company agrees to waybill all baggage collected by it for delivery to the 
Railway Company and will obtain from the Railway Company a receipt for all such 
baggage delivered to it. 

11. Loss and Damage 

The Cab Company will be responsible for all loss and damage to baggage collected 
by it which has not been receipted for by the Railway Company. On baggage billed 
through from residence, or hotel, to destination, in the event of loss or damage, when the 
responsibility for such loss or damage cannot be ascertained, and is not already herein- 
before provided for, the Cab Company shall contribute to any payment made, cost, 
expense or injury suffered by the Railway Company or any other carrier, on account 
of such loss or damage, in the proportion that the charge of the transfer of such piece 
of baggage bears to the total revenue received by the Railway Company and other 
carrier, from the transportation of said baggage and passengers accompanying same. 

12. Liability 

The Cab Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Railway Company for 
loss, damage or injury from any act or omission of the Cab Company, its agents or 
employees, to the property of the Railway Company, to the person or property of patrons 
or passengers of the Railway Company or any claim filed against the Railway Company, 
resulting from acts of the Cab Company, its agents or employees. The Cab Company 
agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Railway Company from any claim for damages 
arising from injuries to any of its employees, while engaged in handling the transfer 
business whether caused by acts of employees of the Railway Company, condition of 
buildings or platforms of the Railway Company or any cause whatsoever. 

13. Consideration 

The Cab Company agrees to pay to the Railway Company monthly, in advance, 

for said privileges, the sum of Dollars ($ ), such payment 

to be made at the principal offices of the Railway Company or at such other point the 
Railway Company may, from time to time, direct. 

14. Term 

This agreement shall become effective as of the day of , 

19 , and shall continue from month to month until terminated as follows: 

(a) By either party giving the other days written notice prior 

to first day of any calendar month, it being the intention that either party will have a 
full calendar month's notice. 

(b) By the Railway Company, if the Cab Company should at any time fail, in the 
judgment of the Railway Company, to fully perform any or all of its obligations under 

this agreement, giving the Cab Company, or its agent on the premises, days 

written notice. The Cab Company, upon receiving such notice, agrees to remove its 



190 UniformGeneral Contract Forms 

vehicles and property from the premises and discontinue use of Railway Company's 
property. 

(c) By the Railway Company, if the Cab Company is in arrears in its rental pay- 
ments more than three months, unless deferred payments are arranged by mutual 
agreement between the Railway Company and the Cab Company. 

(d) By the Railway Company when the Cab Company sublets, without the con- 
sent of the Railway Company, any of the privileges hereby granted to the Cab Company. 

(e) It is mutually agreed that in the event of the termination of this agreement 
in accordance with the foregoing clauses of Section 14, nothing shall be construed to 
relieve the Cab Company of any of its obligations in paragraphs 9 and 10, which may 
have occurred prior to the termination of this agreement. 

15. Assignment 

The Cab Company agrees that it will not, without the written consent of the 
Railway Company, assign or sublet any of the privileges herein granted. 

In Witness Whereof, the parties hereto have executed this agreement, in 
, the day and year first above written. 

Company 

Witness: 

By 

Company 

Witness : 

By 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE II— BALLAST 

A. D. Kennedy, Chairman; A. T. Goldbeck, M. I. Dunn, V ice-Chairman; 

G. J. Adamson, T. T. Irving, W. A. Roderick, 

A. L. Bartlett, a. R. Jones, R. L. Sims, 

L. H. Bond, R. B. Jones, C. B. Stanton, 

A. E. BoTTS, O. N. Lackey, E. C. Vandenburgh, 

A. P. Crosley, p. J. McCarthy, Stanton Walker, 

Arthur Daniels, R. H. Pinkham, G. B. Wall, Jr., 

R. L. Dyke, J. M. Podmore, C. S. Wicker, 

J. M. Farrin, C. p. Richardson, A. H. Woerner, 

J. J. Gallagher, P. T. Robinson, Committee. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully presents herewith report on its assignments. 

(1) Revision of Manual (Appendix A). 

Other information pertinent to anticipated revisions (Appendix A-1). 

(2) Specifications for Stone Ballast. 

(3) Design Ballast Sections in line with present day requirements (Appendix B). 
Progress report. 

(4) Rules and Organization, in 1929 Manual and Supplements thereto pertaining 
to ballast. This subject was withdrawn — no report. 

(5) Outline of complete field of work of the Committee. Your Committee reports 
progress and desires this subject continued. 

The Committee on Ballast, 

A. D. Kennedy, Chairman. 



Appendix A 

(1) REVISION OF MANUAL 

J. M. Podmore, Chairman, Sub-Committee; A. E. Botts, A. P. Crosley, A. T. Goldbeck, 
0. N. Lackey, C. B. Stanton, Stanton Walker, C. S. Wicker, A. H. Woerner. 

(1) REVISION OF MANUAL 

In Specifications for Prepared Blast Furnace Slag Ballast, adopted at the last Con- 
vention and given on page 575, Vol. 37 of the Proceedings, your Committee recommends 
changing table of gradation therein to conform with gradation table in Specifications 
for Stone Ballast. 

In the same specifications, under Section III, "Production Requirements," para- 
graphs (e) and (f), the term "Manufacturer" to be changed to "Producer". 

(2) SPECIFICATIONS FOR STONE BALLAST 

In lieu of the present Specifications for Stone Ballast (adopted in 1931) and revi- 
sions thereto, your Committee recommends the adoption for printing in the Manual of 
the following specifications. Fundamentally, these are the same specifications which were 
submitted last year as advance information. Attention is directed to specification limits 
given in note under "Quality Requirements." 



Bulletin 390, October, 1936. 

191 



192 Ballast 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR STONE BALLAST— 1937 

General Characteristics 

1. Crushed stone for ballast shall be composed of angular fragments, reasonably 
uniform in quality and having the specified durability and wear resisting qualities. It 
shall be reasonably clean and free from deleterious substances and shall be of the size 
specified. 

Gradation in Size 

2. The stone, prepared for use as ballast, shall be well-graded within the size limi- 
tations designated in the following table for the size or sizes desired, when tested with 
square opening laboratory sieves. 

Nominal 

Size Approximate Amounts Finer than Each Sieve (Square Opening) 

Square Size Round Per Cents by Weight 

Designation Openings Openings i" lyi" 2" lyi" 1" W %'" 

2A 1-2 " \yA-2y2" 100 90-100 35-70 0-lS 0-S 

3A Yi-l " Yi-\\i" ... 100 90-100 0-lS 

3B ^-I'A" H-IH" 100 90-100 20-55 0-lS 

23B H-'^Vi" %-i " 100 90-100 ... 25-60 ... 0-10 

Deleterious Substances 

3. Broken stone for ballast shall not contain deleterious substances in excess of the 
following amounts: 

Material finer than 200 mesh sieve 1 per cent 

Soft and friable fragments S per cent 

Clay lumps O.S per cent 

Physical Requirements 

4. (a) Stone ballast shall be considered to have the desired physical requirements 
when acceptable evidence is available showing that the stone has proved satisfactory in 
service under conditions essentially the same as those for which it is proposed for use. 

(b) Stone ballast failing to meet the requirements in Section 4 (a) shall be subjected 
to Ihe fcllowing physical tests for quality and shall meet the following requirements: 

Quality Requirements 
Absorption 

5. The absorption shall not exceed per cent.' 

Toughness 

6. The toughness shall be not less than 

Percentage of Wear 

7. The percentage of wear shall not exceed per cent.' 

Soundness 

8. Stone ballast failing to meet the requirements given in Section 4 (a) shall be 
subjected to the sodium sulfate soundness test and shall meet the following requirements: 

Loss in sodium sulfate test, not more than per cent.' 

Frequency of Testing 

9. Tests may be made from time to time at the option of the purchaser, and 
especially when new strata are being opened up for crushing into ballast, 

' Note.— Suggested Specification Limits. 



Ballast 193 

Selection of Samples 

10. Each stratum or portion of the quarry containing a variation in quality of 
stone shall be tested separately and not averaged with any other stratum or portion ol 
the quarry. 

Averaging of Test Results 

11. For obtaining the values of physical tests, the average results of the following 
number of tests for each sample shall be taken. 

Kind 

of 
Tests Percentage of 

No. of Absorption Wear Totighness Soundness 

Tests 2 2 (a) 2 

(a) Use 6 test cylinders, 3 drilled parallel and 3 at right angles to the bedding plane. 

Place of Tests 

12. Such tests as are deemed necessary shall be made at a testing laboratory selected 
by the purchaser, but visual inspection and other tests shall be made at the place of 
manufacture prior to shipment as often as considered necessary. 

Note. — Suggested Specification Limits 

The following table is intended to give an idea of the proper test limits for use in 
specifications for different classifications of stone ballast. Obviously, ballast in all of 
these classifications may not be economically available to railroads in different parts of 
the United States. Each individual railroad should specify test limits to suit the 
materials which can be obtained at a reasonable cost. 

Makimum Maximum Maximum 

Per cent Loss Minimum Per cent Wear Absorption 

Classification Soundness Toughness Deval Per cent 

A S IS 2.5 O.SO 

B 10 8 4.0 0.75 

C 15 6 S.O 1.00 

D 15 4 8.0 

Production Requirements 
Handling 

13. Broken stone for ballast shall be loaded directly from the screen or from clean 
bins or from storage piles provided the stone has not become segregated. 

Ballast must be loaded into cars which are in good order and tight enough to pre- 
vent leakage and waste of material and which are clean and free from sand, dirt, rubbish, 
or any other substance which would foul or damage the ballast material. 

Cleaning 

14. When the rock is of such a nature that it does not become clean without 
preliminary scrubbing, a scrubbing machine shall be provided at the quarry. 

Defect Found After Delivery 

15. Carloads of defective material arriving at the site for unloading and not pre- 
viously inspected shall be rejected and be disposed of at the e.xpense of the producer who 
will be held liable for all freight charges. If unloaded prior to discovery of defectiveness, 
payment shall be refused to the manufacturer without return of defective ballast. 

Inspection 

16. Inspectors representing the purchaser shall have free entry to the producing 
plant at all times while the contract is being executed, and shall have all reasonable 



194 Ballast 

facilities afforded them by the producer to satisfy them that the ballast is prepared and 
loaded in accordance with the specifications and contracts. 

In case the inspection develops that the material which has been or is being loaded 
is not according to specifications, the inspector shall notify the producer to stop further 
loading and to dispose of all cars under load with defective material. 

Measurement 

17. Ballast material may be reckoned in cubic yards or by tons, as expedient. 
Where ballast material is handled in cars, the yardage may be determined by weight, after 
ascertaining the weight per cubic yard of the particular stone in question by careful 
measurement and weighing of not less than five cars filled with the material or the 
tonnage may be determined for subsequent cars by measurement and converting the 
yardage into tonnage by the use of the weight per yard as determined above. 

Methods of Test 

18. All tests shall be carried out in accordance with the following methods: 

(a) Sampling the Quarry. Two samples shall be taken from each ledge or different 
quality of stone used in the preparation of the ballast. 

Samples of the finished product for gradation and other required tests shall be taken 
from each of 200 tons of aggregate delivered unless otherwise ordered by the Engineer. 
Samples shall weigh not less than 100 lb. 

(b) Sieve Analysis. The sieve analysis shall be made in accordance with the 
Standard Method of Test for Sieve Analysis of Aggregates for Concrete (A.S.T.M. 
Designation: C 41).* 

(c) Material Finer Than 200 Mesh Sieve. The per cent of dust, dirt, loam, and 
other fine material shall be determined in accordance with the Tentative Method of Test 
for Determination of Amount of Material Finer than No. 200 Sieve in Aggregates 
(A.S.T.M. Designation: C 117-3ST). 

(d) Soft and Friable Particles. The percentage of soft and friable particles shall be 
determined in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Quantity of Soft 
Pebbles in Gravel (Method T-8) of the American Association of State Highway Officials. 

(e) Clay Lumps. The percentage of clay lumps shall be determined by examining 
the various fractions which remain after the sieve analysis. Any particles that can be 
broken up with the fingers shall be classified as clay lumps and the total percentage of all 
clay lumps shall be computed on the basis of the total original weight of the sample 
used in the grading test. 

(f) Absorption. The absorption shall be determined by A.S.T.M. Tentative 
Methods of Test for Si)ecific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate (A.S.T.M. 
Designation C 127-36T). 

(g) Toughness. The toughness test shall be made by A.S.T.M. Standard D 3-18, 
Test for Toughness of Rock. 

(h) Soundness. When the accelerated soundness test is required, it shall be made 
in accordance with the Tentative Method of Test for Soundness of Coarse Aggregate by 
Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate (A.S.T.M, Designation: C 89-3ST) or 
subsequent revisions thereto.* 

(i) Deval Abrasion Test. The abrasion test shall be made by A.S.T.M. Standard 
Method D 2-33. 



» 1933 Book of A.S.T.M. Standards, Part II, p. 113. 
»1933 Book of A.S.T.M. Standards, Part II, p. 1244. 



Ballast 195 



Appendix A-1 

(1) PROPER DEPTH OF BALLAST 

(2) LOS ANGELES TESTING MACHINE 

(1) PROPER DEPTH OF BALLAST 

All material under this subject in the 1929 Manual and subsequent revisions thereto 
were temporarily withdrawn in 1936. As the Committee is not yet in a position to 
make definite recommendations in this particular, it desires to give you at this time 
the benefit of information gathered so far in this direction. 

A questionnaire on the subject was addressed to Chief Engineers of all Class I 
railroads in the United States and Canada. Replies were received from railroads 
representing 100,000 miles. 

Based on these replies, the average maximum and minimum depth of ballast recom- 
mended by Chief Engineers for three classes of track which would nominally call for 
131-lb., 112-lb. and 90-lb. rail respectively, are given in the following table: 

131-lb. 112-lb. 90-lb. 

Max. Min. Max. Min. Max. Min. 

Top ballast 16 in. 12 in. 14 in. 11 in. 12 in. 10 in. 

Sub-ballast 14 in. 10 in. 13 in. 10 in. 12 in. 10 in. 

Total Depth 30 in. 22 in. 27 in. 21 in. 24 in. 20 in. 

(2) LOS ANGELES TESTING MACHINE 

The Los Angeles testing machine is a device which is gaining popularity for 
determining abrasive resistance of crushed stone, slag and gravel. 

Indications are that its use will probably replace the Deval test which is now con- 
sidered standard, in which event Ballast specifications will have to be adjusted 
accordingly. For this reason, your Committee presents herewith a full de.-cription of 
the machine, together with pertinent data concerning methods of test. 

PROPOSED METHOD OF TEST FOR ABRASION OF COARSE AGGREGATE BY 

THE USE OF THE LOS ANGELES TESTING MACHINE 
Scope 

1. This method of test is intended for determining the abrasive resistance of 
crushed rock, crushed slag, uncrushed gravel and crushed gravel. 

Note. — Ledge rock, hand-broken into approximately cubical fragments of the dif- 
ferent sizes shown, when tested by this method, has been found to have a loss of 
approximately 85 per cent of that for crushed rock of the same quality. 

Apparatus 

2. The machine shall consist of a hollow iron drum, having inside dimensions of 
20 in. in length and 28 in. in diameter, rotating on a horizontal axis. An opening in the 
cylinder shall be provided for the introduction of the samp e and sha.l be clo ed, du;t 
tight, with a removable cover bolted into place. A shelf which projects 3J/2 inches into 
the drum, and extends the full length of the drum, shall be attached to the cover or to 
the inside of the drum. The surface of the shelf which catches the charge shall be 
rectangular and shall lie in a radial plane. 



196 Ballast 

Abrasive Charge 

3. An abrasive charge composed of cast iron spheres approximately V^ in. in 
diameter, weighing between 405 and 43S g. each, and conforming to the requirements in 
Section 24 of the Standard Specifications for Paving Brick (A.S.T.M. Designation: C 7) 
shall be used with the test sample. A charge of 12 spheres weighing 5000 g. ± 25 g. 
shall be used with the grading A described in Section 4, and a charge of 11 spheres 
weighing 4583 g. ± 25 g. shall be used with the grading B described in Section 4 below. 

Test Sample 

4. The test sample shall consist of SOOO g. of clean, dry aggregate and shall conform 
to either of the following gradings. The grading used shall be that most nearly 
representing the aggregate furnished for the work. 

Sieve Size, in. 
(Square Openings) Weight, g. Weight, g. 

Passing Retained on Grading A Grading B 

IH 1 1250 

1 ^ 1250 

^ Ys 1250 2500 

14 Yi 1250 2500 

Procedure 

5. The test sample and the abrasive charge shall be placed in the abrasive machine 
and the machine rotated at 30 to 33 r.p.m. for 500 revolutions. If an angle is used as 
the shelf, the machine shall be rotated in such a direction that the charge is caught on 
the outside surface of the angle. At the completion of the test, the material shall be 
removed from the machine and sieved on a No. 12 sieve conforming to the requirements 
of the Standard Specifications for Sieves for Testing Purposes (A.S.T.M. Designation: 
E 11). The material retained on the sieve shall be washed, dried, and weighed to the 
nearest gram (Note). 

Note. — Attention is called to the fact that valuable information concerning the 
uniformity of the sample under test may be obtained by determining the loss after 
100 revolutions; when this determination is made care should be taken to avoid loss of 
any part of the sample; the entire sample, including the dust of abrasion, shall be 
returned to the testing machine for the completion of the test. 

Calculation 

6. The difference between the initial weight and final weight of the test sample 
shall be expressed as a percentage of the initial weight. This value shall be reported as 
the percentage of wear. 

Under the standardization procedure of the Society, this method is under the joint 
jurisdiction of the A.S.T.M. Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and 
Committee D-4 on Road and Paving Materials. 

TEST RESULTS AND COMPARISONS 

A series of tests was made in the Los Angeles Rattler to determine the wear at 
different periods during the revolution of the drum on the theory that soft rock would, 
under severe treatment, break up at a proportionately smaller number of revolutions than 
the harder and tougher rock. 

A sample consisting largely of soft granitic boulders was selected from the Claremont 
Pit in the San Gabriel Valley. This material, after being crushed and graded, was used 
as the soft rock in this series of tests. 

Fairly hard and tough rock free from any very soft material was selected from this 
source and various others shown in Table II. 

Tests were made on the soft rock and each of the samples of hard rock; also on 
blended samples of soft and hard materials. 



Ballast 197 

In the first group of tests, which are shown in Table I, grading analyses were made 
on each sample at different stages in the revolution of the rattler. 

The effect of the number of revolutions on per cent of wear for this group of tests 
is also shown in Fig. 2. 

In the next group of tests the per cent passing the No. 3 and No. 10 mesh sieves 
was obtained at 100 and 500 revolutions for the other sample of hard rock and the 
various blends with soft material. These results are tabulated in Table II. 

The same distinct difference in the rate of wear at 100 revolutions between samples 
of hard rock and those of both hard and soft was again noted. The No. 3 size also 
showed quite promising for detecting soft material. Further study of the size is being 
made at the present time in connection with the regular test. 

All of the information available at the present time indicates that uniform samples 
of aggregate will have a nearly constant rate of wear up to 500 revolutions. This being 
the case, a fairly hard and tough rock without an appreciable percentage of soft 
material would show a wear of less than 8 per cent at 100 revolutions. 

Effect of Angularity of Rock 

A series of tests have been made for the purpose of determining the effect of shape 
and angularity of rock on the Los Angeles Rattler Test. 

For these tests samples of uniform ledge rock were obtained and crushed to the 
sizes desired for testing. This crushed material was then divided into two parts; one 
part being tested for percentage of wear in its crushed condition, the other being rounded 
in the Deval Machine before testing. 

The extent of the rounding in the Deval Machine was not sufficient to produce a 
typical round gravel aggregate. However, all of the samples treated might be classified 
as irregular shaped gravel. 

By referring to Table III where the results of these tests are shown, it will be 
noted that the Los Angeles Rattler Test apparently is not affected appreciably by shape 
and angularity of particles. This is, no doubt, due to the fact that the test is along the 
line of an impact test. 



\ 



198 Ballast 

Table I 

Rate of Breakinc Down hi- Soft and Hard Rook in hie Los Angeles Rattler Test 

Number of Revolutions 

Kind of Rock 40 70 100 200 300 500 

Total Per Cent Passing No. 10 Sieve or Per Cent Wear 

100% Hard 2.0 3.4 4.8 9.6 13.6 22.2 

90% Hard, 10% Soft 2.6 4.8 6.8 12.4 16.8 2S.4 

80% Hard, 20% Soft 5.2 6.8 8.8 15.2 20.4 22.9 

4.4 6.4 8.8 14.6 20.2 28.6 

4.8 6.6 8.8 14.9 20.3 28.9 

70% Hard, 30% Soft 4.6 8.0 10.4 17.6 23.8 34.0 

100% Soft 11.2 17.0 21.8 34.0 43.2 55.6 

Total Per Cent Passing No. 3 Sieve 

100% Hard 5.0 8.0 11.4 19.6 26.8 38.4 

90% Hard, 10% Soft 6.8 10.8 14.2 23.4 30.8 42.8 

80% Hard, 20% Soft 9.6 12.6 16.2 26.4 33.6 46.0 

9.0 12.8 16.4 26.4 34.6 46.8 

9.3 12.7 16.3 26.4 34.1 46.4 

70% Hard, 30% Soft 10.4 15.8 20.0 30.8 39.6 51.4 

100% Soft 26.0 34.0 40.4 55.8 64.2 74.6 

Total Per Cent Passing ^2 in. Screen 

100% Hard 15.6 21.4 25.6 37.4 44.4 52.6 

90% Hard, 10% Soft 17.6 22.8 28.2 38.6 45.6 55.8 

80% Hard, 20% Soft 20.2 24.6 28.6 41.0 49.0 57.6 

19.4 24.0 30.0 41.2 50.8 S8.8 

19.9 24.3 29.3 41.1 49.9 58.2 

70% Hard, 30% Soft 22.2 29.2 34.4 47.6 55.0 64.8 

100% Soft 36.0 48.2 54.0 67.0 73.4 81.2 

Total Per Cent Passing Y^-in. Screen 

100% Hard 48.2 51.4 53.0 57.2 60.6 65.0 

90% Hard, 10% Soft 48.6 53.2 55.2 60.2 64.6 64.0 

80% Hard, 20% Soft 48.4 52.4 55.0 60.6 63.4 68.0 

51.4 53.4 56.6 62.4 67.6 71.0 

49.9 52.9 55.8 61.5 65.5 69.5 

70% Hard, 30% Soft 52.0 58.2 62.8 68.0 73.6 77.4 

100% Soft 61.4 68.0 72.6 70.0 82.4 87.4 

Total Per Cent Passing 1-in. Screen 

100% Hard 66.8 67.8 69.0 72.4 72.6 76.8 

90% Hard, 10% Soft 67.6 71.4 72.8 75.0 76.4 79.2 

80% Hard, 20% Soft 68.0 69.0 70.6 75.0 76.2 82.4 

66.8 71.2 72.0 74.6 76.8 78.8 

67.4 70.1 71.3 74.8 76.5 80.6 

70% Hard, 30% Soft 73.4 75.0 76.8 80.0 83.0 85.0 

100% Soft 76.8 80.0 83.0 86.6 89.0 93.0 

Total Per Cent Passing 1%-in. Screen 

100% Hard 84.0 86.4 86.8 90.2 91.1 92.2 

90% Hard, 10% Soft 84.0 87.2 89.2 91.0 91.6 94.0 

80% Hard, 20% Soft 84.6 84.8 88.6 89.8 91.0 95.6 

82.0 86.8 88.0 90.0 92.6 92.8 

83.3 85.8 88.8 89.9 91.8 94.2 

70% Hard, 30% Soft 87.6 89.2 90.0 91.0 93.4 94.8 

100% Soft 88.2 89.2 93.2 95.4 96.4 96.6 

Note. — Soft rock test No. 4318. Hard rock test No. 4319-A. Both materials were 
crushed granitic boulders from the Claremont Pit. 



Ballast 1Q9 

Table II 

Effect of Soft Rock of the Los Angeles Rattler Test 

Total Per Cent Passing 

No. 3 Sieve No. 10 Sieve 
Kind of Rock 100 Rev. 500 Rev. 100 Rev. 500 Rev. 

Test 4247-A 

100% Hard 12.2 48.2 6.0 30.0 

13.4 50.6 6.4 31.2 

12.8 49.4 6.2 30.6 

90% Hard, 10% Hard 14.6 S0.2 7.6 31.4 

80% Hard, 20% Soft 18.4 53.4 9.6 36.0 

70% Hard, 30% Soft 19.6 56.8 10.4 56.6 

Test 4236-A 

100% Hard 12.2 44.0 5.8 28.0 

12.0 43.6 5.6 27.8 

12.1 43.8 5.7 27.9 

90% Hard, 10% Soft 13.4 44.8 6.8 28.2 

14.8 47.2 7.6 30.6 

14.1 46.0 7.2 29.4 

80% Hard, 20% Soft 18.0 50.8 9.6 34.0 

17.6 51.4 9.4 34.4 

17.8 51.1 9.5 34.2 

70% Hard, 30% Soft 20.4 54.0 11.6 37.6 

20.2 53.0 16.8 36.0 

20.3 53.5 11.2 36.8 

Test 4871-A 

100% Hard 9.2 37.4 4.2 20.0 

8.0 35.2 4.0 19.8 

8.6 36.3 4.1 19.9 

00% Hard, 10% Soft 12.2 40.0 6.6 24.2 

12.2 40.6 6.6 23.8 

12.2 40.3 6.6 24.0 

80% Hard, 20% Soft 15.4 45.0 8.6 27.6 

16.8 44.6 8.8 28.0 

16.1 44.8 8.4 27.8 

70% Hard, 30% Soft 19.8 50.8 10.8 32.2 

18.0 48.6 9.6 30.6 

18.9 49.7 10.2 31.4 



200 



Ballast 



Table III 

Effect of Angularity of Rock of the Los Angeles Rattler Test 

Per Cent wear at Per Cent wear at 

100 Revolutions 500 Revolutions 

Note Material and Source Crushed Rounded Crushed Grounded 

1 Basalt rock from Basalt Rock Co.. . . 2.2 2.0 10.0 9.6 

2.0 2.0 9.6 9.6 

2.1 2.0 9.8 9.6 
1 Test 5308. Fine grained igneous 

rock, probably andesite or diorite, 

from Del Norte County 3.2 2.8 12.4 11.4 

2.2 2.4 10.8 10.2 

2.7 2.6 11.6 10.8 
1 Test 4141, Granitic rock from Rubi- 
con-Springs, III-E. D.-38-C 10.4 10.0 48.8 48.6 

3 Granitic rock from Calaveras Coun- 
ty, near Avery's, X-Cal-24-E 7.8 7.2 38.8 39.6 

8.2 8.0 39.6 40.4 

8.0 7.6 39.2 40.0 

Notes 

1. Rounded material obtained by running crushed rock in Deval Machine for 
60,000 revolutions. 

3. Rounded material obtained by running crushed rock in Deval Machine for 
64,000 revolutions. 

Conclusions 

1. The Los Angeles Rattler Test is decidedly more suitable for determining the 
hardness and toughness of rock and the amount of soft material than any test or group 
of tests studied. Its advantages are pointed out as follows: 

(a) The nature of the treatment is severe, bringing out weakness not shown 
by any one of the other tests studied. 

(b) It is adapted for testing both crushed and gravel aggregates. 

(c) It requires very little time for performance. 

(d) It is not affected materially by changes in volume of aggregate due to 
Specific Gravity because of the size of cylinder in which the test is made. 

(e) It eliminates a large amount of the personal equation which enters into 
some of the other tests. 



Ballast 



201 




Fig. 1. — Los Angeles Rattler Machine. 



The accompanying photograph is a recent developed Los Angeles Rattler machine. 

In the picture is shown twelve 1%-in. iron balls. These are now considered prefer- 
able to the iron cubes for use as an abrasion charge. Each ball weighs between 400 and 
450 grams. 

The data for making this report was obtained from E. T. Stanton, Material and 
Research Engineer of the State Highway Department of California. 



202 



Ballast 



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"O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 

PERCENTAGE OF WEAR - LOS AN6ELE5 TEST 
+-6RAVEL, D-TRAP, o-LlMESTONE-DOLOMITE. x -QUARTZITE, '-MARBLE, ^-GRANITE 

FIGURE 2 -RELATION BETWEEN RESULTS OF TESTS IN DEVAL 
AND L05AN6ELE5 MACHINES. 



80 



Appendix B 

(3) DESIGN OF BALLAST SECTIONS IN LINE WITH PRESENT- 
DAY REQUIREMENTS 

Sub-Committee: The Entire Committee. 

Your Committee reports progress. 

A ballast section for each of the various classes of tracks, to be designated later, 
and kinds of ballast will be submitted at a later date for your consideration. 

Before proceeding further with this subject, your Committee offers for approval 
or modification as to basic design, and not for inclusion in the Manual, a ballast section 
for crushed stone or slag. Fig. 1, which, except for depth, is within reasonable bounds a 
composite of standard ballast sections of railroads represented on your Committee. 



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Ballast 



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REPORT OF COMMITTEE X— SIGNALS 
AND INTERLOCKING 



C. H. TiLLETT, Chairman; 

B. T. Anderson, 

F. H. Bagley, 

G. H. Dryden, 
W. J. EcK, 

P. M. Gault, 
L. C. Heilman, 

C. R. HODGDON, 



S. N. Mills, 
J. C. Mock, 
R. D. Moore, 
H. G. Morgan, 
F. W. Pfleging, 
W. M. Post, 
A. H. RuDD, 
J. E. Saunders, 



H. H. Orr, Vice-Chairman; 

E. G. Stradling, 
C. A. Taylor, 
G. K. Thomas, 

W. M. Vandersluis, 

F. B. WiEGAND, 

Leroy Wyant, 

Committee. 



To the American Railway Engineering Association : 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

1. Developments in railway signaling (Appendix A). Progress report. 

2. The principal current activities of the Signal Section, A.A.R., by synopsis, sup- 
plemented with list and references by number of adopted specifications, designs and 
principles of signaling practice (Appendix B). Progress report. 

The Committee on Signals and Interlocking, 

C. H. Tillett, Chairman. 



Appendix A 

(1) DEVELOPMENTS IN RAILWAY SIGNALING 

W. M. Post, Chairman, Sub-Committee; G. H. Dryden, W. J. Eck, F. B. Wiegand. 

(A) Roller Bearings for Switches 

The recent trend toward the use of heavier track, rails and longer switches has re- 
sulted in the introduction of a simple anti-friction device which road tests show requires 
approximately 60 per cent less power for the operation of the switches than for those 
not so equipped. The device provides for the support of practically the entire weight 
of the switch on roller bearings, while in transit. However, when a train travels over 
a switch equipped with this device, the switch is supported by tie plates in the usual 
manner. It utilizes a multi-leaf cantilever spring secured to the stock rail which engages 
with the roller mounted in a bracket bolted to the switch rail. The spring is so pro- 
portioned as to provide a yielding support for practically the entire weight of the 
switch rails which rest on the roller bearings. 

The power requirement variations are particularly noticeable where the lengths of 
switches have been increased to 45 feet with a corresponding increase in the weight of 
rail to 131 or 152 lb. 

The use of roller bearings eliminates the necessity for oiling of switches except to 
prevent rust on switch plates, as practically the entire weight of the switch rail is on 
the roller bearings. 

The device has undergone actual road service for more than a year, during which 
period it has given satisfaction on both manual and power-operated switches and is 
especially advantageous when used in connection with centralized traffic control installa- 
tions and on remote control and spring switches. This device is illustrated in Fig. 1. 

Bulletin 390, October, 1936. 



205 



206 



Signals and Interlockini 



(B) Dragging Equipment Detectors 

Occasionally a freight train accident occurs on interlocked switches caused by a 
broken arch bar on a truck of a freight car. When an arch bar breaks the column bolt 
and broken part of arch bar drops below the top of and outside of the rail and may 
ride for a considerable distance without damage, but when it reaches a switch rail, it 
will turn the truck and derail the car causing the following cars to derail, resulting in 












'^^ 







Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 

much damage to train, tracks and interlocking. Similarly, broken brake rigging and 
other defective equipment of a train may drag, resulting in derailments and consequent 
damage. 

A device known as a "Dragging Equipment Detector" has recently been developed 
to prevent these derailments. This device is a cast iron loop and they are located both 
sides of each rail, just below the top in the path of broken arch bars and dragging 



Signals and Interlocking 207 

equipment. They are attached to posts placed about three feet in the ballast. This 
device is illustrated in Fig. 2. 

These cast iron loops are connected with the wayside signal circuits and with the 
cab signal circuits in cab signal territory in such a manner that when broken by drag- 
ging equipment, the wayside signals and the cab signals change so as to show the 
cngineman he must stop as soon as possible, consistent with safety, and train must be 
inspected. 

Installations of these detecting devices, while in service only a short time, have 
performed satisfactorily. 

(C) Increased EfHciency Secured in Railway Operation by Signal Indica- 
tions in Lieu of Train Orders and Time-Table Superiorities 
Committee X has presented four reports* on this subject: the first at the 1929 
annual meeting, listing 107 installations on 31 railroads totaling 1274 road miles, with a 
discussion of the operating advantages of this method of directing train movements. 
The second report was at the 1930 annual meeting, listing 167 installations on 41 rail- 
ways totaling 1648 road miles. The third was at the 1932 annual meeting showing 
209 installations on 2261 miles of road, with a discussion of the operating advantages 
of Centralized Traffic Control, including lantern slide illustrations of two installations 
on the Missouri Pacific and Pennsylvania, with the economic results on the P.R.R. The 
fourth report was at the 1933 annual meeting, relating the economic results of the 
Missouri Pacific installation. 

This report shows the mileage of Train Operation by Signal Indication as of De- 
cember 31, 1935, and shows 939 installations on 73 railroads, totaling 14,937 road miles 
or 31,200 track miles. In bringing the previous mileage data up to date, it was found 
that a considerable mileage of Block Signal Operation should be included, such as One- 
Direction and Either-Direction Operation by Signal Indication in Manual Block, Con- 
trolled Manual Block and Automatic Block territory. In recent years with the advent 
of improved signaling devices, the use of train orders has been greatly reduced for 
normal operation of train movements. Trains are directed by block signals operated 
manually or by Interlocking, Remote Control, Centralized Traffic Control, Controlled 
Manual Block and Automatic Block Signals, by signal indication without train orders 
except in emergency, for slow orders, etc. With the increased speed of freight and 
passenger trains it has been necessary to direct trains by signal indication, diverting from 
one track to another by interlocking facilities without delays. 

The following summary prepared from data submitted by the railroads shows an 
increased mileage over the previous reports and brings out the wide application of this 
improved method of directing train movements, which not only provides increased speed 
of operation but increased safety and economy of operation. 



1929 Report, Vol. 30. pp. 524-542; Discussion, pp. 1444-1445. 

1930 Report, Vol. 31, pp. 1040-1058; Discussion, pp. 1729-1730. 

1932 Report. Vol. i3, pp. 510-514; Discussion, pp. 686-695. 

1933 Report, Vol. 34. pp. 266-268; Discussion, pp. 772-773. 



208 Signals and Interlocking 



SUMMARY 

Train Operation by Signal Indication 

Without Train Orders for Normal Operation on the Railroads of the United States, 

As of December 31, 1935 

Number of Installations 939 

Number of Railroads 73 

Miles Miles 

One-Direction Operation by Signal Indication Road Track 

Centralized Traffic Control 39.0 1S2.6 

Manual Block on Multiple Track 981.5 2,051.9 

Automatic Block on Multiple Track 10,624.9 24,508.2 

Total 11,645.4 26,712.7 

Either-Direction Operation bv Signal Indication 

Centralized Traffic Control 1,320.6 1,670.2 

Controlled Manual Block 507.7 663.4 

Automatic Block in Both Directions with Traiffic Locking .... 1,223.4 1,743.6 
Automatic Block in One Direction with Traffic Locking for Both 

Directions 239.9 409.9 

Total 3,291.6 4,487.1 

Grand Total 14,937.0 31,199.8 

(D) Automatic Train Control and Cab Signals 

As of July 1, 1936 the installations of automatic train control, automatic cab 
signals and equipped locomotives are summarized below: 

Road Track 

Miles Miles 
Automatic train control 

In service under I.C.C. orders 4,860.7 9,600.1 

Voluntary installations* 3,333.0 5,554.6 

* Includes 229.0 miles of road and 481.3 miles of track in Canada. 

Total automatic train control 8,193.7 15,154.7 

Automatic cab signals 

In lieu of train control by I.C.C. authority 1,876.0 3,703.6 

Voluntary installations 407.3 1,369.9 

Total automatic cab signals 2,283.3 5,073.5 

Total automatic train control and cab signals 10,477.0 20,228.2 

Engines equipped (includes motor cars and multiple-unit cars) 

Continuous control, speed control, and cab signals 582 

Continuous control and cab signals 436 

Intermittent control without speed control 4,189 

Intermittent control with speed control 87 

Cab signals only 3,482 

Exclusively for operation over foreign lines 349 

Total locomotives equipped 9,125 



Signals and Interlocking 209 

In the above summary are included many installations of automatic train control, 
the locomotives of which are equipped with automatic cab signals in addition to auto- 
matic train control, and accordingly those installations having automatic cab signals, 
either with or without automatic train control, together with the equipped locomotives, 
as of July 1, 1936 are shown in the following tabulation: 

Equipped Loco- 
Road Track motives and 
Miles Miles Motor Cars 
^ Automatic cab signals 

Without automatic train control and with 

automatic wayside signals 2,283.3 5,073.5 3,582 

With automatic train control and automatic 

wayside signals 654.4 966.7 444 

With automatic train control and without 
automatic wayside signals 912.2 1,749.4 569 



Total 3,849.9 7,789.6 4,595 

The following table giving the number of locomotives equipped for interchangeable 
operation over different types of automatic train control and cab signal track installa- 
tions, is submitted to show the increasing trend toward interchangeability between various 
types of automatic train control and cab signal devices: 

Railroad Locomotives Equipped 

C.ofN.J.^ 35 equipped to operate over C.ofN.J. continuous code and non-code 

cab signal. 
C.&E.1 43 equipped to operate over C.&E.I. intermittent electrical contact 

stop and CC.C.&St.L. intermittent inductive stop. 
L.V 3 equipped to operate over L.V. intermittent inductive stop and 

Pennsylvania continuous code cab signal. 
N.Y.N .H.&H 4 equipped to operate over continuous code and 140-cycle non-code 

continuous automatic stop of the N.Y.N.H.&H. 
U.P." 6 equipped to operate over U.P. continuous cab signal, O.-W.R.R.&N. 

continuous 1 -speed, and C.&N.W. continuous 2-speed. 

^ Four of these locomotives also operate over code equipped tracks of the Penn-Reading Seashore 
Lines. 

* Three of these locomotives are equipped to operate also over the National Intermittent magnetic 
inductive automatic stop on the Southern Pacific Company. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad is now installing cab signals between Philadelphia and 
Harrisburg, Pa., and when this work is completed this railroad will have cab signals 
from New York, Washington and Atlantic City to Pittsburgh; New York to Washington; 
and Pittsburgh to Indianapolis. 

A petition of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad to the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, for permission to discontinue operation of automatic train con- 
trol, and to operate by automatic cab signals in conjunction with wayside signals on 
those portions of their lines equipped with automatic train control under the two orders 
of the Commission, was granted on October 19, 1936. 

The Committee on Automatic Train Control and the Bureau of Safety have con- 
ducted a joint inspection and test of an experimental installation on a Louisville & 
Nashville locomotive, of a time element reset for the Union Switch & Signal Company 
continuous inductive automatic train stop equipment in service on that railroad between 
Mobile, Ala., and New Orleans, La. This arrangement was designed to eliminate the 
reset cock, and instead to introduce a predetermined delay time following the initiation 
of an automatic brake application before the brakes can be released. In all of the tests, 
both standing and running, this time element reset arrangement operated satisfactorily, 
and it has been retained on this locomotive for an extended period, in order that its 
performance might be observed and recorded in both freight and passenger service. A 
joint report, describing in detail the operation of this arrangement and the tests con- 
ducted with it, has been issued by the committee and Bureau of Safety, and has been 
sent out by the committee to interested parties. 



^10 Signals and Interlocking 

Negotiations have been conducted with several carriers to equip passenger and 
freight locomotives with a reset contactor provided with a clockwork mechanism, 
arranged to delay for a predetermined time the resetting of the automatic train stop 
equipment, and release of the brakes, after the contactor, which is to be located in the 
cab, has been operated, following an automatic brake application. 

During the year 1936, other activities in the field of automatic train control and cab 
signals have included inspections and tests of the following: 

The intermittent inductive automatic train stop device of the General Railway Signal 
Company, installed on the Diesel locomotive, which formerly was used with the Baltimore 
& Ohio lightweight streamlined train, "The Royal Blue," operating between Washington 
and New York. 

The composite automatic train control and cab signal equipment on the Union 
Pacific streamlined trains, Nos. M-10002, M-10004, M-IOOOS and M-10006. This equip- 
ment was manufactured by the Union Switch & Signal Company and is designed to 
operate over the continuous inductive speed control territory of the Chicago & North- 
western, and the Oregon-Washington Railroad and Navigation Company, as well as the 
automatic cab signal installation of the Union Pacific, and the intermittent magnetic 
inductive automatic train stop territory on the Southern Pacific. 

Experimental installation of an automatic train control and cab signal device of the 
continuous inductive type, of the Lowell-Wintsch Company. 

The composite cab signal system of the New York, New Haven & Hartford's stream- 
lined Besler self-propelled steam train. This equipment was manufactured by the Union 
Switch & Signal Company and is designed to operate interchangeably over the con- 
tinuous inductive non-code, two-indication, automatic train stop installation on the 
Hartford Division, as well as the four-indication, coded, continuous inductive automatic 
train stop system, with which the Shore Line is equipped. 

Reports covering all the above activities have been sent out by the committee to 
interested parties. 

During the past year, the Bureau of Safety has directed attention to the need for 
service tests to determine the maximum speed at which intermittent inductive automatic 
train stop devices will operate to initiate an automatic brake application, under the 
various conditions of air gap and offset, obtaining in service on those roads equipped 
with these devices. At the present time no such information is available with respect 
to all of the various conditions of air-gap and offset, based upon actual operation tests, 
and, on account of the growing trend toward increased speed and faster schedules, the 
Bureau is of the opinion that such information is not only desirable but essential. 
Negotiations have been opened by the Bureau of Safety with a view to making such 
tests on one railroad. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission during the year filed three suits, containing 
five counts, in various United States courts, against the Lehigh Valley Railroad for 
alleged violation of its automatic train control orders. The specific instances mentioned 
in the suits involved the movements of certain locomotives and motor cars backward 
with the current of traffic, in automatic train stop territory, without automatic train 
stop protection. The motor cars and locomotives were equipped for operation in the 
direction of traffic for forward movement only, so that for the backward movements the 
automatic train control was not operative. The railroad had petitioned the Commission 
for authority to make such backward movements without automatic train stop protection, 
but the petition was denied, and shortly afterwards the suits were filed. 

This case is of interest because it is the first instance in which the Commission has 
brought suit against a railroad for alleged violation of its automatic train control orders. 

The cases were disposed of by the railroad confessing judgment and paying the 
minimum fine on each count together with costs. 

The Bureau of Safety is continuing the practice of making periodical inspections of 
automatic train control and cab signal installations, as well as analysis of the perform- 
ance records of these devices, from information submitted by the carriers in the monthly 
reports of automatic train control performance. 



Signals and Interlocking 211 

Appendix B 

(2) THE PRINCIPAL CURRENT ACTIVITIES OF THE SIGNAL 
SECTION, A.A.R., BY SYNOPSIS, SUPPLEMENTED WITH LIST 
AND REFERENCES BY NUMBER OF ADOPTED SPECIFICA- 
TIONS, DESIGNS AND PRINCIPLES OF SIGNALING PRACTICE 

W. M. Post, Chairman, Sub-Committee; G. H. Dryden, W. J. Eck, F. B. Wiegand. 

CURRENT ACTIVITIES OF THE SIGNAL SECTION, A.A.R. 
Since November, 1935 

Printed and placed on sale Chapter XXI — Hump Yard Systems, American Railway 
Signaling Principles and Practices. This is the twentieth of a series of twenty-five 
pamphlets being prepared for the guidance of signal men and others in the conduct of 
their work. 

The work performed during the 1935 fiscal year and reported at the 1936 annual 
meeting covers the following subjects: 

Cost of stopping trains. 

Capacitors for signal power lines — economic results. 

Alternating current primary power supply system for automatic interlocking. 

Comparative frequency and cost of accidents before and after the installation of 
automatic block signals. 

Economics of changing from automatic train control to automatic cab signals. 

Additions to Chapter III — Principles and Economic Phase of Signaling, American 
Railway SignaUng Principles and Practices. 

Revision of specification for compensation of pipe lines for the operation of 
mechanical units. 

Rail locking devices used on interlocked drawbridges. 

Alternating current circuits and apparatus as applied to automatic train control 
and cab signal systems. 

Protection against lightning. 

Investigation of effect of boiler water blow-off on track circuits. 

Automatic train control performance reports. 

Revision of specification for one-inch welded steel pipe. 

Specification for type "C" air depolarized carbon caustic soda primary cells. 

Practice in the use of rust preventives. 

Train approach signals. 

Development on highway crossing protection, Federal and State activities. 

Specification for copper-covered steel guy and messenger strand wires. 

Specification for bronze messenger cable. 

Specification for non-metallic underground cable. 

Automatic train control and automatic cab signals. 

Aspects and indications for four-block signal systems. 

Signahng for high-speed trains for both light and heavy equipment, giving con- 
sideration to spacing of signals for train operation on grades, curves and tangent 
tracks. 

Noteworthy changes in signal practices, 1924-1935. 

Requisites for remote control of manual block signals. 

Uniform policy covering replacement by manufacturers of material which has been 
placed in service. 

Certified duplicate limit glasses. 

Development of proposed inductive coordination measures involving railroad power 
lines and power equipment, as a result of the adoption of the Principles and 
Practices for the Inductive Coordination of Railway Electric Supply Facilities 
and the Communication Facilities of the Bell System — Cooperative report. 

Lantern slides were presented showing some of the modern installations of automatic 
block signals; centraUzed traffic control; either-direction operation, and high- 
speed trains. 



212 



Signals and Interlocking 



A paper entitled "Retrospect-American Railway Signaling," by H. S. Balliet, was 
presented in commemoration of the 41st Anniversary of the founding of the 
Railway Signaling Club. 

Reports of the various standing committees on assignment "Indexing signal literature" 
were compiled and printed as a "Bibliography." 

SPECIFICATIONS REVISED 

Old No. New No. 

Mechanical Interlocking Machine, S. & F. Locking 7530 75-36 

Electric Interlocking Machine 7632 76-36 

Electric Lock 9931 99-36 

Electric Motor Switch Operating Mechanism 10131 101-36 

Mechanical Interlocking Machine, Style "A" Locking 11430 114-36 

Circuit Controller for Movable Bridges 13029 130-36 

Electro-Pneumatic Switch Operating Mechanism 15232 152-36 

Automatic Block Signal System 6329 and 86-34 63-36 

Tractive Armature Direct Current Neutral Relay with Four or More 

Contact Fingers 10529 105-36 

Portable Direct Current Voltmeters, Ammeters and Volt- Ammeters. . . 8533 85-36 

One-Inch Welded Wrought Iron Pipe 12324 123-36 

No. 6 Dry Cell 12623 126-36 

Dry Process Porcelain Insulation 14428 144-36 

Type "A" Copper-Oxide Caustic Soda Primary Cells 8720 87-36 

Bare Copper-Covered Steel Line Wire, Thirty Per Cent Conductivity 71-33A 167-36 

Bare Hard-Drawn Copper Line Wire 72-18A 169-36 

DRAWINGS REVISED 

Relay Contact Post Designation Plate 1633A 1633B 

Rectangular Jars and Cover (Primary Battery) 1419 1419B 

Switch-Rod Insulation 1055B 1055C 

Binding Posts 1070D 1070E 

Two-Way Single-Lamp Signal 1236B 1236C 

Foundation for Ground Mast Bottom Mechanism Signals (for Single 

or Double Case) 1259 12S9B 

Ladders for Ground Mast Signals (Assembly) 1365 1365B 

Plunger Switch Lock-Rectangular Plunger 1425B 1425C 

Plunger Switch Lock-Details-Rectangular Plunger 1426B 1426C 

Adapter Clamp and Details for Signs 1647A 1647B 

REQUISITES REVISED 
Centralized Traffic Control System. 

INSTRUCTIONS REVISED 

Testing Electric Locking. 

Maintenance and Operation of Alternating Current Track Circuits. (Old title, Instruc- 
tions for the Adjustment, Care and Operation of A.C. Track Circuits.) 
Maintenance and Operation of Direct Current Track Circuits. 
Installation, Maintenance and Operation of Lead Acid Type Storage Batteries. 
Maintaining and Testing Light Signals. 



REVISED MISCELLANEOUS MATTER 

Alternating Current Power Supply and Distribution Calculations. 

for Calculating Power Supply and Distribution.) 
General Classification for Signal Interruptions. 
Pipe Thread. 
Application of Signals. 



(Old title, Information 



Signals and Interlock! ng ^^ 



NEW SPECIFICATIONS 

No. 

Tractive Armature Direct Current Polarized Rela> 165-36 

Copper-Oxide Rectifiers and Valves Io6-3(j 

Type "B" Copper-Oxide Caustic Soda Primary Cells 171-36 

Air Depolarized Dry Cell 1 70-36 

Bare Copper Alloy Line Wire, Thirty Per Cent Conductivity 168-36 



NKW DRAWINGS 

Junction Box and Cross-Arm for Flashing Light Highway Crossing Signals 16S6B 

Junction Box and Cross-Arm Details for Flashing Light Highway Crossing 

Signals 1657B 

Suspension Base for S-Inch Mast 1193 A 

Concrete Battery Box — Assemblies 1266A) * 

Concrete Battery Box— Details 1267 A, 1268A, 1269A) 

* Superseding Drawings 1597A and 1S98A. 

NEW INSTRUCTIONS 

Maintaining and Testing Electric Lamps. 

Maintaining and Testing Car Retarder Systems. 

Installing, Inspecting, Testing and Maintaining Insulated Rail Joints. 

Inspecting, Testing and Maintaining Switch Circuit Controllers. 

NEW MISCELLANEOUS MATTER 

Agreements on Principles Applicable to Joint Signal Facilities. 
Joint Signal Facilities — Construction Cost Detail. 

SPECIFICATIONS TO BE REMOVED FROM THE MANUAL 

No. 

Concrete Trunking and Capping 12429 

.Alternating Current Indicator or Repeater 9720 

Direct Current Indicator 13123 

Cement Concrete Battery Box 11622 

Portland Cement Concrete HH 

Machinery Steel 2111 

MISCELLANEOUS MATTER TO BE REMOVED FROM THE MANUAL 

Standard Forms for Reporting Material Used and Labor Performed in Construction. 
Construction Program for Signaling. 

Table of Average Service Life in Years of the Important Units of the Different Types 
of Signal Installations. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE IV— RAIL 



John V. Neubert, 

Chairman; 
John E. Armstrong, 
W. J. Backes, 
M. M. Backus, 
W. C. Barnes, 
F. L. C. Bond, 
N. J. Boughton, 
C. B. Bronson, 
W. J. Burton, 

E. E. Chapman, 
W. A. Duff, 
RoBT. Faries, 

J. M. Farrin, 
L. C. Fritch, 

F. W. Gardiner, 
F. M. Graham, 



A. F. Blaess, Vice- 
Chairman; 

C. R. Harding, 
G. W. Harris, 

B. Herman, 

F. S. Hewes, 

C. W. Johns, 
Maro Johnson, 

W. H. KiRKBRIDE, 

B. R. KuLP, 

G. M. Magee, 
H. C. Mann, 
Ray McBrian, 
Wm. Michel, 

C. E. Morgan, 

E. E. OVIATT, 

J. C. Patterson, 



Louis Yager, Vice- 
Chairman; 
W. H. Penfield, 
W. H. Petersen, 
P. Petri, 
G. A. Phillips, 
G. J. Ray, 
A. N. Reece, 
J. C. Ryan, 

R. T. SCHOLES, 

G. R. Smiley, 
C. P. Van Gundy, 
J. C. Wallace, 

J. E. WiLLOUGHBY, 
W. P. WiLTSEE, 

J. B. Young, 

Committee. 



To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual (Appendix A). 

(2) Further research, including details of mill practice and manufacture as they 
affect rail quality and rail failures, giving special attention to transverse fissure failures, 
collaborating with Rail Manufacturers' Technical Committee (Appendix B). Progress 
report. 

(3) Compilation of statistics of all rail failures, making special study of transverse 
fissure failures (Appendices C, D and E). Progress reports. 

(4) Cause and prevention of rail battering and methods of reconditioning rail ends, 
fastenings and frogs in track (Appendix F). Progress report. 

(5) Economic value of different sizes of rail (Appendix G). Progress report. 

(6) Rail lengths in excess of 39 feet (Appendix H). Progress report. 

(7) Continuous welding of rail, collaborating with Committee V — Track and 
Special Committee on Stresses in Railroad Track (Appendix I). Progress report. 

(8) Service tests of various types of joint bars (Appendix J). Progress report. 

(9) Effect of contour of the head of rail sections on the wear (Appendix K). 
Progress report. 

(10) Outline of Complete Field of Work of the Committee (Appendix L). 

The Committee on Rail, 
John V. Neubert, Chairman. 



Bulletin 391, November, 1936. 



215 



216 Rail 

Appendix A 

(1) REVISION OF MANUAL 

A. F. Blaess, Chairman, Sub-Committee; John E. Armstrong, W. C. Barnes, N. J. 
Boughton, C. B. Bronson, E. E. Chapman, W. A. Duff, L. C. Fritch, F. M. Graham, 
C. R. Harding, G. W. Harris, Marc Johnson, John V. Neubert, C. P. Van Gundy, 
Louis Yager, J. B. Young. 

STAMPING INGOT NUMBERS 

For several years the rail specifications have provided that the ingot number "as 
rolled" shall be hot stamped in the side of the web of the rail. It is desirable from 
the standpoint of following the metallurgy of a given rail that the number thus stamped 
shall be of the ingot as cast. The matter of so specifying has been handled with and 
has received the approval of the Rail Manufacturers' Technical Committee, and the 
following change in the first sentence of paragraph (b) of Section 407 of the Rail 
Specifications on page 4-4 of the new Manual is recommended: 

Present Proposed 

(b) The heat number, the rail letter, and (b) The heat number, the rail letter, 

the ingot number as rolled, shall be hot and the ingot number shall be hot stamped 

stamped in the web of each rail where it in the web of each rail where it will not be 

will not be covered by the joint bars. covered by the joint bars. It is desired 

that the ingot number shall be in the 
order as cast. 

DESIGNATING MARKS FOR CONTROLLED COOLED AND NORMALIZED RAIL 

The marking of the web of the rail to indicate controlled cooled or normalized rail 
has been under consideration, but some complications have been encountered which 
seem to make it desirable to defer definite recommendations at this time. 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR STANDARD RAIL JOINT 

Manual, page 4-14 

These requirements or principles, formerly in the Track Committee section of the 
Manual, were originally adopted in 1905. At that time each railroad was its own 
authority as to the requirements for an effective rail joint and this was the first step 
taken by the Association toward joint standardization. Your Committee believes they 
should be made more specific and recommends the following changes: 

Present Proposed 

Title: Standard Rail Joint No change. 

A standard rail joint should fulfill the No change, 

following general requirements. 

Present Proposed 

1. It should connect the rails into a uni- 1. It should so connect the rails that 
form continuous girder. they will act as a continuous girder with 

2. It should be strong enough to resist uniform surface and alinement. 
deformation or taking permanent set. 2. Its resistance to deflection should ap- 

3. It should prevent relative deflection or proach, as nearly as practicable, that ot 
vertical movement of the ends of the rails the rail to which it is to be applied. 

and permit movement lengthwise for 3. It should prevent vertical or lateral 

expansion. movement of the ends of the rails relative 

4. It should be as simple and of as few to each other and permit longitudinal 
parts as possible to be effective. movement necessary for expansion. 

4. No change. 



Rail 217 

Appendix B 

(2) FURTHER RESEARCH, INCLUDING DETAILS OF MILL PRAC- 
TICE AND MANUFACTURE AS THEY AFFECT RAIL QUALITY 
AND RAIL FAILURES, GIVING SPECIAL ATTENTION TO 
TRANSVERSE FISSURE FAILURES, COLLABORATING WITH 
RAIL MANUFACTURERS' TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 

John V. Neubert, Chairman, Sub-Committee; John E. Armstrong, W. C. Barnes, A. F. 
Blaess, C. B. Bronson, E. E. Chapman, Robt. Paries, P. Petri, G. J. Ray, W. P. 

Wiltsee, Louis Yager. 

The Rails Investigation, which is a cooperative investigation by the Board of 
Trustees of the University of Illinois, the Rail Manufacturers' Technical Committee and 
the Association of American Railroads, after having completed its scheduled term of five 
years, extended its work over a sixth year, using the unexpended balance of the total 
grant which remained after five years of the investigation. 

The work during this sixth year of the investigation has concerned itself largely 
with: 

1. A study of thermal treatment processes for preventing shatter cracks in rails; 

2. A study of acceptance tests for rails; 

3. A continued study of non-destructive tests for detecting shatter cracks; and 

4. Some further field tests of frequency of high wheel loads, including evaluating 

the effects of wheel load defects and rolling stock defects. 

In addition to these items, a beginning has been made on the study of batter of rail 
ends and of the effectiveness of various end-hardening processes in diminishing this 
batter. The first series of such tests is now in progress; these tests include: hardness 
surveys, metallurgical studies, physical tests of small specimens from various parts of the 
hardened end rail, and rolling load tests for batter. 

Two progress reports of this investigation have been made by H. F. Moore, Re- 
search Professor of Engineering Materials, in charge of the Rails Investigation, Univer- 
sity of Illinois. These reports appeared in the June 1935 Bulletin 376 and the June 1936 
Bulletin 386 of the AREA. A further statement of the progress of the investigation 
will be made by Professor Moore at the time this report is presented at the coming 
annual convention of the Association. 

In planning work for the coming year under the proposed two years extension of 
the program, emphasis will be shifted from the study of the mechanism of shatter cracks 
to the study of rail-end batter, end-hardening of rails, and the building up of rails by 
welding. At present tests are being made of rails end-hardened at the mills. It is 
planned to start a study of rails obtained from railroads who have end-hardened their 
rails in the field, and the work is going on in connection with a Sub-Committee of the 
AREA, of which F. M. Graham is Chairman. 

It is proposed to continue to study the thermal treatment processes for rails, with 
special attention to the temperature limits and rates of cooling which are most effective 
in preventing shatter cracks. It is also planned to continue studies of the cause of shatter 
cracks, and of acceptance tests of rails, and, in spite of the rather remote possibility of 
success, to continue the search for a non-destructive test for shatter cracks. 

This is a progress report and it is recommended that the subject be continued. 



218 



Rail 



Appendix C 

(3) RAIL FAILURE STATISTICS FOR 1935 

By W. C. Barnes, Engineer of Tests, Rail Committee 

The Rail Failure Statistics for the year ended December 31, 1935, appearing in this 

report, have been compiled in accordance with the standard method of basing the failure 
rates on mile years of service in track. 

The reported tonnages and track miles of rollings for 1930 and succeeding years 
included in these statistics are as follows: 

Year Rolled Tons Track Miles 

1930 1,231,216 6,962 

1931 807,680 4,498 

1932 237,521 1,349 

1933 205,637 1,090 

1934 541,507 2,919 

Totals 3,023,561 16,818 

Table 1 shows the average failures per 100 track miles of rail in service which oc- 
curred in one to five years' service in the rail reported from rollings of 1930 to 1934, 
inclusive, from all mills together with similar rates of elder rollings taken from previous 
reports which include both Bessemer and open-hearth rails. The 1930 rolhngs, whose 
period of observation is now concluded, show an average of 60.0 failures per 100 track 
miles for the five-year period, a decrease of 61.2 compared with the rate reported last 
year for the 1929 rollings. Both service and detected failures are included in this Table. 
Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically the five-year averages from Table 1. 



1! 


J3-0 


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the: 
























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19 ii 


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Fig. 1. 

Table 2 presents the accumulated failures and failure rates of rail from each of the 
mills for each of the rollings of 1930 and succeeding years. Service and service plus 
detected failure rates are shown separately. 

Fig. 2 shows diagrammatically the failure rates per 100 track miles of the 1930 
rollings from Table 2, for combined service and detected failures. Five-year rates for 
earlier rollings are reproduced from previous reports. 

Fig. 3 shows diagrammatically the Table 2 failure rates per 100 track miles per year, 
separately for service and service plus detected failures, for each of the 1930 and 
subsequent rolhngs, by mills, unweighted for traffic. 



Rail 



210 



Fig. 4 shows diagrammatically the comparative performance of the mills from data 
underlying Fig. 3 except that average traffic density factors have been introduced into the 
final computations using the method described on pp. 369-70 of Vol. 32 of the AREA 
Proceedings for 1931. No claim is made for the entire accuracy of this method of rating 



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1910 1912 1914 19lt l>IO l«0 1922 192* I92<> I92» I9J0 

YEAR ROLLED 



Fic. 2. — Record of Failures per 100 Track Miles for Five Years' Service for Rollings 
From 1908 to 1930, (Service and Detected Failures Included.) 



220 



Rail 



but it does give more consideration to the service to which the rails from the respective 
mills are subjected than does the method of rating on which Fig. 3 is based. 

Table 3 shows the average weights of rail from the various mills and from all mills 
included in these statistics. 



YtAR 
ROLLED 



FAILURES PER 100 AVE.TRACK MILES PER YEAR 



CARNEGIE 

(CARNCaiE -ILLINOIS) 



1930 
1931 
I9J2 
1933 
1934 



6.23 

t.38 
1.69 
3.75 



11.00 
7.97 
t.96 
I.fc9 
3.75 



ENSLEY 

(TENNESSEE) 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1931 



I2.6'1 
4.4t 
fe.40 
7.62 
1.75 



15.2? 
7.23 
9.28 

12.58 
1. 75 



GARY 

(CARNEI^IE-ILLINOIS) 



1930 
1931 

1932 
1933 
1934 



6.11 
5.85 
3.78 
3.21 
3.03 



lt.57 
I 1.30 
3.78 
9.63 
9.65 



INLAND 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1931 



1.72 
2.91 
0.98 
0.53 
1.03 



2.44 
3,95 
0.98 
0.53 
1.03 



LACKAWANNA 
(BETHLEHEM) 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1931 



I 1.95 
a.97 

12.26 
6.85 
5.10 



17.85 

14.51 

21.93 

7.31 

5,40 



MARYLAND 

(BETHLEHEn ) 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1931 



7.95 
8.47 
6.90 
15.52 
3.96 



21.68 
18.7 7 

7.24 
18.10 

3.96 



niNNEQUA 
(COLORADO) 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



2.60 
2.81 
0.69 
0.37 
1.66 



2.96 
3.07 
0.69 
0.37 
1,66 



STE ELTON 

(bETHLEHEn) 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



6,16 
17.11 
0,54 
0.00 
7.82 



ll.Sfe 
25.71 
3.26 
0,00 
7.82 



AUMILLS 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1911 



6,63 
7.66 
5.00 
3,77 
4,50 



12.00 
11,69 
7,07 
5.84 
4.t2 




Fig. 3.— FaUure Rates From Date Rolled to Dec. 31, 1935, by Mills (Service and 
Detected Failure Rates Shown Separately). 



Rail 



221 



YEAR 
ROLLED 



FAILURES PER 100 AVE.TRACK MILES PER YEAR PER UNIT OF TRAFFIC DENSITY 



SERVICC SERVICE 
ONLY aiTECTCO 



CARNEGIE 

(CARWC^ie-ILllNOIs) 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
193^ 



2.39 
1.75 
1.5^ 
OM 
0.99 



3.69 

l.(,8 
0.41 I 
0.99 



ENSLEY 
(TENNESSEE) 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
193^ 



9.25 
3.10 
4.fe0 
6.19 
1.34 



11.11 
S.02 

10.23 
1.31 



GARY 

(CARKIEqiE-ILLINOI^ 



1930 

1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



3.20 
2.(>l 
1.77 
0.97 
4.23 



8.fe3 
5.04 
1.77 
2.91 
4.49 



ilNLAND 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



0.82 
1.00 
0.42 
0.14 
0.39 



1.16 
l.3(> 
0.42 
0.14 
0.39 



LACKAWANNA 

(BETHLEHEn) 



1930 

1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



4 60 
2.94 
3.95 
1.96 
2.30 



6.66 
4.76 
7,07 
2.09 
2.30 



MARYLAND 

(BCTMUHEn ] 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



4.66 
4.43 
5.23 
4.11 
1.59 



12.75 
9.83 
5.48 
4.79 
1.59 



MINNEQUA 
(COLORADO) 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1333 
1934 



2.17 
2.81 
0.53 
0.29 
1.29 



2.47 
3.07 
0.53 
0.29 
1.23 



STEELTON 

(BETHLEHEM) 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



4.31 
5.51 

o.ia 

0.00 
3.20 



10.16 
6.27 
1.08 
0.00 
3.20 



ALL MILLS 



1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 



3.54 
3.25 
2.27 
l.2(> 
2.04 



6.42 
4.95 
3.21 
1.96 
2.09 



Fig. 4.— Failure Rates From Year Rolled to Dec. 31, 1935, by Mills, Altered by Traffic 
Density Factors. (Service and Detected Failure Rates Shown Separately.) 



221 



Rail 



Table 1.— AVERAGE FAILURES PER 100 TRACK MILES— ALL MILLS 
(Both service and detected failures are included) 



Year 






Years Service 






Rolled 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


1908 










398.1 


1909 








224.1 


277.8 


1910 






124.0 


152.7 


198.5 


1911 




77.0 


104.4 


133.3 


176.8 


1912 


28.9 


32.1 


49.3 


78.9 


107.1 


1913 


12.5 


25.8 


44.8 


69.5 


91.9 


1914 


8.2 


19.8 


32.9 


60.9 


74.0 


1916 


8.9 


19.0 


34.2 


63.0 


82.4 


1916 


11.8 


29.2 


47.7 


70.6 


106.4 


1917 


21.6 


38.9 


66.0 


110.5 


137.0 


1918 


8.9 


27.6 


54.0 


92.8 


125.4 


1919 


14.8 


39.4 


73.7 


104.8 


115.7 


1920 


14.2 


32.4 


63.1 


84.6 


119.6 


1921 


10.9 


34.9 


66.9 


70.9 


98.9 


1922 


15.9 


34.8 


55.2 


80.4 


110.0 


1923 


14.3 


33.2 


67.6 


86.0 


114.1 


1924 


14.0 


33.4 


58.3 


82.0 


110.7 


1925 


15.6 


36.6 


68.3 


76.6 


110.7 


1926 


17.1 


41.2 


64.6 


102.6 


131.3 


1927 


18.4 


37.7 


69.5 


94.6 


112.4 


1928 


11.0 


28.0 


45.8 


57.4 


76.4 


1929 


14.1 


36.8 


65.9 


82.7 


121.2 


1930 


7.8 


12.8 


22.4 


37.6 


60.0 


1931 


9.1 


19.7 


32.3 


46.8 




1932 


4.6 


11.8 


21.2 






1933 


6.2 


11.7 








1934 


4.6 











Rail 



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224 



Rail 



Table 3. — Average Weights of Rails Compiled prom Tonnages Used in this Report 



Mill 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


Algoma 


99.7 


114.0 


97.7 




105.1 


Dominion 


126.9 


106.5 








Edgar Thomson (Carnegie) 


122.2 


124.5 


128.1 


128.5 


127.4 


Ensley (Tennessee) 


103.2 


100.9 


101.6 


103.2 


102.5 


Gary (Illinois) 


110.5 


113.9 


111.5 


119.8 


115.2 


Inland 


111.9 


114.6 


108.6 


121.6 


117.8 


Lackawanna (Bethlehem) 


117.4 


119.6 


119.3 


123.6 


122.0 


Maryland (Bethlehem) 


115.3 


113.8 


105.0 


123.0 


120.8 


Minnequa (Colorado) 


107.2 


100.3 


109.3 


111.2 


114.7 


Steelton (Bethlehem) 


129.9 


130.9 


126.7 


130.3 


123.0 


All Mills 


112.5 


114.2 


112.0 


120.0 


118.0 



Appendix D 
(3) TRANSVERSE FISSURE STATISTICS 
By W. C. Barnes, Engineer of Tests, Rail Committee 

These statistics constitute a cumulative record of transverse fissure failures that 
have been reported up to and including December 31, 1935. They include all fissured 
rails reported, whether located by actual breakage in track or detected before breakage 
by inspection or test. This total, however, does not represent all such failures that have 
occurred for the reason that while the records of some roads have been cumulative for 
over twenty years, those of other roads are of more recent origin and furthermore some 
roads do not report such failures. Compound fissures and horizontal split heads 
(horizontal fissures) are not included. 

Table 1 corresponds with Table 1 of last year's report and shows separately the 
number of service and detected transverse fissure failures classified by roads and by year 
failed. It includes data only from such roads as have consistently reported service 
failures over a long period of years and have also reported separately the service and 
detected failures since the introduction of detection methods in 1929. 

The total failures on any one road or on all roads during any given year can be 
obtained by adding the corresponding figures for the service failures and detected failures 
appearing in this Table. In 1935, 7,497 detected and 4,867 service failures were reported. 
In other words, 60.6 per cent of the total failures in 1935 were detected before actual 
breakage could occur. During the period 1929 to 1935 inclusive, a total of 23,575 
detected and 32,672 service failures were reported making the detected failures average 
U.9 per cent of the total fissure failures. In 1935, there were 2,463 more detected 
failures and only 81 more service failures reported on these roads than were reported 
in 1934. 

Fig. 1 presents graphically the fissure failures by year failed from Table 1. The 
solid line shows the service failures; the broken line, the detected failures only; and the 
dotted line, the total service plus detected failures. 



Rail 



225 



FIS.l - TOTAL FI5SURE FfWlURtS REPORTED EACH YEAR 
(1950 INCLUDES II MONTHS ONLY) 



































r 

1 
1 

1 




lEGENO 

ifRVICE AND DETECTED fISS. f WLURES. 

— -— OETeCTEO FlSSORr FAILURES ONLY. 
















t 
1 

1 
















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1919 l?ZO 1921 1322 1323 192+ 1925 IS2t (927 (928 1929 1950 13J1 1932 1933 193'^ 1935 

Table 2 shows all transverse fissure failures, service plus detected, reported by all 
roads for each year's rollings from each mill accumulated from year rolled to Decem- 
ber 31, 1935. These data are not weighted for tonnage output of mills, for density of 
traffic, or for years of service. Reports from all roads are included and hence the grand 
total of accumulated transverse fissure failures (98,304) exceeds that shown in Table 1. 
This Table is most useful in comparing the failures in the various year's rollings from 
any one mill. 

Fissure failures reported since 1924 as occurring in the first year of service are as 
follows: 

29 Failures in 1925 from 1925 Rollings, All Mills 



50 


" 1926 ' 


1926 


114 


" 1927 ' 


1927 


58 " 


" 1928 ' 


1928 


106 


" 1929 ' 


1929 


33 


" 1930 ' 


1930 


32 


" 1931 ' 


1931 


3 


" 1932 ' 


1932 


" 


" 1933 ' 


1933 





" 1934 ' 


1934 


3 


" 1935 ' 


1935 



Fig. 2 is a mill rating chart and shows separately the service and detected transverse 
fissure failure rates per 100 average track miles per year of each of the 1928 to 1932 
rollings of each mill from date rolled to December 31, 1935, unweighted for traffic. 

Fig. 3 shows graphically the average rates of failure, by mills, from Fig. 2, modified 
by the application of average traffic density factors, the derivation of which is explained 
on pp. 369-70 of Vol. 32 of the AREA Proceedings for 1931. Owing to the necessity of 
using factors obtained from average traffic per mile of road, instead of actual traffic 
over the particular rails in question, this chart can be considered only as an approximation. 



c o 

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230 



Rail 



riS5UR[ FAILURI RATCS PCR 100 AVC. TRACK MILES PER TEAK 



StRVICt SfRVIcf 
ONLV OCTICTCO 



CARNEGIE 

(CARNEqlE-ILUWOIS) 



I92S 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 



3.6 
2.2 



5.3 
4.4 
2.S 
2.5 
2.0 



ENSLEY 

(TENNESSEE^ 



1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 



2.9 
7.4 



4.4 
10.0 
2.5 
4.4 
TA 




qARY 

(CARNE^IE-ILLINOr^ 



1928 
1»2» 
19-30 
1931 
1932 



0.9 
0.7 
3.6 



1.3 

as 

5.7 
0.7 



1926 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 



0.7 
0.2 



4.5 

2.5 kD 



2.7 
0.4 



LACKAWANNA 

(BETHLEHEMO 



1926 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 



5.2 
4.(, 
O.S 

a4 

0.0 



7.6 
T.fc 
0.7 
0.4 
0.0 



MARYLAND 

CBETHLEHEH) 



1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 



24.2 

n.7 

9.8 

0.00 



50. < 
252.8 

44.5 

0.0 



MINNCqUA 

(COLORABO; 



1926 

IJ29 
1930 
1931 
1932 



0.(> 
0.3 
0.1 
0.0 
0.0 



0.4 

o.a 

0.0 
0.0 



STEELTON 

(6ETMLEHEn) 



1426 
1929 
1930 
1931 
I9S2 



5.T 
7.0 
£.5 
H.O 
1.8 



12.7 
14.0 
20.4 
20.5 
5.(, 



ML MILLS 



1926 
1)29 
1930 
1)31 
1932 



3.2 
4.2 
2.4 
2.9 
1.5 



1.3 
13.0 
6.2 
6.8 
2.3 




Fiq. 2,- FISSURE FAILURE RATES FROn DATE ROLLED TO DEC.3I, 1935 BY MILLS 
(SERVICE AND DETECTED FAILURE RATES SHOWN SEPARATELY) 



Rail 



231 







FISSURE FAILURES PER lOOAVE TRACK MILES PER YIAR PER UNIT OF TRAFFIC DENSITY 


MILL 


YEAR 

ROLLED 




ilRVICE 


SERVICE 










AMO 








ONIY 


MTtCTtD 


10 20 30 40 50 




I9ze 


1.0 


1.4 


B 














1929 


O.k 


1.2 


3 












CARNEGIE 


1930 


O.J 


O.d 














[CAftMC^-Hi-INOlS ) 


1991 
1932 


0.3 
0.4 


O.h 
0.4 
















1928 


1.7 


2.fc 


Kl 














1929 


4.3 


5.9 


^^m 1 












ENSLEY 


1930 


0.9 


1.5 


D 












(TENNESSEE) 


1931 
1932 


1.0 
2.5 


2 1. 
4.2 


ED 














I92d 


0.4 


0.7 
















1929 


0.3 


O.S 














QARY 


1930 


1.5 


3.fc 


■_J 












(CARNE&IE-ILllNOli) 


1931 
I93t 


0.8 
0.3 


2.1 
0.3 


C 














1926 


0.5 


1.8 


□ 














1929 


0.3 


1 .1 


D 












INLAND 


(930 
1931 
l«2 


0.1 
0.4 

o.« 


o.<, 

0.8 
0.2 


n 

D 










P 




1926 


1.9 


2.8 


■3 














1929 


l.« 


i.k 


n 










L 


LACKAWANNA 


1930 


0.2 


0.2 














(BETHUHEM) 


1931 
1932 


0.1 
0.0 


0.2 
0.0 














MARYLAND 
fMTHLCHCn ) 


1928 
• 929 
1930 
1931 
1932 


8.3 
M.4 
2.9 

2.8 

0.0 


15.9 
Ta3 

n.2 

10.5 
0.0 
















i 


^ 


D 










^ 


1 








I9Z6 


OS 


I.J 


D 














1929 


0.3 


0.3 














MINNEQUA 


1930 
1931 


0.1 
0.0 


0.1 
0.0 














(COLORADO) 


1932 


0.0 


0.0 
















I92S 


l.T 


3.7 


■-^ 












STEELTON 


1929 
1930 


2.2 

1.5 


4.5 
5.7 


■JH 












■ 




1931 


3.3 


(.0 


W^M 












(Bethlehem) 


1932 


o.s 


l.fc 


D 














192 B 


1.3 


2.S 


■H 














1929 


I.L 


5.1 


■ 












All Mill 6 


1930 
1931 
1932 


0.9 

0.9 
O.fc 


2.4 
2.3 

0.9 


o 

D 













FI4.3- FISSURE FAILURE RATES FROM PATE ROLlED TO OCC. 31, 193S 6Y MIILS, ALTERED BY TRAFFIC DENSITY FACTORS 
(SERVIcr AND OfTCCTCO FAllURC RATES SHOWN SEPARATflV) 



232 Rail 

Appendix E 
THE AAR DETECTOR CAR 

By W. C. Barnes, Engineer of Tests, Rail Committee 

On November 14, 1936, the AAR Detector Car completed its eighth year of opera- 
tion under the supervision of the Rail Committee and under the immediate direction of 
the writer. As of November 26, 1936, the car had tested a grand total of 40,100 track 
miles of rail. 

The track mileage now tested per year averages about 6,000, which is 100 per cent 
increase over that tested in 1929. There has been a steady increase in the number of 
transverse fissures detected per mile of track tested, the number detected in 1936 being 
approximately 10 per cent greater than in 1934. The total failures detected have 
increased 100 per cent in the same period. 

Having but one detector car, we have so far been unable to handle all of the 
business offered by the roads, and our test schedule is always booked solid for months 
in advance. 



Appendix F 

(4) CAUSE AND PREVENTION OF RAIL BATTERING AND METH- 
ODS OF RECONDITIONING RAIL ENDS, FASTENINGS, AND 
FROGS IN TRACK 

F. M. Graham, Chairman, Sub-Committee; A. F. Blaess, M. M. Backus, W. C. Barnes. 
E. E. Chapman, B. Herman, W. H. Kirkbride. G. M. Magee, Ray McBrian, Wm. 
Michel, C. E. Morgan, John V. Neubert, W. H. Petersen, J. C. Ryan, G. R. Smiley, 
C. P. Van Gundy, Louis Yager. 

Sub-Committee IV of the Rail Committee has recently been reorganized with a 
somewhat different personnel, and arrangements have been made whereby laboratory work 
incident to this subject will be undertaken at the University of Illinois under the 
direction of Prof. H. F. Moore, under an arrangement similar to that by which the 
study of transverse fissures, and other defects of rail, has been previously handled. 

The Committee desires to present the following progress report: 

The study of end-hardened rails which is carried on at the University of Illinois as 
a part of the Rails Investigation is well under way. The specimens so far received have 
come from the steel mills, and represent rail mill practice in end-hardening. Hardness 
surveys of these test rails are nearly finished, a number of metallographic studies have 
been made, physical tests of specimens cut from end-hardened rails are in progress and a 
good beginnmg has been made on rolling-load tests for batter. 

Plans for securing test rail joints from end-hardening contractors, as well as test 
rail joints hardened in track from various railroads, are under active consideration. 

It is recommended that the subject be continued. 



Rail 233 

Appendix G 

(5) ECONOMIC VALUE OF DIFFERENT SIZES OF RAIL 

J. M. Farrin, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. C. Barnes, A. F. Blaess, F. L. C. Bond, 
N. J. Boughton, W. A. Duff, Robt. Faries, F. W. Gardiner, C. R. Harding, C. W. 
Johns, G. M. Magee, John V. Neubert. A. N. Reece, Louis Yager. 

Certain studies have been made of this subject, but the Committee feels it is not 
ready to make a report on it. 

It is recommended that this be received as a progress report and that the subject 
be continued. 

Appendix H 

(6) RAIL LENGTHS IN EXCESS OF 39 FEET 

A. N. Reece, Chairman, Sub-Committee; A. F. Blaess, W. C. Barnes, W. J. Burton, 
F. S. Hewes, C. W. Johns, H. C. Mann, John V. Neubert, J. C. Patterson, W. H. 
Penfield, G. A. Phillips, R. T. Scholes, J. C. Wallace, J. E. Willoughby, Louis Yager. 

A questionnaire has been sent out to all Class 1 Railroads in order to work up the 
proper data for this subject. 

Attached herewith is a study and practice in regard to standard rail lengths in 
excess of 39 feet. 

STANDARD RAIL LENGTHS IN EXCESS OF 39 FEET 

Foreign Practice 

Through an extensive questionnaire, the Rail Committee has determined the standard 
lengths of rail used by European railways to be as shown in the accompanying Table A. 

It will be observed from this table that rail of approximately 60-ft. length is in quite 
general use, a considerable mileage of 78.7-ft. rail is in use in France, 90-ft. rail is on 
trial in England, and 98.4-ft. rail is being used in Germany and Denmark. 

Mill Practice 

With present mill practice, the rail is rolled and comes to the hot saws generally in 
sufficient length to be cut into three 39-ft. rails, or a total of 117 ft. This may be con- 
sidered as approximating the maximum length which could be made standard without 
requiring rebuilding of the rolling mills at great expense. 

In order to economically produce any standard rail length in excess of 39 ft. the 
representatives of the mill manufacturers have advised that mill changes would be re- 
quired in the hotbeds, straightening machines, drill presses, and controlled cooling or 
normalizing facilities. A considerable investment will be required to make this change. 
Probably very little more investment would be required to go from 39 ft. to 117 ft. as 
compared with increasing from 39 ft. to 45, 60 or 78 ft. It is desirable, therefore, that 
in making a change the new standard rail length be made as long as present track and 
handling conditions make practical, in order to prevent the unnecessary expense of again 
revising mill facilities to increase the rail length a few years hence. 



234 Rail 

Use of Long Rail in the United States 

At least two railways in this country have made experimental installations with 
66-ft. rail in open track of the usual construction. The Lehigh Valley and Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroads have each had ten miles of 66-ft. rail in service for several 
years and their experience with this length rail is hereinafter referred to. 

Lengths of Rail to be Considered 

The following lengths of rail are suggested for consideration, for the reasons stated: 

45 feet, as being the maximum length for which a sufficient number of 
long length cars would be available for transportation with single loading. 

60 feet, as giving an even tie spacing of 20 inches and conformmg more 
nearly with general European practice. 

66 feet, as being an even multiple of 33-ft. rails. 

78 feet, as being an even multiple of 39-ft. rail, thus facilitating interchange, 
and as approaching the maximum length that could be handled with double 
loading. 

117 feet, as being a multiple of 39 ft., the maximum now rolled at the 
mills before being sawed, and as approaching the maximum length that could be 
handled on three-car loading. 

Transporting Rail 

In previous considerations, the maximum car lengths available for transporting rail 
have been a principal factor in determining the standard length of rail. Most of the 
European countries transport their rail m single, long cars, but in England the rail is 
transported on 4S-ft. flat cars having a free flat car at each end; in Norway, Denmark, 
and Germany, long rail is transported on two fiat cars. The Lehigh Valley transported 
their 66-ft. rail in 40-ft. low side gondola cars with drop ends, two cars being used to a 
rail length. From 40 to 45 rails were loaded in each pair of cars, the bottom layers of 
rails being given six points of support, three in each car. The total weight of 45 rails 
78 ft. long of 131-lb. RE section would be 68 gross tons, or 34 gross tons per car. This 
utilizes the capacity of the equipment reasonably well. The maximum loading require- 
ments under present tariff regulations are 20 gross tons for the first car, plus 12 net tons 
for the second car, with two-car loading. A loading of 21 rails 78 ft. long of 131-lb. RE 
section would comply with this minimum weight requirement for two-car loading. There 
would be, therefore, no added freight charges involved in transporting long rails by 
two-car loading. 

Since available equipment will handle 39-ft. rail with single loading, then the limit 
of rail length for two-car loading would be approximately 80 ft. A 78-ft. standard rail 
length would more nearly utilize the capacity of equipment for two-car loading than 
would 45, 60, or 66 ft. 

There is some question whether there is sufficient equipment available for transport- 
ing 45-'ft. rail by single loading. If not, it would be necessary to use two cars for 
transporting this length. 

Unloading Rail 

The Lehigh Valley unloaded their 66-ft. rail by using locomotive cranes equipped 
with 50-ft. booms. The European practice was not determined from the questionnaire, 
except that practically all of the roads reported long rail could be unloaded for the same 
cost per mile as short rail. The Lehigh Valley and Burlington roads also held this 
opinion from their experience. 



I 



Rail 235 

Laying Rail 

Locomotive cranes with 50-ft. booms were used on the Lehigh Valley in laying their 
66-ft. rail. A special pair of rail tongs was used for setting the rail in place. This 
special arrangement consisted of two tongs separated by a 10-ft. spreader bar, which in 
turn was carried by the hoisting rope of the crane in a balanced position. Long rail 
can also be set in place using hand tongs, at no greater cost per mile than for 39-ft. rail. 

Practically all of the European roads advised that the cost of laying long rail was 
the same per mile as short rail. The Lehigh Valley found the cost per mile less for 
laying 66-ft. rail, compared with 39-ft., due to reduction in number of pieces to be 
handled and reduction in number of joint bars to be applied. 

Expansion Requirements 

Field Tests. — In order to obtain some field measurements that would be helpful, 
a section of tangent track 1320 ft. in length, on the Kansas City Southern Railway main 
line near Kansas City, was selected as a test section. At each end of the test section, a 
fixed grade separation structure served as a base for determining movement of the rail at 
the end of the test section. These end movements together with measured expansion gap 
openings at each successive joint accurately determined the expansive movement of the 
rail. Near the center of the section, strain gage readings were taken on the rail and 
compared with those on a free rail on a rail-rest at that location. 

The rail is 127-lb. Dudley section, laid in the winter of 1929 at moderate tempera- 
tures, without expansion allowance. The joint bars are 38 in. long, with six heat-treated 
bolts of one-inch nominal diameter. The clearance between bolt-holes and bolts provided 
for .>^-inch maximum opening. 

In Fig. 1 is shown the measured expansion gap at each successive joint, on both the 
east and west rails. Five series of measurements have been made, ranging from rail 
temperatures of 36 deg. to 135 deg. The joints on the west rail during this entire tem- 
perature variation of almost 100 deg. showed appreciable movement only at one joint 
out of the 34. Neither did the rail show any marked tendency to move at the ends of 
the test section. The joints of the east rail showed considerably more movement than 
did those of the west rail. However, even here, only 14 joints out of the 34 showed 
appreciable movement. 

The following tabulation (B) shows the average expansion per joint for each 
observation: 



236 



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238 Rail 

Tabulation (B) — Joint Gap Measurements 

Date 4-22-36 4-21-36 S-28-36 7-20-36 8-12-36 

Average Rail Temperature 36° 66° 100° 116° 135° 

Time 6-7:30 AM 3-5:30 PM 4-5 PM 3-4 PM 2-3:30 PM 

East Rail 

Total Joint Gap 4.580 2.290 .990 .450 .370 

Correction for End 

Movement —.570 — +.312 — — 

Net Joint Gap 4.010 2.290 1.302 .450 .370 

Average per Joint 118 .067 .038 .013 .011 

West Rail 

Total Joint Gap 1.313 .843 .623 .240 .278 

Correction for End 

Movement +.380 — — —.120 —.188 

Net Joint Gap 1.693 .843 .623 .120 .090 

Average per Joint 050 .025 .018 .004 .003 

NOTE. — The joint gap readings as shown in Fig. 1 were measured between the rail ends at the 
lower portion of the rail ball. Some end flow at the rail surface had occurred at many of the joints, 
and in the above tabulation correction has been applied to the readings shown in Fig. 1 so that the 
net joint gap between the flowed-over portions of the rail ends is given in the tabulation. 

The average values for expansion per joint have been indicated on Fig. 2 by small 
circles, the circles being connected by straight lines to better distinguish them. The 
theoretical movement of a 39-ft. rail, entirely free to expand without any joint or tie 
restraint, is also shown for comparison. 

Although a larger number of readings, particularly at low temperature, are necessary 
to permit final conclusions, the following conclusions are definitely indicated by these 
measurements: 

1. The effect of joint and tie restraint is to lessen the expansion requirement for 
tightly fitting angle bars much below that which is generally used in this country. More 
than 0.18-inch maximum joint opening on the west rail and 0.25-inch maximum joint 
opening on the east rail would not have been necessary and it is quite likely that subse- 
quent readings at very low temperatures will not show even these large average expansion 
openings. 

2. Relatively large temperature stresses are set up in ordinary track due to joint 
restraint. Between 36 and 135 degrees, a rail free to expand would have moved 

99° X .0000065 X 39 X 12 = 0.301 inch. 

The actual movement on the east raU of the test section was 0.107 inch. A total 
variation in the temperature stress of 

0.194 
39 y 12 -^ 30,000,000 or 12,400 lb. per sq. in. 

would be required to develop this restraint. Strain gage readings near the center of the 
section indicated a total variation in stress of 5250 lb. per sq. in. at that point. 
The actual movement on the west rail was 0.047-inch. A total variation of 

0.301— .047 

— X 30,000,000 or 16,300 lb. per sq. in. 

would be required to develop this restraint. The measured stress variation near the 
middle of the section was 18,000 lb. per sq. in. 



Rail 230 

3. Neglecting the tie restraint, which could not have been appreciable, the average 

12,400 
joint restraint on the east rail was - — z — X 12.5 sq. in. (cross-sectional area), or 

16,300 
77,500 lb., and on the west rail was — -z — X 12.5 sq. in., or 102,000 lb. 

Free Expansion of Rail 

The expansion coefficient of rail may be taken at .0000065 of the length per degree 
Fahrenheit change in temperature. The range of temperature in this country will ordi- 
narily not exceed a total variation of 140 deg. The maximum change in length of free 
rails would then be, for 

39-ft. rails 

-^^ — X .0000065 X 39 ft. X 12 in. — 0.425 in. 

78-ft. rails 

T- X .0000065 X 78 ft. X 12 in. = 0.850 in. 



140 
117-ft. rails 
140° 



X .0000065 X 117 ft. X 12 in. = 1.275 in. 



The above represents the maximum expansion gaps that would occur in coldest 
weather if the rails were free to expand without being held by any restraining forces. 

Restricted Expansion of Rail 

Rail in track is not permitted to expand freely due to joint bar restraint and tie 
restraint. The joint bar restraint is the force required to slip the rail within the joint 
bars and varies widely due to variation in bolt tension. The joint restraint may be 
approximately estimated as the sum of the tension in all the bolts since the angle of 
fishing contact is about the same as the angle of friction and there are two bars develop- 
ing friction. The values of joint restraint in reasonably well-maintained track might be 
expected to vary from a minimum of 20,000 lb. with four-bolt joints and fairly tight 
bolts to 120,000 lb. with six-bolt joints and very tight bolts. 

For 131-lb. rail having a cross-sectional area of 12.86 sq. in., a force of 

12.86 X .0000065 X 30,000,000 = 2500 lb. 

is required to fully restrain rail through a temperature change of 1 deg. Fahr. A joint 

restraint of 120,000 lb. would restrain rail expansion through a temperature range of 

120,000 
2 X 2500 ~ ^^ degrees 

since the joint restraint would resist equally a lowering or raising of temperature of 
48 deg. It is therefore apparent that in the case of very tight joints, the joint restraint 
alone may restrain the rail from expansion through most of the seasonal variation in 
temperature. 

The value of tie restraint with cut spike fastenings is negligible in its effect on 
preventing rail expansion in the length of even a 100-ft. rail and need not be considered. 

For the purpose of a typical analysis, the joint bar restraint has been assumed at 

75,000 
75,000 lb. This is sufficient to restrain the rail against movement through .-„„ or 

30 deg. rise in temperature or 30 deg. fall in temperature, or through a total temperature 
range of 60 deg. 

In the accompanying chart. Fig. 3, is shown the calculated expansion range of 78-ft. 
rail under two assumed conditions: 

1. If free-ended with no joint restraint. 

2. With a joint restraint of 75,000 lb. 



240 



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242 



Rail 



The diagram is drawn to have no joint opening at 130 deg. and no pressure transmitted 
by abutting rail ends at this temperature. It will be noted the effect of the joint 
restraint is to reduce the required maximum opening from 0.85 to 0.49-inch. 

Providing the joint opening, as provided by clearances between bolt-holes and bolts, 
is less than indicated in Fig. 3, then in cold weather the rails will come solid against 
the bolts, and in hot weather pressure will be transmitted between abutting rail ends. 
As an illustration, in Fig. 4 a diagram is worked out for 78-ft. rails with maximum 
joint opening of 0.37S-inch, assuming the rail is laid so the shearing force on bolts in 
winter, and pressure force on abutting rail ends in summer (or track buckling force), 
will be equalized. It is apparent from this diagram that the rail would have to be laid 
with 0.37S-inch opening at 29 deg., 0.0-inch opening at 91 deg., with openings prorated 
for intermediate temperatures. Rail could not be laid with rail temperatures below 29 
deg. or above 91 deg. The maximum rail tension developed in winter, or compression 
developed in summer, would be 

39 X 2500 = 97,500 lb. or 7600 lb. per sq. in. 

It will be noted that the larger the maximum joint opening provided, the larger will 
be the temperature range within which rail may be laid, and the smaller will be the rail 
tension and compression, except that the rail tension and compression cannot be less 
than the frictional joint restraint. It is apparent, therefore, the only advantage of 
making the maximum joint opening in excess of that at which the rail tension and com- 
pression will equal the frictional joint restraint will be to increase the range of 
temperature within which rail may be laid. 

Relation of Rail Length, Expansion Allowance, Laying Temperature Range 
and Restraining Forces 

In the following tabulation (C) for different assumed rail lengths and maximum 
expansion openings, is shown the rail temperature range to which the rail laying must 
be restricted and the resulting tension and compression forces which will be developed 
in the rail at the temperature extremes. 



Tabulation (C) 



Maximum 
Expansion 

Rail Opening 

Length Permitted 
(Feet) (Inch) 

(1) (2) 

39 ft ys (.125) 

39 % (.250) 

39 Vs (.375). 

66 ft ^ (.250) 

66 3/s (.375) 

66 yi (.500) 

78 ft Vs (.375) 

78 Yi (.500) 

78 Vs. (.625) 

100 ft Vs (.375) 

100 Yi (.500) 

100 y» (.625) 

100 54 (.750) 

117 ft 14 (.500) 

117 5/s (.625) 

117 3^ (.750) 

117 74 (.875) 







Maximum. 


Range of 


Tension in Winter 


Rail 


and 




Temperature 


Compression in 


Summer 


For Laying 


Total in 


Lb. per 


(Degrees) 


131 -lb. RE Rail 


Sq. In. 


(3) 




(4) 


(5) 


39 to 


81 


122,500 lb. 


9520 Ib./sq. ii 


18% to 


1011^ 


71,200 


5530 


—3y2 to 


122^ 


18,700 


1450 


35^ to 


84^ 


113,600 


8850 


2314 to 


961^ 


83,800 


6500 


ny2 to 


108^ 


53,700 


4200 


29 to 


91 


97,500 


7600 


19 to 


101 


72,500 


5600 


9 to 


111 


46,200 


3600 


36 to 


84 


115,000 


8950 


28 to 


92 


95,000 


7400 


20 to 


100 


75,000 


5800 


12 to 


108 


55,000 


4300 


321^ to 


87^ 


106,000 


8250 


251^ to 


945^ 


88,700 


6900 


18^ to 


101^ 


71,200 


5500 


11^ to 


108^ 


53,700 


4200 



Rail 24^ 

From a practical standpoint, it would be very desirable, if not necessary, to have a 
range for rail laying of from approximately 20 deg. to 100 deg. Fahr. rail temperatures. 
Rail could not be laid when the rail temperature was above 100 deg. or below 20 deg. 
To restrict this range farther would seriously limit the number of days during the year 
when rail could be laid. 

The foregoing tests described under "Field Tests" show that a joint holding force 
of 75,000 lb. can be safely resisted by six-hole bars. This should be reduced to 50,000 lb. 
for four-hole bars. 

Joint openings of one-half-inch with 39-ft. rail are not uncommon. If this be 
taken as the maximum permissible joint opening, it is apparent from the preceding table 
that rail of approximately 78 ft. is the longest that will fulfill these three requirements 
of laying range, joint tension, and expansion opening. If 100-ft. rail were used, the 
permissible joint opening would have to be increased to ^-inch, and for 117-ft. rail to 
•j4-inch. The longest rail fulfilling these requirements for ^-inch opening would be 60 ft. 

No difficulty would be experienced with track buckling as many roads have laid 
rail tight at rail temperatures less than 100 deg. Further, the joint resistance develops 
this large buckling force even with present 39-ft. rail with six-hole joints. 

Design of Joint Bars 

On page 188, AREA Proceedings, Vol. 31, there is given some data showing 
the load required to produce longitudinal slippage of the rails within the joint bars. 
From this data, it will be noted there is wide variation in the resistance to slip- 
page, and the resistance to slippage is approximately directly proportional to the bolt 
tension. A comparatively wide variation in the slippage resistance of individual joints 
must be conceded and the joint bars and bolts designed so the bolts will have sufficient 
strength, when they come to a solid bearing, to break down the resistance of the so-called 
frozen joints without breaking the bolts. 

In the new 131 -lb. RE joint bar design (page 551, AREA Proceedings, Vol. 36), 

the distance between inner faces of the joint bars is 3.125 inches. The strength of the 

P 
bolt considered as a beam resting on the joint bars as supports with a load -r' applied 

at each edge of the rail web may be calculated as follows: 

P (3.125 — .75) _ lOP . 
Bending moment developed = -j" X z "TT" inch-lb. 

Diameter of bolt = 15/16 inches. 

3 14 
Section modulus of bolt = -jj- X 15/16" X 15/16" X 15/16" = .081 in.'' 

19P 

Stress in bolt r= Moment = 

32 _ 

Sec. Mod. OSl ^ "^'^^ 

Elastic limit of heat-treated bolts =z 70,000 Ib./sq. in. 
Unit tensile stress 2o OOO 

due to bolt tension == '■ — 

15/16" X 15/16" X^= ^O'OOO Ib./sq. in. 
Strength of each bolt at solid bearing = 70.000 — 30.000 _ ^^^q ^^ ^^^^ 

Since the area of each bolt is 15/16" X 15/16" X ^^ = 0.69 sq. in. 

4 
and the shearing strength of heat-treated bolt steel is 56,000 lb. per sq. in., the 
strength of the bolt in double shear would be 77,000 lb. 
The bearing area of the bolt on the rail web would be 

15/16" X 54" or .703 sq. in. 
and the strength of the rail web in bearing for each bolt would bt 
.703 X 70,000 = 49,200 lb. 



244 Rail _^_____ 

It is obvious that the bolts are weakest in bending strength. For four-hole joints 
the bolts wUl exert a force of 11,000 lb. to break loose joints of high resistance, and with 
six-hole joints 16,500 lb. Consideration might well be given to some practical means of 
increasing the strength of bolts in bending. An increase in bolt diameter to 1]S4 inch 
nominal size would increase the bolt holding strength to 9500 lb. per bolt. If the inside 
face of the joint bars were brought one-half inch closer to the rail web, the bolt bending 
strength would be increased to 9500 lb. for one-inch bolts. 

Ballast and Fastenings Required 

As will be noted from the preceding discussion, by using the proper expansion open- 
ings with long length rail, the tension and buckling stress will be no greater than at 
present. The type of fastenings and ballast now used will, therefore, serve equally well 
with long rail construction. 

Maintenance Difficulties 

The maintenance difficulties attendant to the use of long length rail are apparent to 
maintenance officers. With the relatively small section gang generally employed, renewal 
of rail failures with very long rail would present a problem. Transposing of rail on 
curves would require an increased size of gang. However, rail failures are relatively few 
and temporary repairs with joint bars could be made until a large enough gang could be 
assembled. Foreign roads have not reported serious difficulty in the ordinary maintenance 
with long length rails. 

Rail Failures 

It has been contended by some that there would be an increase ir. x.-ost due to rail 
failures with long rail. For example, in the event of a failure with 78-ft. rail, two rails 
would be removed from track where now only one is removed. On page 439, AREA 
Proceedings, Vol. 37, the rail failure chart as prepared by the Rail Committee shows an 
average of approximately one failure per track mile in five years of service. It is, 
therefore, apparent that any additional cost with long rail due to rail failures would not 
be appreciable and improvements in rail manufacture due to controlled cooling or nor- 
malizing would reduce this possible added cost even farther. In the event of transverse 
fissure failures in a defective heat, no more rail would be lost in removing the heat, 
irrespective of the rail length. 

Rail Creepage 

Foreign roads have reported less difficulty from rail creepage with long rails than 
from short rails. If the same number of rail anchors per mile were used with 78-ft. rail 
as with 39-ft. rail, there would be twice as many anchors on each rail to help distribute 
the expansion properly between the joints. There is, therefore, no reason to expect 
added trouble from rail creepage with long rails, and some reason to expect less. 

Economic Advantage of Long Rails 

The advantages of long rails are from the reduction in number of pieces to handle 
and place in track and from the reduction in number of joints to be maintained. With- 
out attempting to definitely evaluate these advantages, it may be said that the European 
roads and the American roads that have used long length rail have expressed their 
opinion that a definite economy in maintenance expense is obtained. 



Rail 



245 






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Recommended that this report be received as information and the subject continued. 



Rail 247 

Appendix I 

(7) CONTINUOUS WELDING OF RAIL 

J. C. Patterson, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. J. Backes, A. F. Blaess, W. A. Duff, 
Robt. Faries, F. W. Gardiner, B. R. Kulp, Wm. Michel, C. E. Morgan, John V. 
Neubert, E. E. Oviatt, G. A. Phillips, G. R. Smiley, J. C. Wallace and Louis Yager. 

Your Committee has contacted the manufacturers of welded joints (Gas, Thermit 
and Flash Weld) and has their assurance of cooperation. 

The procedure outlined for the conduct of the investigation calls for a determination 
of the strength of welded joints, the tests for which are to be conducted in the laboratory 
on specimens from rail welded by different processes. 

The laboratory tests and studies proposed are as follows: 

1. Metallographic studies of welded joints, including hardness surveys, etch tests, 
and some micrographs for the purpose of developing information relative to the struc- 
ture of the weld metal, and the metal at the junction of the weld and rail with that of 
the raD itself. 

2. Mechanical tests of numerous specimens cut from various parts of the weld, the 
junction metal, and the rail. These would include tension, impact, and fatigue tests, 
with some special torsion and torsion fatigue tests. 

3. Drop and bend tests of full-size specimens of welded rail. 

4. Rolling load tests of full-size specimens of welded rail to determine (a) whether 
internal fissures can be developed at welded joints and (b) to determine the fatigue 
strength in flexure of welded joints. 

This portion of the investigation will require for each type of weld the following 
number of specimens, each specimen to be a welded joint between two pieces of rail, 
each not less than three (3) feet long — specimen not less than six (6) feet long. 

For metallographic study (Item 1) 3 specimens 

For mechanical tests of specimens cut from joint and rail. (Item 2)6 " 

For drop and bend tests (Item 3)6 " 

For rolling load tests (Item 4) 4 " 

19 

For the complete investigation and two weights of rail, the requirement of specimens 
will be 152. 

The information developed wUl be compared with tests of ordinary joints and full 
section rails made by the "Special Committee on Stresses in Railroad Track," 

Recommend that this report be received as information and the subject continued. 



Appendix J 

(8) SERVICE TESTS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF JOINT BARS 

Robt. Faries, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. J. Backes, M. M. Backus, A. F. Blaess, 
C. B. Bronson, F. S. Hewes, C. W. Johns, W. H. Kirkbride, G. M. Magee, Ray 
McBrian, John V. Neubert, W. H. Penfield, P. Petri, J. E. Willoughby, W. P. 
Wiltsee and Louis Yager. 

Your Committee proposes to undertake service test of joint bars as applied to 
112-lb. RE and 131-lb. RE new rail. The test of the 112-lb. joints will be made on the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway and the 131-lb. joints will be made on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. It is proposed to include in the test one mile of track of each of 
the following types of joints laid in consecutive stretches if such locations can be secured. 
It is possible that the 131-lb. stretches will have to be limited to one-half mile of 
track each. 



248 



Rail 



For 112-lb. RE Rail 
Test to be Conducted on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 



Section 
Temp. A-12 
B-35 
AREA 



Temp. B-34 
AREA 



H.F. Angle 
H.F. Toeless 
Toeless 



Type 
Straight 
Straight 
C.B. Head 
C.B. Head & Base 

ti 11 11 (( 

Straight 



Length Dist. o. to o. 
4 Hole SVs" 



C.B. Head 

Modified for Wedge Joint 



4%" 
4^" 
4^" 
4^" 
4^" 
4^" 
4^" 
4J4" 



MJ'. 

97- 98 

98- 99 
99-100 

lOO-lOl 
101-102 
102-103 
103-104 
104-105 
105-106 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 



For 131-lb. RE Rail 
Test to be Conducted on the Pennsylvania Raihroad 



AREA 

Temp. B-19 
B-19 
B-19 
B-19 
F-4 
F-^ 
A-39 
A-13 
B-43 

Evertite 



Toeless 



Angle 
H.F. Angle 
H.F. Toeless 



Straight 



C.B. Head & Base 

II a u II 

C.B. Head 

Straight 

C.B. Head & Base 

Straight 



Hole 



41/^" 

4^" 
41^" 

4^" 

4" 

4" 

4" 

4^" 

4" 



All of the rail on which these joints will be applied will be controlled cooled and 
all of the rail ends on one rail of the track will be end-hardened. 

The test wUl be on tangent track where drainage conditions are uniformly good. 

The spacing of ties at the joints will be in accordance with the standard practice of 
the railroads on which the test stretches are applied. 

Initial measurements will be made of fishing space, joint bar sections and out-to-out 
distance between the backs of the joint bars. Periodical measurements will be made to 
determine relative wear of joints, rail fishing surfaces, joint deflection, batter at the raD 
ends, distance between the backs of joint bars and amount of take-up of the nuts on the 
joint bolts. 

A separate record should be kept of the cost of lining and surfacing on each of the 
stretches of track on which the different types of joints are applied. These cost figures 
should cover the entire stretch and not only the region of the joint, as the type of the 
joint may have some influence on the conditions throughout the entire length of the rail. 

The above is submitted as a progress report with the recommendation that the 
subject be continued. 



Rail 240 

Appendix K 

(9) EFFECT OF CONTOUR OF THE HEAD OF RAIL SECTIONS 

ON THE WEAR 

R. T. Scholes, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. C. Barnes, A. F. Blaess, C. B. Bronson, 
W. J. Burton, J. M. Farrin, F. M. Graham, F. S. Hewes, B. R. Kulp, Wm. Michel, 
John V. Neubert, E. E. Oviatt, Louis Yager. 

RE 112-lb. RAIL SECTION 

In 1933 the Association adopted the RE 112-lb. rail section (1934 Proceedings, 
page 875). This new section immediately went into quite general use. 

Several roads reported late in 1935 that considerably more flow of metal was occur- 
ring on top with beading on gage side of head of the new RE 112-lb. rail section with 
24-in. top radius than was the case with previous RE 110-lb. section with 14-in. top 
radius. Your Sub-Committee was requested to make a study of the situation and report. 

For many years the RE 110-lb. rail section had a 14-in. top radius, with 5^-in. 
radius at the corner joining the side. When the RE 112-lb. section was adopted, the top 
radius was changed to 24-in. followed by a 1-inch radius and a %-inch radius at the 
corner, in an effort to widen the area of contact between rail and wheel and to relieve 
the pressure along the edge. 

Considerable data has been accumulated from many roads bearing on this question 
and pointing to the following general conclusions: 

(1) It is difficult for the mills to accurately control the specified top radius, 
resulting in considerable variation. 

(2) A large proportion of the RE 112-lb. rail in service was rolled with top radius 
of from 14 in. to 16 in. instead of 24 in. as called for on the standard section. 

(3) Where approximately 24 in. top radius was rolled, the rail when first laid 
showed considerable crosswise flow of metal and corner beading, due to cold rolling of 
the wheels. Pressure was concentrated along the edges and a black streak down the 
center indicated no bearing along the central portion of the head. 

(4) After a few months in service, depending on density of traffic, practically all 
rail measured, regardless of initial top contour, showed a radius of about 12 in., indicating 
that the top surface had been cold rolled and distorted to fit the average contour of 
wheels in service. 

(5) Contours were taken of treads of a considerable number of worn wheels which 
had reached the limit of tread wear and had been scrapped due to tread being worn 
concave to the established limit or other wear conditions. This data disclosed that for 
both cast iron and steel wheels the average contour of wheels in service showed a con- 
cave tread with a radius of approximately 14 in. In other words, halfway between new 
and scrap they were worn concave to a radius of about 14 in. 

(6) The concave wear of wheel treads is independent of top of new rail, as the 
center of tread naturally tends to wear faster due to oscillations laterally of the wheels. 
The middle part of tread is subjected to wear almost constantly and the edges 
intermittently. 

(7) In an effort to further study top rail head flow and distortion, the Chicago 
and Northwestern Railway and Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad placed orders 
for their 1936 tonnage of 112-lb. rail in accordance with design attached, marked Ex- 
hibit A. This has the 14-in. top radius and •>^-inch corner radius which were in effect 



250 Rail 

on the old RE 110-lb. section for many years. The Northwestern laid 38,000 tons of 
this section and the Burlington 18,000 tons. The results to date have been very favor- 
able, there being much less flow of metal and beading reported than was previously the 
case with RE 112-lb. section having a nominal top radius of 24 in. 

The Committee is of the opinion that rail as rolled should substantially fit the 
average contour of wheels in service, in order to facilitate cold rolling with a minimum 
displacement of metal and also to insure full bearing on central portion of head. 

It is also of the opinion that the 1-inch radius along the edge of the top serves to 
relieve the edge from excessive wheel pressure, and should be retained. 

Recommendations 

It is recommended that revised section shown on Exhibit A be adopted and substituted 
ior the present RE 112-lb. section. 

• The only change involved is substitution of 14-in. radius for 24-in. radius in the 
central portion of top of head and a 5^-inch top corner radius for a %-inch radius. 

The physical properties remain practically the same and the total height of rail and 
width of head unchanged, so the recommended section and the present standard section 
can be interchanged without involving any complications. 

RE 131-lb. RAIL SECTION 

The Committee is making a further study in regard to the advisability of the top 
radius and contour of the head of this rail, and report on the same will be made later. 
It is recommended this subject be reassigned. 



Rail 



251 



Exhibit A 






i \ f ., 

^ i^ 112.3 L5.a|/|"R- 




-JQ'[RAD. 



, 19"* , _ % 9F- 23" RA_D. _&_ 10 "_RAP. 



-1^ NEUTRAL AXIS 
CO -i 



23" RAD. _ ro 




io|aO 
19 



l._I 



AREA: HEAD 
WEB 
BASE 


3.95 SQ. IN. 35.9 7. 
Z 11 " • " 25.1 7. 
4.29 " " 39.0 % 


TOTAL 


11.01 " " 100.0 7. 



MOMENT OF INERTIA (55.5 

SECTION MODULUS, HEAD 18.1 

BASE 2 1.8 

RATIO M.I. TO AREA 5.9 

RATIO 5EC. MOD. TO AREA I . 6 

RATIO HEIGHT TO BASE I .20 

RATIO BASE TO HEIGHT O.QS 



252 Rail 

Appendix L 

(10) OUTLINE OF COMPLETE FIELD OF WORK OF 
THE COMMITTEE 

Louis Yager, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. C. Barnes, A. F. Blaess, Robt. Faries, J. M. 
Farrin, F. M. Graham, John V. Neubert, J. C. Patterson, A. N. Reece, R. T. Scholes. 

The purpose of the assignment has been construed as not being limited to the devel- 
opment of subjects for the ensuing year but rather had a more inclusive scope of sug- 
gesting the field of investigation ahead as disclosed by past and current accomplishments, 
with particular emphasis on the prospects related to the continuation of well-organized 
and financed research as a normal adjunct to the activities of the Rail Committee. In 
view of this conception, the subject must be regarded as a continuing one requiring 
current progress reports from which the yearly assignments will ensue. 

(I) Revision of the Manual 

(a) Rail Specifications 

(1) Carbon steel, (2) Intermediate Manganese, (3) Alloy Steel, with complete 
investigation of metallurgical aspects available from the research in the 
field of metal and alloys. 

(b) Joint Bar Specifications 

(1) Carbon Steel, (2) Heat Treated, (3) Axle Steel Bars. 

(c) Track Bolt Specifications 

(1) Carbon Steel, (2) Alloy Steel. 

(d) Spring Washer Specifications and Methods of Testing 

(e) Rail Design 

(1) Section, (2) Length, (3) Drilling, with an investigation to determine the 
influence of rail drilling on rail failures. 

(f) Joint Bar Design 

(1) Form, (2) Section, (3) Length, (4) Drilling. 

(g) Track Bolts and Nuts — Design 

(1) Form, (2) Diameter, (3) Length, (4) Threads, various types, 
(h) Spring Washer — Design 

(1) Form types, (2) Section, (3) Diameter. 

(II) Rail Failure Statistics 

(a) Continuation of Previous Statistics. 

(b) Devise standard methods of obtaining and recording the data necessary to 
determine the relative service life of rail, expressed in proper traffic units for 
the purpose of ascertaining the economics of rail related to section, metallurgy, 
controlled cooled, normalized, etc. 

(III) Details of Mill Practice as Affecting Rail Quality, Collaborating 
With Rail Manufacturers' Technical Committee 

(a) Develop complete specifications to cover controlled cooled rails to eliminate 
shatter cracks — determining, 

(1) Upper temperature limits 

(2) Removal temperature 

(3) Rate of cooling 

(4) Inspection procedure 

(5) Other conditions, if any. 

(b) Determine the metallurgical causes of shatter cracks in rail steel (Hydrogen 
theory, etc.) with view of developing means for their prevention. 

(c) Develop the advisability of substituting the bend test for the drop test in rail 
acceptance and specifications therefor. 

(d) Investigate various normalizing processes designed to improve rail quality. 

(e) Continued investigation of non-destructive tests for detecting shatter cracks in 
rails. 



Rail 253 

(f) Trace relations between outstanding differences in rail quality and corre- 
sponding mill practices. 

(g) Stress behavior of rail at low temperatures and the determination of the 
influence of temperature ranges on service life of rail. 

(h) Field tests of frequency of high wheel loads, including evaluating the effects 

of wheel load defects and rolling stock defects. 
(i) End-hardening of rail ends as a means for minimizing or eliminating rail 

batter. 

(1) Metallurgical investigations for mill and field methods of hardening. 

(2) Laboratory tests. 

(3) Develop specifications in conformity with the desired results covering satis- 
factory methods of rail end-hardening both for mill and field practice. 
Proper ranges of Brinell hardness. 

(IV) Rail End Batter and Correction 

(a) Standard methods for measuring and reporting observed batter. 

(b) Influence of rail section and rail quality. 

(c) Influence of joint gap. 

(d) Relation of joint design and maintenance. 

(e) Effect of speed wheel loads, etc. 

(f) Variations in height of rails — grinding, etc. 

(g) Cross grinding or slotting, 
(h) Rail end welding practice. 

(V) Economic Value of Different Sizes of Rail 

(a) Stresses in rail and factors of safety. 

(b) Character of traffic. 

(c) Relation of other elements of track structure. 

(d) Rail quality, elements of design affecting service life. 

(e) Relation of rail stiffness and track modulus to service life. 

(f) Relation between quality of rail support and maintenance of equipment. 

(g) Influence of rail and track stiffness on train resistance and operation. 

(VI) Continuous Rail Welding 

(a) Consultation with Manufacturers as to processes and methods of welding. 

(b) Laboratory and field tests. 

(c) Collaboration with Special Committee on Stresses in Railroad Track for stress 
behavior, etc. 

(d) Collaboration with Committee V — Track, as to fastenings, maintenance, etc. 

(VII) Standard Rail Lengths in Excess of 39 Feet 

Outline all elements of problem which have an influence on the final conclusion. 

(a) Economics from the railroad standpoint, considering also — 
(b) Laboratory tests. 

(VIII) Evaluation of Joint Bar Designs Through — 

(a) Review of designs for improvements. 

(b) Laboratory Tests. 

(c) Field tests sufficiently extensive to include all determinative elements. 

(IX) Intensity of Wheel Pressures 

(a) Review previous investigations and determine the advisability of additional 
tests in the light of present-day conditions. 

(b) The effect of relative hardness of tires and rails on the wear of rails — col- 
laboration with Mechanical Division. 

(c) Diameter relation and wheel material. 

(d) Possible influence of pressures on design of rail head contour as affecting service 
life of rail. 

(e) Relation to development of exterior progressive detail fractures, "head checks". 

(X) Cause and Correction of Rail Corrugations 



254 Rail 

(XI) Inspection at Mills 

(a) Uniformity of inspection rules and instructions for inspection and acceptance 
of rails and fastenings. 

(b) Outline of an organization to properly conduct complete Inspection. 

(XII) Corrosion of Rail and Fastenings 

(a) Collaboration with Committee V — Track for methods of economical prevention 
or control. 

(XIII) Joint Assembly Functions 

(a) Evaluate the data heretofore developed from stresses in rails and joint bars to 
outline — 

(1) Proper working limits of bolt tensions to obtain effective service from the 
joint bars and permit rail expansion and contraction movements. 

(2) The effective range of spring washers or similar elements in the furtherance 
of item (1). 

(XIV) Reconditioning of Joint Bars 

(a) Determination of circumstances which justify the practice. 

(b) Reforming. 

(c) Welding (1) electric, (2) gas. 

(XV) Current Revisions of Rules and Regulations Relating to Rail 

This report is submitted as information, and it is recommended that the subject 
be reassigned. 



€avV^timion 

Earl Stimson, Chief Engineer Maintenance, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, died at 
Massillon, Ohio, following a brief illness, on May 27, 1936. 

For many years Mr. Stimson served as a member of the Committee on Rail, 
becoming its Chairman in 1926, and continued in that capacity until his demise. 

Mr. Stimson contributed freely of his time and talents to the work of the Rail 
Committee. His associates will miss the inspiration of his high integrity, fine character 
and kindly personality. In his death, the Association has lost a valued member and 
the Committee a loyal friend. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE IX— HIGHWAYS 



J. G. Brennan, Chairman; 


P. M. Gault, 


Bernard Blum, Vice- 


F. D. Batchellor, 


R. C. GOWDY, 


Chairman; 


H. D. Blake, 


A. S. Haigh, 


W. C. Pinschmidt, 


F. J. Blickensderfer, 


J. P. Hallihan, 


T. M. PiTTMAN, 


H. E. Brink, 


H. A. Hampton, 


L. J. Riegler, 


H. B. Christianson, 


W. J. Hedley, 


Frank Ringer, 


S. N. Crowe, 


A. G. Holt, 


H. M. Shepard, 


L. B. CURTISS, 


C. D. HORTON, 


F. P. SiSSON, 


A. T. Danver, 


Maro Johnson, 


F. C. Squire, 


A. R. Dewees, 


R. B. Kittredge, 


W. C. SWARTOUT, 


A. F. Dorley, 


Geo. a. Knapp, 


C. A. Taylor, 


G. N. Edmondson, 


A. E. Korsell, 


A. H. Utter, 


C. F. Edwards, 


W. S. Lacher, 


V. R. Walling, 


P. W. Elmore, 


Fred Lavis, 


R. F. Wood, 


H. L. Engelhardt, 


E. R. Lewis, 


Leroy Wyant, 


H. W. Fenno, 


E. E. Mayo, 


W. L. Young, 


L. C. Frohman, 


G. P. Palmer, 


Committee. 



To the American Railway Engitieering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual (Appendix A). Progress in study. Recommended con- 
clusions for publication in the Manual. 

(2) Economic aspects of grade crossing protection in lieu of grade separation. 
Progress in study — no report. 

(3) Design and specifications for highway crossings at grade over railway tracks, 
both steam and electric, collaborating with Committee I — Roadway, and with American 
Society of Municipal Engineers, and American Transit Association (Appendix B). 
Progress in study. Recommended conclusions for publication in the Manual. 

(4) Comparative merits of various types of grade crossing protection, collaborating 
with Committee X — Signals and Interlocking, and with Signal Section, Safety Section 
and Highway Research Board. Progress in study — no report. 

(5) Difference in costs of highways of various types due to different weights and 
lengths of trucks. Progress in study — no report. 

(6) "Gates-Not- Working" and "Watchmen-Not-on-Duty" Signs (Appendix C). 
Complete, with recommended conclusions for publication in the Manual. 

(7) Method of classifying grade crossings with respect to hazard. Progress in 
study — no report. 

(8) Barrier type of grade crossing protection, including automatic gates, collaborat- 
ing with Signal Section (Appendix D). Progress in study. Presented as information. 

(10) Outline of complete field of work of the Committee (Appendix E). Progress 
in study. 

The Committee on Highways, 

J. G. Brennan, Cha'iman. 



Bulletin 391, November, 1936. 



255 



256 Highways 



Appendix A 

(1) REVISION OF MANUAL 

P. M. Gault, Chairman, Sub-Committee; Bernard Blum, H. E. Brink, A. R. Dewees, 
P. W. Elmore, A. S. Haigh, H. A. Hampton, Maro Johnson, R. B. Kittredge, E. R. 
Lewis, E. E. Mayo, G. P. Palmer, T. M. Pittman, Frank Ringer, C. A. Taylor 
Leroy Wyant, 

At highway-railroad grade crossing where, because of local conditions, it is not 
practical to place the crossing sign on a post, it may be suspended. The sign may be 
used with or without reflecting units as conditions require. The following drawings 
are submitted: 

Method of Mounting 90-degree Railroad Crossing Sign when suspended 
over highway 

90-degree sheet steel Crossing Sign assembly for suspension over highway 

90-degree sheet steel Crossing Sign details for suspension over highway 

90-degree sheet steel Crossing Sign details for suspension over highway 

90-degree reflector Crossing Sign assembly for suspension over highway 

90-degree reflector Crossing Sign details for suspension over highway 

Conclusion 
Recommended for publication in the Manual. 



Highways 



257 




258 



Highways 




(ORDER BY LETTER, FINISH OPTIONAL) 
A- RAILROAD CROSSING SIGN COMPLETE, SYNTHETIC ENAMEL FINISH 



B- RAILROAD CROSSING SIGN COMPLETE, VITREOUS ENAMEL FINISH 

note: 

bolts, nut^ 
steel wi^shers, 




— ' e+^0LE" 



-If;- 



,V'^' 



r* r AND SPKICERS, 



nit I 



SHALL BE CAD- 



-{■ i MIUM PLATED, 
tjii^. I STRAPS AND 
t 1 BRACKETS SHALL 
BE GIVEN A COAT 
OF PRIMER. 



4^ 



STRAP A" WITHOUT HOLE A 
STRAP "B" WITH HOLE "A" 
(O-H. steel) 



SCALES OF INCHES 




^IV 




90 SHEET STEEL CROSSING SIGN ASSEMBLY 

FOR SUSPENSION OVER HIGHWAY 

I I I I I I I I ~r 



Highways 



259 




SHEET STEEL CROSSING SIGN DETAILS 

FOR SUSPENSION OVER HIGHWAY 



260 



High ways 



LEAD WASHERS 



PLAIN WASHER 




-7 X X STO. SO. HD. BOLT AND SO. NUT 



BRACKET DETAIL 



PLAIN WASHER 



|"x 2^" STD. SQ. HD 
BOLT AND HEX. NUT 



i SECTION SPRING WASHER 




LEAD WASHERS 



SECTION A-A 




-jITu- 



-i«. 



1v 



WASHER 

(LEAD) 



I ■ ■ I I 



I I I I 



SCALES OF INCHES 



90* SHEET STEEL CROSSING SIGN DETAILS 

FOR SUSPENSION OVER HIGHWAY 



Highways 



261 




(ORDER BY LETTER, FINISH OPTIONAL) 
A-REFLECTOR RAILROAD CROSSING SIGN COMPLETE, SYNTHETIC ENAMEL FINISH 
B- REFLECTOR RAILROAD CROSSING SIGN COMPLETE, VITREOUS ENAMEL FINISH 




,f-nNC-2 

PLAIN WASHER 




BOLT 

O.-M. STEEL -CADMIUM PLATED 



SUPPORTING PLATE 

(O-H STEEL) 



2 3 



SCALES OF INCHES 



90 REFLECTOR CROSSING SIGN ASSEMBLY 

FOR SUSPENSION OVER HIGHWAY 

I I I Z 



I I I I I I 



262 



Highways 




90* REFLECTOR CROSSING SIGN DETAILS 

FOR SUSPENSION OVER HIGHWAY 
I I I I I I I I- 



Highways 263 



Appendix B 

(3) DESIGN AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY CROSSINGS 
AT GRADE OVER RAILWAY TRACKS, BOTH STEAM AND 
ELECTRIC 

V. R. Walling, Chairman, Sub-Committee; F. C. Batchellor, F. J. Blickensderfer, H. B. 
Christiansen, L. B. Curtiss, G. N. Edmondson, C. F. Edwards, P. W. Elmore, H. W. 
Fenno, P. M. Gault, R. C. Gowdy, J. P. Hallihan, H. M. Shepard, W. L. Young. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF PRE-CAST CONCRETE 

SLAB CROSSINGS 
General 

1. These Specifications cover the use of pre-cast concrete slab in the construction 
of this type crossing. The Specifications must be carried out in detail and with good 
workmanship. 

Track Structure — Width of Crossing and Approaches 

2. Track Structure, width of crossing and approaches, shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with the standard specifications covering this work for street 
crossing over railway tracks, both steam and electric (see American Railway Engineer- 
ing Association 1934 Proceedings, Vol. 35, page 563— Report of Committee IX — Grade 
Crossinp). 

Design, Materials and Installation 

3. Slabs shall be rated on the following loading basis. 

Loading 

(a) American Association of State Highway Officials H-IS loading for truck tram 
with maximum axle load of 24,000-lb. for general roads and highways. 

(b) American Association of State Highway Officials H-20 loading for truck train 
with maximum axle load of 32,000-lb. for metropolitan area. 

Design 

The units shall be designed to sustain a concentrated wheel load of one-half of the 
above axle loading, placed so as to produce maximum stresses, with distribution in the 
direction of traffic equal to width of slab, but not in excess of 17 inches, and no dis- 
tribution at right angles to traffic; with 50 per cent impact in both moment and shear 
at stresses not greater than two-thirds of the elastic limit of the reinforcement, and two- 
thirds of the ultimate strength of the concrete at 28 days. Slabs intended for support 
on more than two ties shall be designed to meet the above requirements with one of 
the intermediate ties not in bearing. Covering of reinforcement shall be not less 
than }i inch. 

Armor 

When specified, all exposed edges of slabs shall be armored. Where armored slabs 
are used in track circuit territory they shall be insulated from the rail and rail 
fastenings. 

Flangeways 

An opening not less than 2J^ in. wide and 2 in. deep shall be provided for flange- 
ways on the gage side of running rails. This may be accomplished by shaping the 
edge of slab or by use of flangeway blocks. 

Flangeway blocks shall be shaped to contour of rail section and of proper depth to 
fit securely under rail head. Adequate means shall be provided to hold blocks securely 
in place. 



264 Highways 

Outside of Rail Head 

On the outside of head of running rail the top of slab shall be ^ inch below top of 
rail for a distance of not less than 3 in. 

Filler blocks may be used on outside of running rail. Filler blocks shall be not less 
than 3 in. in width from side of rail head to face of slab, shaped to contour of rail 
section and depth required, so that top of filler will be not less than ^ inch below top of 
rail. Adequate means shall be provided to hold blocks securely in place. 

Anchorage 

To prevent longitudinal movement of slabs, suitable anchorage shall be provided, 
such as by one of the following means: 

(1) Each slab shall be fastened to the ties by two % inch countersunk lag screws, 
one in each end of slab. 

(2) Track spikes shall be so driven into the ties as to bear against outside end of 
each end slab and left protruding 1 in. above bottom of slab. 

(3) Slabs shall be constructed so that they will extend a minimum of 14 inch below 
top of tie and bear against sides of tie. 

To prevent lateral movement, all slabs adjacent to the running rails shall bear 
against the rail or flangeway, blocks shall be provided between slab and web of rail. 

Variable Depth 

In order to bring top of slab to proper elevation, the thickness of slab may be 
increased or shims may be used. 

Beveled End Slabs 

To protect end of crossing from dragging equipment, outer end of all end slabs 
shall be beveled not more than 45 deg. with the horizontal with an end thickness of 
3 in. A beveled strip of wood 3-in. by 3-in. shall be applied against the beveled end 
of slab and spiked to the tie. 

Concrete 

Concrete shall conform to American Railway Engineering Association Specifications 
for Reinforced Concrete, with a minimum compressive strength of 6000 lb. per sq. in. in 
28 days. It shall be thoroughly compacted in the molds and around the reinforcement. 

Steel 

Steel for reinforcement shall conform to the American Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation Specifications for Billet Steel Concrete Reinforcement Bars. 

Bars shall be thoroughly cleaned and free from rust and shall be carefully placed 
and effectively secured so that specified covering shall be provided. 

Ties 

Straight, sawed and treated ties 7-in. by 9-in. by 8-ft. 6-in. long shall first be 
installed in the track to provide full even bearing on each supporting tie for the slabs 
when placed. 

Ties shall be laid at right angles to the running rails and spaced exact distance center 
to center as required, to provide even bearing of half the width of the tie for the 
adjacent ends of slabs. Care shall be taken in placing ties and slabs to see that such 
bearing is obtained. 

The top surface of slabs shall be as nearly as practicable in the same plane as tops 
of running rails. Wooden shims suitable for the purpose, and of the same width as the 
face of the tie, shall be installed where the thickness of the slabs is less than the height 
of the rail. Care must be taken in placing and securing these shims on the ties to 
insure a true and even bearing surface for the slabs. 



Highways 265 



Flangeway and Filler Blocks, Shims and Beveled Strips 

Where wood flangeway and filler blocks, shims and beveled strips are used, they 
shall be of treated hardwood suitable for the purpose, with treatment to conform to 
American Railway Engineering Association Specifications for the Preservative Treatment 
of Wood. 

Elevation Top of Rah, and Pavement 

The final elevation of top of rail shall be even with the highway pavement. If 
pavement adjacent to the track is of concrete, a space of at least 2-in. shall be pro- 
vided between outer edge of concrete slabs and the pavement, in which shall be placed 
a bituminous felt strip 2 in. in thickness for the full depth and width of the pavement. 
If pavement is of construction other than concrete, a 4-in. by 18-in. creosoted timber 
header shall be placed on edge the full length of crossing to retain pavement, with the 
same spacing and application of felt strip as for concrete pavement. 

Conclusion 

Recommended for publication in the Manual. 



Appendix C 

(6) "GATES-NOT-WORKING" AND "WATCHMAN-NOT- 
ON-DUTY" SIGNS 

Maro Johnson, Chairman, Sub-Committee; H. D. Blake, S. N. Crowe, A. T. Danver, 
A. F. Dorley, L. C. Frohman, P. M. Gault, A. S. Haigh, W. J. Hedley, A. G. Holt, 
A. E. Korsell, E. R. Lewis, G. P. Palmer, W. C- Pinschmidt, T. M. Pittman, F. C. 
Squire, W. C. Swartout, Leroy Wyant, W. L. Young. 

The Sub-Committee has developed drawings for "Gates-Not-Working" and "Watch- 
man-Not-on-Duty" Signs: 

Reflector "Watchman-Off-Duty" Sign 

Reflector "Watchman-Off-Duty" Sign assemblies 

Reflector "Gates-Not-Working" Sign 

Reflector "Gates-Not-Working" Sign assemblies 

Cover Plates for Signs 

Conclusion 

Recommended for publication in the Manual. 



266 



Highways 




C-2 



REFLECTOR WATCHMAN OFF DUTY SIGN 






Highways 



267 




A -WATCHMAN OFF DUTY SIGN COMPLETE, SYNTHETIC ENAMEL FINISH 
B- WATCHMAN OFF DUTY SIGN COMPLETE, VITREOUS ENAMEL FINISH 

FOR MOUNTING ON PIPE 



BOLT AS REQUIRED 





-^^-L 



-H-^ 



C-WATCHMAN OFF DUTY SIGN COMPLETE, SYNTHETIC ENAMEL FINISH 
D- WATCHMAN OFF DUTY SIGN COMPLETE, VITREOUS ENAMEL FINISH 

FOR MOUNTING ON WOOD POST 



3 6 9 12 IS 18 

1 I -I I \ I I I I 

SCALE IN INCHES 



(ORDER BY LETTER, FINISH OPTIONAL) 

REFLECTOR WATCHMAN OFF DUTY SIGN ASSEMBLIES 



268 



Highways 




Highways 



269 



C->- 



[Qppi 



I X 2 STO. 
MACHINE BOLT, 




ADAPTER CLAMP 



X., 



A-GATES NOT WORKING SIGN COMPLETE, SYNTHETIC ENAMEL FYNISH 
B-GATES NOT WORKING SIGN COMPLETE, VITREOUS ENAMEL FINISH 
FOR MOUNTING ON PIPE 



-j-f— r 
I ,1 

I L 



I BOLT AS REQUIREO- 



Sol /o\ IQOOI o 






(OOOl 

or 



C- GATES NOT WORKING SIGN COMPLETE, SYNTHETIC ENAMEL FINISH 
D-GATES NOT WORKING SIGN COMPLETE, VITREOUS ENAMEL FINISH 
FOR MOUNTING ON WOOD POST 



3 6 9 12 15 le 

1 1 r I I I 1 1 : 

SCALE OF INCHES 



(ORDER BY LETTER, FINISH OPTIONAL) 

REFLECTOR GATES NOT WORKING SIGN ASSEMBLIES 



270 



Highways 



jlx I J FLAT STEEL HANGERS, 
BENT TO FIT SIGN ■ 




FELT CUSHIONS 
RIVETED TO 
HANGERS & SPACERS 



NO. 18 U.S. STO. 
GAUGE SHEET 
STEEL (.050") 



A- 
B- 



COVER PLATE FOR GATES NOT WORKING SIGN L =2-9 
COVER PLATE FOR WATCHMAN OFF DUTY SIGN L = 3- 5" 




SCALE OF INCHES 



r 



u 



APPLICATION OF COVER PLATE TO SIGNS 

COVER PLATES FOR SIGNS 

I I I I I I I I 



Highways 271 

Appendix D 

(8) BARRIER TYPE OF GRADE CROSSING PROTECTION, 
INCLUDING AUTOMATIC GATES 

Bernard Blum, Chairman, Sub-Committee; F. J. Blickensderfer, A. R. Dewees, A. F. 
Dorley, H. L. Engelhardt, H. W. Fenno, J. P. Hallihan, H. A. Hampton, W. J. 
Hedley, Geo. A. Knapp, A. E. Korsell, W. S. Lacher, G. P. Palmer, W. C. Pinschmidt, 
L. J. Riegler, Frank Ringer, W. C. Swartout, W. L. Young. 

REQUISITES FOR AUTOMATIC GATES 

1. An electrically-operated automatic gate used for the protection of highway 
traffic at railroad grade crossings shall present toward the highway, when indicating the 
approach of a train, the appearance of horizontal arms extending across the highway, 
with flashing red lights on the gate arms. 

2. The automatic gate arms, when not indicating the approach of a train, shall be 
rabed and not obstruct or interfere with highway traffic. 

3. A highway crossing bell not less than eight (8) or more than twelve (12) inches 
in diameter, may be mounted on a post adjacent to the crossing. 

4. The automatic gate arms shall be mounted on posts or housings containing the 
arm operating mechanism located preferably between the sidewalk line and highway. 

5. The design of the gate operating mechanism shall be such as to insure proper 
operation during wind, snow, and sleet storms and extreme low temperatures. The 
gate arms shall be mechanically locked in the raised and lowered positions, and if out 
of order such condition shall be indicated to the highway traffic. 

6. The operation of the gate mechanism shall be so designed that if the arms, 
while being lowered, strike an object in the downward path they will readily stop. The 
arms shall be so arranged that if a vehicle is entrapped between the lowered gates it 
may proceed off the crossing. 

7. The circuits for the operation of the control devices of the automatic gate shall 
be designed in accordance with the normally closed circuit principle. Operating circuits 
of the gate mechanism shall, as nearly as possible, be on the normally closed circuit 
principle. 

8. The automatic devices used to indicate the approach of trains shall so indicate 
for not less than 25 seconds before the arrival of the fastest train operated over the 
crossing; and shall be so arranged that the automatic gate arms will remain down until 
the rear of the train has cleared the crossing. 

9. When an approaching train enters the circuits of the control devices of the 
automatic gate, the crossing bell and flashing lights shall start to operate; the bell to 
continue to operate until the gate arms are down; and the flashing lights will continue 
to operate while the gate arms are lowering, are in the down position, and until the 
gate arms are fully raised after the rear of the train has passed the crossing. 

10. The operating time of the crossing gate mechanism shall be such that the gate 
arms will move from the normal vertical position to the lowered position, across the 
highway at least ten (10) seconds before the arrival of the fastest train operated over 
the crossing. The gate arms shall operate from the lowered to the raised position in not 
more than eight (8) seconds. 

11. The automatic gate arms shall be painted on all sides with alternate diagonal 
stripes of white and black. 

12. The red lights on the gate arms shall shine along the highway, one light for 
each lane of traffic for the leaving side. 

13. Lights on the same side of the crossing shall flash alternately. The number of 
flashes per minute of each light shall be 30 minimum, 45 maximum. 

14. Lamp units shall conform to AAR Signal Section standards. 

Conclusion 

Offered as information. 



272 Highways 



Appendix E 

(10) OUTLINE OF COMPLETE FIELD OF WORK 
OF THE COMMITTEE 

J. G. Brennan, Chairman, Sub-Committee; entire Committee. 

The outline of complete field of work of Committee IX — Highways, includes in a 
broad sense the following: 

(1) Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings 

(a) Construction 

(b) Maintenance 

(c) Laws pertaining thereto 

(2) Highway-Railroad Grade Crossing Protection 

(a) Construction 

( b ) Maintenance 

(c) Operation 

(d) Laws pertaining thereto 

(3) Highway-Railroad Grade Crossing Eliminations 

(a) Construction 

(b) Maintenance 

(c) Reconstruction 

(d) Laws pertaining thereto 

(4) Private Grade Crossings 

(a) Construction 

(b) Maintenance 

(c) Protection 

(d) Laws pertaining thereto 

(5) Highways 

(a) Construction 

(b) Maintenance 

(c) Financing 

(d) Use in relation to other forms of transportation 

Under each general subject the study should include: 

(a) Revision of Manual 

(b) Adherence to recommended practice 

(c) Progress in the science and art 

(d) Outline of work 

Conclusion 

Submitted as information. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE VI— BUILDINGS 

O. G. Wilbur, Chairman; E. A. Harrison, A. B. Stone, Vice- 

G. A. Belden, a. T. Hawk, Chairman; 

Eli Christiansen, E. G. Hewson, L. H. Laffoley, 

H. M. Church, C. D. Horton, E. K. Mentzer, 

a. C. Copland, Neal D. Howard, G. A. Rodman, 

W. T. Dorrance, J. J. Hurley, C. H. Sandberg, 

E. A. Dougherty, A. C. Irwin, L. W. Smith, 

Hugo Filippi, F. R. Judd, A. L. Sparks, 

J. N. Grim, Committee. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully presents its report herewith on the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual (AppendLx A). It is recommended that the report on 
this subject as herein submitted be approved and the Manual revised in accordance 
therewith. The Committee has actively engaged in a study of a revision in the Steel 
Specifications for Railway Buildings, giving consideration to the higher unit stresses 
in steel of current production. The Committee offers this year merely a statement of 
progress on this subject. 

(2) Preparation of specifications for railway buildings (Appendix B). It is 
recommended that the specifications be adopted for publication in the Manual. 

(3) Influence of the design of buildings on fi'e insurance rates (Appendix C). 
The report on this subject is offered as information, with the recommendation that the 
subject be discontinued. 

(4) Determination of the destructible value of structures which can be collected 
in case of fire. A complete report on this subject was submitted in 1936 as information 
and criticism invited. It is recommended the conclusions found in that report be 
included in the Manual and the subject discontinued. 

(5) Different types of paint and their economical selection, collaborating with 
Committee XV — Iron and Steel Structures (Appendix D). It is recommended the report 
be accepted as information and the subject discontinued. 

(6) Air conditioning of buildings: 

(a) For use by passengers and employees. 

(b) For storage and treatment of fruit and produce. 

Progress in study — no report. 

(7) Type of foundation best suited for railway buildings. Progress in study — no 
report. 

(8) Study of improved wearing surface for platforms: 

(a) For heavy pedestrian traffic. 

(b) For heavy traffic freight transfer platform. 

Progress in study — no report. 

(9) Design of small cold storage plants for railway use (Appendix E). It is 
recommended the report be accepted as information and the subject discontinued. 

(10) Design of railway buildings to withstand earthquake shocks. Progress in 
study — no report. 

(11) Stockpens (Appendix F). It is recommended the report be accepted as 
information and the subject discontinued. 

(12) Subject was withdrawn May 21, 1936. 

(13) Outline of complete field of work of the Committee (Appendix G). It is 
recommended the report be accepted as information. 

The Committee on Buildings, 

O. G. Wilbur, Chairman. 

Bulletin 391, November, 1936. * 

273 



274 Buildings 

Appendix A 

(1) REVISION OF MANUAL 

G. A. Belden, Chairman, Sub-Committee; W. T. Dorrance, F. R. Judd, C. H. Sandberg. 

The Committee recommends that the following revisions be made in the 1929 
Manual. 

FREIGHT HOUSES 

Page 268 — 1929 Manual. Amend second paragraph to read as follows: 

Materials 

In general this type of freight house should be built of fire-resistive materials 
throughout. Where economy in the initial investment makes necessary the use of frame 
buildings, these should have filled floors between masonry foundation walls and the 
superstructure should be designed to conform as nearly as possible with slow-burning 
construction. 

Fire Walls 

Where fire walls are necessary they shall conform with the requirements of the 
National Board of Fire Underwriters and local building codes for thickness and heights 
and shall have tees at the ends with fireproof aprons opposite the tees, where the house 
has combustible side platforms. In frame buildings fire walls should be spaced not 
more than 200 feet apart, and in fire-resistive buildings the spacing of fire walls shall 
be in accordance with the limits fixed by local codes or the Underwriters' requirements. 
Openings in fire walls should be as limited in number as is consistent with operating 
conditions. No opening shall have an area greater than 80 square feet, and each opening 
shall be equipped on each side with standard automatic fire doors. 

ROOFINGS 

Page 280 — 1929 Manual. Substitute the following for corresponding matter: 

Built-up Roofs 

The built-up roof is especially adaptable and valuable for flat surfaces, and for best 
results should be surfaced with crushed stone, gravel or crushed slag. When laid with 
high melting point bitumens and properly secured to the roof decks, these roofs may be 
used on decks having slopes up to 6 inches per foot. On the steeper slopes only crushed 
stone or slag should be used for the surfacing material. Such roofs are more difficult 
to apply and the results are less certain when used on the steeper slopes. The service 
of such roofs will be directly proportional to the grades and quantities of materials and 
the quality of workmanship put in them. 

Built-up roofs may be divided into three general types, based on the materials used: 

1. Pitch and Felt. — This type of roof is built up of alternate layers of tar 
saturated rag felt, cemented together with coal tar pitch and coated with crushed stone, 
gravel or slag bedded in a poured coating of pitch. When laid with five plies of felt 
and the proper quantity of pitch, such roofs will last twenty years or longer without 
attention. Although brittle in cold weather, pitch softens under ordinary summer 
temperatures and the layers gradually become thoroughly cemented together. This type 
of roof cannot be used without the mineral surfacing, which keeps the pitch from run- 
ning in warm weather and protects it from the direct rays of the sun. Until recently 
this type of roof was hmited to use on roof decks having slopes of not more than 
2 inches per foot, but properly blended high melting pitch is now available for use on 
slopes up to 6 inches per foot. 

2. Asphalt and Rag Felt. — ^This type of roof is built up of alternate layers of 
asphalt saturated rag felt cemented together with asphalt and may or may not be sur- 
faced with mineral. For best results and long life it should be so surfaced, and for 
Class A Underwriters' rating it must be surfaced with mineral. Asphalt should be care- 
fully selected and the use of the inferior grades, which soon become brittle and crack, 
should be avoided. When laid with a carefully selected grade of well-blended asphalt 



Buildings 275 

and with equal quantities of felt these roofs with mineral surfaces should have a life 
equal to that of the pitch and felt roofs. Great care is necessary in laying these roofs 
to see that each layer of felt is laid in the asphalt while it is still hot, as under ordinary 
conditions the asphalt will not soften enough to cement the sheets of felt together after 
it has once cooled. For this reason some of the roofing manufacturers are recommending 
the use of cold liquid asphalt as the cementing material instead of hot asphalt. 

3. Asphalt and Asbestos Felts. — This type of roof is built up of alternate layers 
of asphalt impregnated asbestos felt cemented together with either hot asphalt or cold 
liquid asphalt, and may be coated with asphalt on the surface or finished with a special 
asbestos cap sheet. These roofs do not require a mineral surfacing for the Class A 
Underwriters' rating and are best adapted for roof decks having steep slopes, although 
they may be laid with equal success on flat decks. 

When laid with proper weights and grades of felt and asphalt, this type of roof 
can be expected to give good service over a long period of years. Where the roof is 
finished with a surface coating of asphalt it is sometimes necessary to recoat the surfaces 
at periodic intervals, especially in the Southern territory. 

Before laying this type of roof, care should be taken to see that the roof deck is 
absolutely dry; otherwise there is a possibility of vapor pockets forming under the 
roofing, which will produce bulging and possibly cracking of the felts. 

There are many other types of built-up roofs, which are modifications of the types 
described above, in which methods of laying and quantities of materials used are 
modified to meet special conditions, such as lower first cost, special shapes of roof 
decks, etc. 

Built-up roofs in which the cementing material is a vegetable gum are also available, 
and are known to have given service equal to that of the pitch and asphalt roofs, when 
laid in the same manner and with equivalent quantities of materials. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR RAILWAY BUILDINGS 
Section 2 
EXCAVATION, FILLING AND BACKFILLING 
Page 294—1929 Manual: 

14. Pile Foundations 

Substitute the following for the second sentence in the second paragraph: 
Piles shall be driven by a steam or drop hammer to refusal, or until the penetra- 
tion obtained by a 3000-pound hammer falling IS feet (or by a hammer and fall pro- 
ducing the same mechanical effect) does not exceed 5-2 inch per blow for the last five 
blows. 

Section 11 

SHEET METAL WORK 

Page 328 — 1929 Manual. Amend second paragraph to read as follows: 

2. Materials 

Sheet metal work shall be copper, galvanized iron or lead as shown on the drawings 
or specifically called for in the contract. 

Copper. — Copper sheets shall be rolled from copper conforming to ASTM Speci- 
fications B-4, as revised to date and shall be branded with the weight and manufacturer's 
name. Copper flashings, valleys, eave strips and roof pans shall be 16-ounce soft rolled 
copper, unless otherwise indicated." 

Copper rain conductors, eave troughs, moulded and hanging gutters and conductor 
heads shall be 16-ounce cold rolled or hard copper. 

Copper cornices shall be 20-ounce cold rolled or hard copper. 

Galvanized Iron. — Galvanized iron shall be 24 gage of one of the following brands: 
or 

Lead. — Lead used for sheet metal work shall be 6-pound rolled sheet lead. 

Solder. — Solder shall be composed of one-half pig lead and one-half block tin (new 
metals) and shall conform to ASTM Specification B-32. 



276 Buildings 

Section 12-B 
ORNAMENTAL AND MISCELLANEOUS METAL WORK 

Page 40, Bulletin 327, Supplement to Manual. Substitute for corresponding matter 
in fifth line: 

Aluminum Alloy, 2 per cent to 7 per cent, manganese 

copper, iron, etc 9.000 9.000 6.000 10.000 

Section 13 
CARPENTRY AND MILL WORK 

Page 355, 1929 Manual. Insert a new paragraph No. 6 and renumber the succeeding 
paragraphs. 

6. Termite Shields 

Before sills and joists are set on the foundation piers or walls, the tops of these 
piers or walls shall be covered with metal termite shields as shown on the plans. 

Section 14 
LATHING AND PLASTERING 

Page 360, 1929 Manual. Substitute for the corresponding sentence in paragraph 1, 
the following: 

Under this heading shall be included all metal furring and cross furring, all 
wood, metal and gypsum lathing, all plain and ornamental plastering and all 
stucco work. 

Page 361. Insert a new paragraph No. 5 and renumber the succeeding paragraphs. 

5. Gypsum Lath. — Gypsum lath shall be }i inch thick, of a brand approved by 
the Engineer and shall conform to ASTM Specifications C-37 as revised to date. 

Nails for applying gypsum lath shall he VA inch X 13 gage, with 5/16 inch heads, 
blued or painted. 

Gypsum lath shall be applied with broken joints on studding, furring and joists, 
and boards shall be closely fitted together at all angles. Perpendicular joints shall not 
occur on opposite sides of the same stud. Lath shall be nailed with three nails along 
each 16 inch edge and one nail at each bearing along each longitudinal edge. Nails 
shall be kept at least }i inch and not more than % inch from edges of the board. 

When used over metal furring, joists or studs, gypsum lath shall be attached by 
approved metal clips. 

Provide metal fabric over all joints and in all angles fastened with staples and 
install metal corner beads on all external corners. 

Appendix B 

(2) PREPARATION OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR 
RAILWAY BUILDINGS 

F. R. Judd, Chairman, Sub-Committee; H. Filippi, A. C. Irwin, L. W. Smith. 

The Committee submits for publication in the Manual the following specification; 

Section 30-G — Reinforced Brick Masonry Chimney 

This specification was previously published as part of Appendix B, pages 588 to 593, 
both inclusive, of Bulletin 373, January, 1935, and has been revised in line with 
comments and criticisms since received. 



Buildings 277 

There is also submitted for publication in the Manual the following specification: 

Section 26-C — Cement Grouted Macadam Platforms, Floors, Pavements and 

Pavement Bases 

This specification was previously published as part of Appendix B, pages 281 to 
286, both inclusive, of Bulletin 382, December, 1935, and has been revised in line with 
comments and criticisms since received. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR RAILWAY BUILDINGS 
Section 30-G 

REINFORCED BRICK MASONRY CHIMNEY 

1. General 

The Contractor shall completely design and shall furnish all labor, material, tools 
and equipment and construct a self-supporting reinforced brick masonry chimney of the 
height and diameter as shown on drawings and as specified. 

2. Design 

The chimney shall be entirely self-supporting and independent of any building. The 
chimney shall be designed and constructed to withstand a horizontal wind pressure 
from any direction of twenty-five (25) pounds per square foot uniformly distributed 
over the entire vertical projection of the chimney and also to withstand the total weight 
of the structure and the stresses caused by temperature changes. 

The walls shall be not less than eight (8) inches thick at the top and shall increase 
by offsets to a thickness at the bottom which will be required to withstand the forces 
within the specified stresses. 

The successful Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his approval and before 
starting work, a complete set of his detailed calculations of the design of the chimney. 

The chimney and its foundation shall be designed so that the following unit stresses 
shall not be exceeded: 

3. Unit Stresses 

Brick masonry, direct tension None 

Brick masonry, diagonal tension 25 lb. per sq. inch 

3000 lb. brick masonry, compression extreme fiber, bending 500 

2500 lb. brick masonry, compression extreme fiber bending 450 

2000 lb. brick masonry compression extreme fiber bending 400 

Brick masonry in shear 40 

Steel, in tension (intermediate grade) 18000 

Bond, deformed bars 100 

Ratio, moduli of elasticity 15 

Bearing on soils — load to be determined by local conditions. 
Bearing on piles — load to be determined by local conditions. 

4. Foundation 

The foundation shall be designed to carry the chimney and all loads. It shall be 
so proportioned that the resultant of all forces will fall within such area that no tension 
or uphft will occur at the bottom surface of the foundation. Where piles are used, they 
shall conform to the specifications of the American Railway Engineering Association. 

5. Excavation 

All excavation and backfilling shall comply with Section 2, Standard Specifications 
for Excavation, Filling and Backfilling. 

6. Brick Masonry 

All materials used shall comply with the following requirements. Brick masonry 
for the walls of the chimney shall have a compressive strength of 3000 pounds per 
square inch and the brick masonry for the foundation shall have a compressive strength 
of 2000 pounds per square inch. All compressive strength tests shall be made in 
accordance with paragraph 12. 



278 Buildings 

(a) Brick 

All bricks used, if of clay or shale, shall preferably be side-cut. All bricks used 
shall at least conform to the requirements shown in the following table: 

Required Strength of Brick 

Part Compressive Strength Modulus 

of Lb. per Sg. In. of 

Structure Brick Tested Flatwise Rupture 

Individual Average Individual Average 

Minimum 5 Specimens Minimum 5 Tests 

Not less than 600 lb. 

Walls 5000 lb. 6000 lb. 450 lb. or over 

Not less than 500 lb. 

Foundation 3500 lb. 4000 lb. 400 lb. or over 

(b) Cement 

Portland Cement shall conform to the Standard Specifications for Portland Cement 
of the American Railway Engineering Association. No natural or other so-called 
masonry cements shall be used. 

(c) Lime 

Quick lime, if used, shaU conform to the current specification for quick lime for 
structural purposes of the American Society for Testing Materials, Serial Designation C5. 

Hydrated lime, if used, shall conform to the current specification for hydrated lime 
for structural purposes of the American Society for Testing Materials, Serial Designation L.6. 

(d) Sand 

All sand used for mortar shall be clean, washed, hard and well graded and shall 
contain not more than 3 per cent by weight of such organic impurities as loam, clay, 
mica, etc., determined by decantation, and shall be tested for such impurities in accord- 
ance with the current Standard Methods of Tests of the American Society for Testing 
Materials, Serial Designations C40 and D136. Mortar sand shall be free from salt, 
alkalies and other deleterious substances. The sand shall have a fineness modulus ranging 
between 2.00 and 2.50. In general, a sieve analysis shall show the sand to come within 
the following limits: 

Passing a No. 8 sieve 100 per cent 

"No. 50 " 30 per cent 

" " No. 100 " not over 10 per cent 

(e) Water 

Water shall be free from acids, alkalies, oil and all other impurities. 

(f) Reinforcing Steel 

Reinforcing steel shall conform to the standard specifications for billet steel concrete 
reinforcing bars of the American Railway Engineering Association. 

(g) Mortar Color 

Where mortar color is specified, only pure mineral color shall be used. No mortar 
color shall be used except by permission of the Engineer. 

(h) Integral Waterproofing 

No waterproofing materials shall be added to the mortar except by permission of 
the Engineer. 

(!) Anti-Freeze Compounds 

No anti-freeze liquid, salt or other substance shall be used in mortar except by 
permission of the Engineer. 

7. Proportioning and Mixing of Mortar 

(a) All mortar used shall be mixed by volume in the proportion of one (1) part of 
Portland cement, one-half (^) part of slaked quick lime putty or of soaked hydrated 
lime putty and three (3) parts of sand. No lime putty shall be used which has not 
been slaked or soaked at least twelve (12) hours before being mixed into the mortar. 
All mortar shall be mixed with a minimum amount of water consistent with maximum 
density and workable plasticity. 



Buildings 279 

(b) The method of measuring mortar materials shall be such that the specified 
proportions thereof can be controlled and accurately maintained at all times. 

(c) All mixing of mortar shall be done in a mechanically operated batch mixer of 
the drum type for a period of at least three (3) minutes after all materials for a batch 
are in the drum. The drum must be completely emptied before the succeeding batch of 
materials is placed therein. Continuous mortar mixers and hand mixing will not be 
allowed. 

(d) The use of retempered mortar will not be permitted. 

8. Brick Laying 

(a) Wetting Bricks 

All bricks immediately before being laid shall be sprinkled in the stock pile, or else- 
where as may be suitable, for not less than five (5) minutes or for such additional 
time or wetted in such other manner as the Engineer may decide is necessary to supply 
the bricks with sufficient moisture to effect a proper bond between the bricks and mortar. 

(b) Mortar Beds and Other Joints 

All bricks shall be laid on a full, flat bed of mortar with all head and side or collar 
joints completely filled by shoving or by slushing. Sphtting or furrowing of mortar beds 
will not be permitted. 

(c) Placing Reinforcement 

Before mortar is placed under, over or around a bar, such a bar shall be in correct 
position and shall be held without movement until the next course of bricks is laid. 
The minimum thickness of mortar joints, as related to bar size, shall be as shown in the 
following table: 

Minimum Mortar 
Bar Size Joint Thickness 

3/8" or less 1/2" 

1/2" S/8" 

S/8" 13/16" 

3/4" 1" 

1" 1-1/4" 

(d) Condition of Equipment 

All equipment used for mixing or transporting mortar and bricks shall be clean and 
free from set mortar, dirt or other injurious foreign substances. 

(e) Laying Brick Masonry in Foundations 

Before laying bricks in a foundation, a layer of not less than one (1) inch of mortar 
shall be spread over the surface of the soil. Immediately thereafter the first course of 
bricks shall be laid. 

(f) Joining Work 

When fresh masonry is to join with masonry that is partially or entirely set, the 
exposed joining surface of the set masonry shall be cleaned, roughened and wetted so as 
to effect the best possible bond with the new work. All loose bricks and mortar shall 
be removed. 

(g") Disturbance of Completed Work 

When any portion of the chimney has been completed, such work shall remain 
undisturbed until thoroughly set, except in the case where work left off at the end of a 
day is re-commenced on the following morning, or as soon thereafter as practicable. 

(h) Finishing of Work 

All brickwork shall be finished in a workmanlike manner with a thickness of joints 
and manner of striking or tooling indicated on the drawings or as described in the speci- 
fications. All work shall be built true to the dimensions and to the grade shown on the 
drawings. 

(i) Cleaning and Tuck Pointing 

All exterior brick masonry shall be thoroughly cleaned and tuck pointed. If so 
specified, a five (S) per cent solution of muriatic acid shall be used for cleaning down, 
but this must be followed by copious baths of clean water. 



280 Buildings 

9. Laying Bricks in Freezing Weather 

(a) Protection of Bricks 

All bricks delivered for use in freezing weather shall be fully protected immediately 
upon delivery by a weather-tight covering such as will prevent the accumulation of 
water, snow or ice on the bricks. Loose board covering will not be permitted. 

(b) Heating of Sand 

All sand shall be heated in such a manner as will remove all frost, ice or excess 
moisture. The methods and equipment used shall be of such character as will prevent 
the burning or scorching of the sand. 

(c) Heating of Bricks 

All frosted bricks shall be defrosted by heating to a temperature of approximately 
180 degrees Fahr. 

(d) Heating of Water 

During freezing weather, or when so directed by the Engineer, all water used shall 
be heated lo a temperature of approximately 180 degrees Fahr. 

(e) Slaking or Soaking of Lime 

All slaking of quick lime or soaking of hydrated lime shall be done at a temperature 
of at Jeast oO degrees Fahr. and tnis temperature shall be maintained until the 
lime is incorporated into the mortar. 

(f) Protection of Mortar Against Freezing 

After the mortar is mixed, it shall be maintained at such a temperature as will 
prevent its freezing. Mortar on the boards shall be kept from freezing at all times and 
if necessary the Contractor shall use metal mortar boards equipped with banjo type, 
oil or gas, torches. 

(g) Enclosures and Artificial Heat 

All work under construction shall be protected against freezing for a period of 
forty-eight (48) hours by means of enclosurei, artificial heat, or by such other protective 
methods as will meet the approval of the Engineer. In general, the methods now com- 
monly accepted and used for the p"itection of reinforced concrete construction in 
freezing weather shall be used. 

10. Bricklaying in Hot Weather 

All finished or partly completed work shall be covered or wetted in such a manner 
as will prevent too rapid drying of the masonry. 

11. Centering 

All centering required shall be of sufficient strength and rigidity to carry the super- 
imposed loads without settlement or movement. All centering shall be removed at the 
rL-k of the Contractor. 

12. Compression Tests 

(a) Brick Masonry 

At least three (3) compression test specimens, each nominally 8 inches square and 
16 inches high, shall be made and tested before actual construction is commenced. 
These test specimens shall be built up of unselected bricks from the stock pile and laid 
in the same mortar mixture and in the same manner proposed to be used on the job. 
The specimens shall be moist cured for 27 days, exposed to the atmosphere of the 
laboratory for one (1) day and then tested in a vertical position. The average com- 
pression strength of such test specimens shall not fall below the requirements of 
paragraph 6 according to the allowable unit stress to be used. 

In preparing compression test specimen, care shall be taken that the top and bottom 
bearing areas are exactly parallel and that the mortar joints do not exceed ^ of an 
inch. The method of capping and testing shall be that presented in the current Speci- 
fications icr Testing Brick of the American Society for Testing Materials, Serial 
Designation C67, 

(b) Mortar Cubes 

Mortar test cubes shall be 2" X 2" X 2" and shall be tested in accordance with the 
current Specifications and Tests for Compressive Strength of Portland Cement Mortar 



Buildings 281 

of the American Society for Testing Materials, Serial Designation C9. Such cubes shall 
develop a compressive strength of at least 900 pounds per square inch at seven (7) days 
and 2000 pounds per square inch at twenty-eight (28) days. At least three (3) cubes 
shall be made and tested for each lot of 50,000 bricks. 

13. Accessories 

Unless otherwise specified, the Contractor shall furnish and install the following 
features and accessories, namely: Breeching opening, lining, cleanout door and lightning 
protection. 

When specified or ordered by the Engineer, the Contractor shall furnish and install 
the following features and accessories, namely: Letters, ladder, draft gage and pyrometer. 

14. Breeching Opening 

The opening for the breeching connection shall be of such size and location and of 
such form and finish as shown on drawings. The opening shall be lined on the reveals 
with refractory material. 

15. Lining 

The lining shall be constructed to the height above the top of boiler room floor 
shown on drawings. The lining shall start at least two (2) feet below the bottom of 
breeching opening, resting on a corbel in the shaft. Where there is danger of combustion 
below the breeching opening, the lining shall start at the foundation, which shall be 
paved with lining material of the same thickness as the bottom section of the lining if 
said foundation is of concrete. 

For power boiler plants, the lining shall be carried up above the top of the breeching 
opening at least one-quarter {]4) of the height of the chimney above the foundation; 
for temperatures ranging from 800 degrees to 1200 degrees Fahr. two-thirds (%) of said 
height, and for higher temperatures the full height. 

The lining shall be constructed of fire brick laid up in refractory mortar. The brick 
shall meet the requirements of the current Standard Specifications of the American 
Society for Testing Materials for Clay Fire Brick for Stationary Boiler Service, Serial 
Designation C64. 

The lining shall be not less than four and one-half (4>4) inches thick. It shall be 
entirely separated from the outer shell by an air space of not less than two (2) inches. 
The outer shell of the chimney shall be corbelled in over the top of the lining to prevent 
soot and other material dropping behind the lining. 

The lining shall be built perfectly smooth, with the same batter as the inside of the 
chimney, and with bed joints not to exceed one-sixteenth (1/16) inch thick. 

16. Cleanout Door 

A cast iron cleanout door shall be provided not less than one foot four inches (1'4") 
by two feet six inches (2' 6"), hinged and latched to a cast iron frame placed at the 
base of the chimney. 

17. Lightning Protection 

The Contractor shall furnish and install complete in place a lightning protection 
system, as specified in Addenda C. 

18. Lettering 

When called for, the Contractor shall build into the chimney shaft letters of per- 
manently colored kiln burnt brick. The letters shall be of such number and dimensions 
as shown en drawings. The letters shall be true to size and shape, and in a true 
vertical line. 

19. Ladder 

The ladder shall be built preferably on the outside of the chimney and shall consist 
of three-quarters (^) inch square galvanized iron rungs, spaced approximately one foot 
three inches (1'3") center to center and securely anchored into the masonry from top to 
bottom. The ladder shall comply with local and State safety laws and requirements. 



282 Buildings 

20. Draft Gage 

The draft gage shall be of the pointer type as specified in Addenda A. The gage 
shall be installed in place complete with all attachments, piping and fittings, and shall 
be in perfect working order. The location of the gage shall be indicated on the drawings 
and in a place visible to the operator when making adjustments to draft controls or 
dampers. Each pointer or reading shall be furnished with stop cock close to the gage. 

21. Pyrometer 

The pyrometer shall be either a vertical, straight stem, mercury actuated dial 
pyrometer, or a thermo-electric pyrometer equipped with dial and recording attachment, 
as may be determined by the Engineer. They shall be in accordance with the 
requirements of Addenda B. 

22. Guarantee I 

For a period of one (1) year after the completed chimney shall have been accepted 
by the Railway Company, the Contractor shall repair free of charge any defect which 
may develop from a wind pressure due to a velocity of wind not exceeding one hun- 
dred (100) miles per hour, the influence of the atmosphere, the chimney gases and 
temperature not exceeding designed temperatures, or faulty materials or workmanship. 

23. General Conditions 

All materials entering into the work and all methods used by the Contractor shall 
be subject to the approval of the Engineer, and no part of the work will be considered 
as finally accepted until all of the work is completed and accepted. 

The General Conditions in Section 1 of this specification shall apply with equal 
force in this section of the specification. 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR RAILWAY BUILDINGS 

Section 26-C 

CEMENT GROUTED MACADAM PLATFORMS, FLOORS, PAVEMENTS 
AND PAVEMENT BASES 

1. General 

The Contractor shall furnish all labor, materials, tools and equipment, except as 
otherwise noted or specified, which are necessary to complete entirely the cement grouted 
platforms, floors, pavements and unfinished bases to receive wearing surfaces for plat- 
forms, floors and pavements as herein specified and as shown or implied on the drawings. 

2. Description 

Cement grouted macadam shall consist of a coarse aggregate bound together by 
Portland cement grout. It shall be constructed by placing on a prepared subgrade a 
layer of coarse aggregate over which is poured a grout of such fluidity that it immediately 
flows through and completely fills the voids in the coarse aggregate. 

3. Scope 

These specifications apply to finished surface pavements and floors supported 
directly on the ground, such as platforms at railway stations, walks, floors in shop and 
roadway buildings, runways and driveways in shop yards, and similar facilities, and to 
unfinished bases to receive wearing surfaces for platforms, floors and pavements. 

4. Materials 

Portland cement, fine and coarse aggregate and water shall comply with Section 4. 
Standard Specifications for Concrete Work, except as hereinafter provided. 

Crushed stone, gravel or slag conforming to the requirements for first-class ballast 
as to hardne-s and durability may be used subject to approval of the Engineer. 

Fine aggregate shall be a natural sand. 



Buildings 



283 



5. Gradation of Aggregates 

Coarse aggregate shall not contain more than 5 per cent of material passing the 
.}4 inch sieve, nor more than 10 per cent retained on the sy^ inch sieve. The allowable 
range between the maximum and minimum size of any aggregate used shall not exceed 
ly^ inches. 

The gradation of the fine and coarse aggregate shall preferably fall within the 
limits set by the following table: 



Coarse Aggregate 

Passing 2" sieve, 90-100 per cent* 

Passing 1" sieve, 0-15 per cent 

Passing 2^" sieve, 90-100 per cent 

Passing 1^" sieve, 0- IS per cent 

Passing ly^" sieve, 90-100 per cent 

Passing 3/^" sieve, 0- S per cent 



Passing 3" 
Passing 2" 



sieve, 90-100 per cent 
sieve, 0-15 per cent 



5 Passing 3^" sieve, 90-100 per cent 
Passing 2J^" sieve, 0- 15 per cent 



Accompanying Fine Aggregates 
Passing No. 8 sieve, 95-100 per cent 
Passing No. SO sieve, 10- 30 per cent 
Passing No. 100 sieve, 0- 5 per cent 
(Approximately 7J4 gallons of water per 
sack of cement) 

Passing No. 8 sieve, 100 per cent 
Passing No. 14 sieve, 90-100 per cent 
Passing No. 50 sieve, IS- 30 per cent 
Passing No. 100 sieve, 0- 10 per cent 
(Approximately 7% gallons of water per 
sack of cement) 

Passing No. 4 sieve, 95-100 per cent 
Passing No. 14 sieve, 60- 80 per cent 
Passing No. SO sieve, 10- 30 per cent 
Passing No. 100 sieve, 0- 5 per cent 
(Approximately 6% gallons of water per 
sack of cement) or either of above 



Note. — The first two gradings are preferred. Quantities of water are given as a 
guide, and the amounts required may vary considerably from those suggested, depending 
on sand grading. 

6. Subgrade 

The surface of the subgrade shall be uniform, well compacted and free from loose 
material. Any material causing soft or spongy places in the subgrade shall be replaced 
with suitable material and compacted, before any of the coarse aggregate is spread 
thereon. 

The subgrade shall be drained where frost heaving may be expected. 

7. Forms 

Side forms shall have a height equal to the edge thickness of the finished work and 
be strong enough to withstand subsequent construction operations. They shall be firmly 
staked in place and shall not be removed until 12 hours after the work is finished. If 
the aggregate is compacted by a roller, the forms shall be more substantial than if it is 
compacted by hand or by vibration. 

8. Joints 

.Where specified by the Engineer, joints shall be formed by installing a wood or 
metal bulkhead on the subgrade prior to the spreading of coarse aggregate, or by trench- 
ing the coarse aggregate. These bulkheads shall be set ^ inch below top of finished 
surface and shall be firmly fastened in place so that they will not be disturbed by 
subsequent construction operations. Preformed joint filler used in connection with heavy 
rolling shall be supported by substantial metal bulkhead which shall be removed prior 
to final finishing. If compaction and finishing is done by vibration or hand tamping 
and finishing, properly supported preformed joint filler may be used independently. The 
edges at all joints shall be rounded, the joint cleaned out and the pavement made level 
at the joint by filling with approved bituminous material (Fig. 1). All joints shall be 
vertical and full depth of platform, floor or pavement. 

Where the slabs form a base for other than concrete wearing surface, expansion 
joints may be omitted at the discretion of the Engineer or constructed in accordance 
with Fig. 1, excepting that the joint filler shall be omitted, the board made full depth 
of the base and the edges square. 



284 Buildings 




^Sfee/f/ns epacedabouf 
5'cenfers and sfaggered 
on bofh s/des-/eff/np/ace. 

Fig. 1. — Trenched Bulkhead Joint. 

9. Placing Coarse Aggregate 

The coarse aggregate shall be handled so as to prevent segregation of sizes and in- 
clusion of dirt or other foreign material. It shall be spread evenly on the prepared 
subgrade to a depth which will give, after compaction and final finishing, a pavement of 
the thickness and crown specified (see Addenda 1). 

There shall be no unnecessary trucking or hauling over the coarse aggregate after 
spreading. 

10. Compaction 

The coarse aggregate shall be compacted by not less than two complete rollings or 
tamping or vibration as suitable for each kind of aggregate and as specified by the 
Eneineer. The roller shall weigh not less than 3 nor more than 6 tons and the rollers 
shall be tandem. Rolling shall progress by one-half laps from sides toward center lines. 
After compaction the surface shall be corrected by removal or addition of coarse 
aggregate. 

11. Grout 

The grout shall be in the proportions of 1 bag (94 lb.) of cement to approximately 
2 cu. ft. of moist sand (approximately 190 lb.) and sufficient mixing water to produce 
only sufficient fluidity to flow to the bottom of the aggregate and fill the voids com- 
pletely. If high early strength grout is used, the proportions shall be one bag of cement 
to approximately ISO lb. of sand, or high early strength cement may be used in the 
proportions of one bag of cement to 190 lb. of sand. 

The amount of mixing water per sack of cement to produce proper fluidity shall be 
determined by trial, and frequent fluidity tests shall be made during grouting opera- 
tions, the mixing water being regulated to secure penetration as follows: Test holes 
shall be dug to the subgrade in the coarse aggregate at some distance ahead of grouting. 
These test holes shall be observed as grouting operations proceed. When the grout on the 
surface of the aggregate is one foot or more away, unsegregated grout shall enter the 
bottom of the test holes. When grout does not so enter the bottom of the test hole, 
grouting operations shall cease until proper adjustments are made to insure satisfactory 
penetration. A large amount of free water (not grout) coming to the surface of flowing 
ahead on the subgrade will be evidence that too much mixing water is being used. 

12. Mixing Grout 

The cement grout mixer shall be of a type approved by the Engineer and the mixing 
time shall be not less than one minute. A positive approved method shall be provided 
for measuring the amount of water for each batch. The grout may be mixed on the 
job, at a central plant with agitator delivery trucks or in a truck mixer. 

The capacity of the mixer shall be ample to maintain the desired rate of progress. 
For small jobs the grout may be hand mixed in tight troughs or boxes or other 
convenient tight receptacles. 

13. Distributing Grout 

Regardless of the mixing method, the grout shall be deposited upon the coarse 
aggregate without segregation and in such a way that the coarse aggregate is not 
unduly disturbed. 

Grout shall not be spilled on the ungrouted coarse aggregate except where grouting 
operations are in progress. 



Buildings 



285 



Where water is readily available, the coarse aggregate shall be lightly sprinkled 
with water before grouting if necessary to facilitate penetration. Only sufficient water 
shall be used to moisten the aggregate, and not flow onto the subgrade. 

Grouting operations shall be continuous between joints or during each day's grouting 
operation. Grout distribution shall proceed continuously from side to side of the area 
and it shall be broomed ahead to prevent formation of air or water pockets in the 
aggregate already grouted. Sufficient grout shall be used to embed the coarse aggregate 
firmly after compaction and leave a thin film over the coarse aggregate. 

14. Final Compaction 

Final compaction shall be obtained by one or a combination of — 

(a) Rolling 

(b) Vibration 

(c) Hand Tamping 

(a) Rolling. — A tandem roiler as specified in Article 10 or by the Engineer thall 
be used. Final rolling shall begin within from 30 minutes to about one hour after 
grouting, depending on the weather and working conditions, and when free water is no 
longer released from the grout to the surface. The surface shall be rolled from three to 
six times, progression from sides toward the center with one-half laps or until a hard, 
compact, even surface is obtained. The amount of grout on the surface shall be kept 
to a minimum required to cover the coarse aggregate. During rolling operations, hand 
squeegees or light push brooms shall be used to distribute the grout evenly over the 
surface, and to remove any excess grout. Grout may be added to the surface where 
necessary to embed the coarse aggregate properly. 

Major irregularities in the surface shall be corrected with stone rakes by leveling 
high spots and filling low spots with Y^ inch coarse aggregate. Additional grout shall 
be added if necessary. All places adjusted shall be recompacted. 

(b) Vibration. — Vibration finishing equipment shall consist of a screed carrying 
one or more vibrating elements. The screed shall be given a "sawing" motion as it is 
passed ever the surface. Hand squeegees or light push brooms shall be used to distribute 
the grout evenly and to remove any excess grout. Grout may be added to the surface 
to embed coarse aggregate and high or low spots corrected as specified under 14 (a). 

(c) Hand Tamping. — Immediately after grouting, the surface shall be tamped with 
a longitudinal tamping template approximately 12 ft. long and weighing from 10 to 
IS lb. per ft. (Fig. 2), to embed aggregate displaced during grouting, and to secure 
the utmost of compaction practicable. 




r' 



P/oivMand/es 



/B'-O" 




S€ct/onA-A 



S/DE ELEV/IT/ON. 
P/ow Hand/es 

We/gA/perf/'/O/o/S/As 
/?c/d/?/onB/ IVe/ght may be ob/a/- 
nedbyus/nga 4"x8'T/mber or 
sp/k/ng a P/ank /o fop 
S/ee/P/a/e ^„5'x/2-o'bo//edor 
/aggec/fo 7/mber Sbeef /ron 
ben/ around bo ffom oPT/mber 
maybe used /ns/ead oPSfee/ 
P/a/e Porsma//oroccas/ona/Jobs 
fi Sfee/ Channe/ orT/nsfead oP 
Timber /s prePerred 

Fig. 2. — Hand Tamping Template. 



286 Buildings 

Tamping shall proceed across the pavement parallel to the center line. The template 
shall be lifted vertically from 6 to 10 inches and allowed to fall of its own weight, then 
moved transversely about one-half the width of the tamping face for the next stroke. 
The tamping shall proceed in this manner for the entire width of the pavement, after 
which the template shall be moved forward longitudinally about one-half of its length 
and tamping again proceed as above described. Tamping the second time, if needed, 
shall proceed in the same manner. Further compaction, after an interval of time, shall 
be required as specified under "Finishing". Paving tampers weighing 25 lb. may be used 
to correct high spots and consolidate additional aggregate placed at low spots. 

15. Finishing 

Finishing shall begin after an interval of from 30 minutes to one hour, depending 
on weather and working conditions, after compacting by rolling, or vibrating or tamping 
as above specified. Surface irregularities or more than ^ inch measured from a ten-foot 
straight-edge or surface template shall be corrected either by the use of a hand tamper 
weighing not less than 25 pounds or by trimming such places with stone rakes and then 
recompacting with the longitudinal tamping template. 

Additional grout shall be applied where necessary to correct the surface and excess 
grout shall be removed with squeegees or light push brooms during the tamping 
operations. 

Immediately following this final tamping and correcting, the surface shall be 
smoothed by use of a long handled float 10 inches wide by 36 inches long with a handle 
sufficiently long to permit manipulation from either edge or side to 2 feet beyond 
the center. 

After the surface has been smoothed by the long handled float, excess water shall 
be removed and grout distributed by drawing a strip of wetted burlap across the 
surface. The burlap shall be about one foot longer than the surface and shall be drawn 
forward from the foremost corners, thus permitting the burlap to distribute itself over 
the surface. This operation shall be repeated if excess water rises to the surface. 

After dragging with the burlap, the edges and joints shall be rounded with an edging 
tool having a ^ inch radius. After disappearance of the water sheen, the surface shall 
be floated and broomed or, in the case of floors, troweled as specified by the Engineer. 

Where the cement grouted macadam forms a base for other than a direct concrete 
wearing surface, the base shall be finished in accordance with the requirements of the 
wearing surface to be used. 

16. Curing 

The work shall be cured with wet burlap applied as soon as possible without marring 
the surface. It shall be kept wet for 48 hours. Other equivalent curing methods shall 
be subject to approval of the Engineer. 

17. Opening to Traffic 

Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer, the work may be opened to use after 
7 days from the final finishing of the surface. If high early strength grout is used, the 
surface may be opened to use after 3 days from completion of finishing, or as directed 
by the Engineer. 

Addenda 1 

Approximate thickness of loose spread aggregate for a finished thickness, t on an 
untreated clay subgrade. 

Thickness of Loose Aggregate 
Crushed 

Compaction Method Stone Slag Gravel 

Power roUing 1.12i + .8" 1.09t -f .6" 1.03t + .3" 

Vibration or hand tamping 1.02t + .2" l.OIt + .2" 1.04f -f .2" 

The additional thickness of loose aggregate required to give a finished thickness, 
/ depends upon the amount of compaction of the loose aggregate plus the loss of 
aggregate into the subgrade. Thus, the compaction of crushed stone by rolling with 
the specified roller is about 12 per cent. This is independent of the aggregate pushed 
into the subgrade. If the subgrade is hard, such as an old macadam base, or if it has 



Buildings 287 

been treated by rolling crushed stone or gravel into it, the subgrade loss will be zero 
and the compaction factor (term containing t) only should be Bsed. In general, 
gravel aggregate cannot be power rolled until after grouting. 

Addenda 2 

Thickness of Cement Bound Macadam (Grouted Ballast) for Pavements 
and Floors 

The required thickness of pavement and floor slabs depends upon the loads to be 
carried, the supporting power of the subgrade and the strength of concrete. A simple 
formula for thickness is: 



M 
2 
where 

d = uniform depth, in inches, of pavement slab or floor 
W = wheel load in pounds 

M = modulus of rupture of concrete, lb. per sq. in. (600 lb. per sq. in. for 
cement bound macadam, i.e., grouted ballast) 
c = coefficient of subgrade support 

M 
The factor — represents the allowable working stress of the concrete. For general 

design purposes, it may be taken as J^ the modulus of rupture of the concrete since this 
will permit an unlimited number of loadings without fatigue of the concrete. 

For general design purposes, where construction is on soil, a factor of 1.00 should be 
used for c. Where construction is on thoroughly compacted cinders or ballast, a 
factor of .842 should be used for c. 

Thus, for cement bound macadam (grouted ballast) built on soil, the required 
thickness for an unlimited number of 2.000 pound wheel loads is 



/ 



300 
IiW= 4,000 lb. 



(3) (2,000) (1) 

— =^ 4.5" 



:=/ 



/ (3) (4,000) (1) , 

^ = '</ 300 = ^-^ 

For the same loadings on compacted cinders 
or ballast with c=.842: 

W = 



_ / (3) (2,000) (.842) 
'^= y 300 

Pr = 4,000 lb. 



=/ 



(3) (4,000) (.842) 



4.1" 



= S.8" 



This indicates a required thickness of about 4^^ inches of cement bound macadam 
(grouted ballast) for passenger platforms, truckways and shop floors, built on soil where 
loads will not exceed 2,000 lb. When built on compacted cinders or ballast, a 4 inch 
thickness will suffice. 

Shop yard driveways of cement bound macadam (grouted ballast) built on soil to 
carry an unhmited number of motor trucks having 4,000 lb. wheel loads should have a 
uniform thickness of about 6J4 inches. When built on compacted cinders^ or ballast, 
6 inches will suffice. Pavements wider than 12 ft. shall have a longitudinal joint. 



288 Buildings . 

Appendix C 

(3) INFLUENCE OF THE DESIGN OF BUILDINGS ON 

FIRE INSURANCE RATES 

N. D. Howard, Chairman, Sub-Committee; A. C. Copland, A. T. Hawk, G. A. Rodman. 

Fire insurance rates, in themselves, rarely determine the design of a building; how- 
ever, the design of and materials used in the construction of buildings have a very 
definite and continuing effect upon fire insurance rates, adversely in the form of higher 
rates as the design and materials used veer from fire-resistive construction, and favorably 
in the form of lower rates as the design and materials used approach fully fire-safe con- 
struction. This holds true almo.=t regardless of location, occupancy, use or other con- 
ditions, although to a greater or smaller degree in various sections of the country 
depending upon local fire experience and the types of internal and external protection 
afforded. 

Furthermore, the design of and materials employed in those types of railway build- 
ings used for the handling or storing of produce or merchandise have a large influence 
upon the insurance rates charged on the contents moving through or held in them. 
Internal and external fire protection systems, such as automatic sprinkler, standpipe 
and deluge systems, water fire curtains, automatic fire alarm systems, etc., also usually 
exert an influence upon the fire insurance rates placed on both buildings and contents. 
Therefore, it is desirable to keep all of these factors clearly in mind when designing 
structures and specifying the materials to be used in their construction. 

The amount of money set aside 'or paid by the railways yearly for fire insurance 
is dependent upon many conditions and circumstances, one of the most important of 
which is their fire loss record or experience. Therefore, it is evident that one positive 
and important • way to reduce the annual expenditure of the railways for fire insurance 
premiums is to improve their fire loss record. This can be done to a large extent 
through fire-resistive building design and construction. 

Standards and Rate Schedules 

The rates charged by insurance companies for insuring against property loss through 
fire are based primarily upon the fire risk involved. If the risk is great, the rates are 
high, being reduced only as the risk itself is reduced. 

The principal general factors having influence on insurance rates are the type of 
design and construction emplo}'ed, exposure to lire risk from outside sources, occu- 
pancy, the degree of internal and external protection afforded, and the fire experience of 
the locality in which the building is located. One of the most important of these is 
the type of design and construction. A railway may have no choice with regard to the 
location, exposure and occupancy of many of its buildings, but it invariably has juris- 
diction over the design, construction and maintenance of its structures, wherein lies a 
large potential saving in insurance rates. 

The influence of building design upon fire insurance rates is brought out clearly by 
study of the Standard Building Requirements of the various sectional bureaus of the 
Fire Underwriters' Association, and of the penalties imposed in the scheduled rates of 
these bureaus for non-conformity with these requirements. The Standard Requirements 
for construction cover in considerable detail the more important phases or details of 
building construction, including bearing and non-bearing walls, fire and party walls, 
roofs, parapets, floors, fire doors and shutters, encasement of structural iron and steel, 
heavy timber construction, stairways and elevator shafts, skylights, finish, heating, light- 
ning, power, boilers, chimneys, etc. They also include standards with regard to such 
items as care and attendance, internal and external fire protection, and exposure. 



Buildings 289 

Insurance rating schedules specify a definite base rate for the class of building and 
general type of construction employed, and then list in detail the penalties (additions 
to the base rate) for deficiencies or omissi9ns in details of design or construction as 
measured in the light of the Standard Requirements. For example, under a specific 
local schedule for buildings of predominantly fire-resistive construction, the base rate is 
$0.10 per hundred, and the individual penalty charges range from $0,005 to $0.08 per 
hundred. Under a second schedule, for buildings of the same general type, which, how- 
ever, are not predominately fire-resistive throughout, the base rate is $0.20 per hundred, 
and the individual penalty charges range from $0.01 to $0.25 per hundred. 

Study of these schedules reflect clearly the large increase in the base rate and the 
larger penalties for deficiencies in construction in non-fire-resistive structures as compared 
with fire-resistive structures. It also makes clear that rates are not only affected ad- 
versely by the absence of certain standard features and by the character of the materials 
used, but also by failure to conform with the Standard Requirements as regards design. 
Thus, for example, a structure built of fire-resistive materials throughout may be penal- 
ized because of deficiency in the height or thickness of parapet walls, excessive floor areas 
between fire walls, inadequate thickness of floor slab, the lack of suitable protection to 
steelwork, or because of deviation from standard requirements for the size of or 
protection of openings. 

It is also to be noted that the external fire hazard to which a building is exposed 
has a substantial effect upon fire insurance rates, the increase in rate due to a severe 
exposure risk having been known to approach that established on the building itself. 
The external exposure rate is based essentially upon the risk imposed by the nearness, 
type of construction and occupancy of nearby buildings, and the character of the con- 
struction of the exposed faces of the building upon which the rate is being established, 
to the external risk. Thus, the location of a building and the type of construction on 
those sides exposed to external fire hazards should be given special consideration, and 
particularly if the building is to house combustible contents. The addition of a parapet 
on an exposed incombustible wall, the elimination of openings in such a wall, or the 
protection of necessary openings by wire glass in approved steel sash and frames and 
by standard fire doors or shutters, will cause a reduction in, and may entirely eliminate 
an otherwise appreciable increase in the insurance rate on a building. 

Hazardous Contents Require Special Attention 

The design of a building, whole or in part, may have an important effect in reduc- 
ing an otherwise high rate caused by the class of occupancy. For example, the type of 
floor, the type and thickness of walls, and the provision of or lack of suitable protection 
for door openings have an effect upon the rate applied to the entire building, the extent 
of the effect depending upon the degree of hazard involved in the occupancy. 

It is important to note also that combustible or highly inflammable contents, even 
though only a relatively small proportion of the whole and confined to a relatively 
small area of the building, may impose a severe penalty on the building as a whole, 
unless means are employed in the construction of the buUding to isolate the special 
hazard completely. For example, lack of standard fire walls or standard fire doors 
enclosing such areas, or the lack of parapets of suitable heights above enclosure walls 
may have a very adverse effect upon the insurance rate placed on the entire building. 

Rates on Contents 

Of equal importance to the influence of building design upon the insurance rate 
charged on a building itself, is the influence of design upon the insurance rates charged 
on the contents of a building. This is evinced in the fact that the base contents rate is 



290 B gildings 

usually based on the building rate. A typical table of rates on contents shows, for ex- 
ample, that contents designated Class B (which includes the general run of merchandise) 
carries a rate of $0.65 per hundred in a building having a rate (base plus penalties) of 
$0.25 to $0.29, whereas the same class of contents in a building with a rate (base plus 
penalties) of $1.00 to $1.04, carries a rate of $1.40 per hundred. 

Consideration of Old Buildings Important 

In considering the effect of building design on fire insurance rates, one should have in 
mind not only new buildings, but should bear constantly in mind that since the rates 
vary with specific details of design, opportunities are available in practically every 
existing building of other than fully fire-resistive construction to reduce its insurance 
rate, and, indirectly, the rate on its contents. For example, the addition of sheet metal 
fire curtains within the roof area of a pier of timber construction or one enclosed with 
sheet metal roofing and siding, will result in a lower rate on the pier. Likewise, the use 
of metal doors, metal sash and wire glass in substitution for combustible materials, the 
installation of fire stops, or the breaking up of excessive floor areas, will usually effect 
a reduction in the insurance rate. 

Each Building a Special Problem 

Fire-resistive construction generally costs more than combustible construction. There- 
fore, in spite of its favorable effect upon insurance rates, fully fire-resistive construction 
may not be justified solely on the basis of the saving effected in insurance premiums. 
It is recognized that it is possible to be extravagant in making a building fire-safe. 

Each building is a problem in itself. Bearing in mind the advantages of fire-resistive 
construction already pointed out, and the fact that such construction usually means 
lower building maintenance cost, each building should be studied by itself in the light 
of all of its fire possibilities. Obviously, an isolated building for housing only incom- 
bustible materials does not justify the same degree of fire-resistive construction as a 
building located in a congested high-fire-risk area and intended to house highly com- 
bustible material. Likewise, the value of its contents, the intensity of its use, its impor- 
tance as an operating unit, the possible interruption of business in case of fire, and its 
estimated useful life, all have a bearing on the extent to which a railway is warranted 
in increasing the investment in a building to secure fire-safe construction. 

Importance and Permanence Are Factors 

Without regard to any saving made through reduced insurance rates, a railway may 
be justified in spending thousands of dollars for fire-resistive construction to insure the 
safety of an intensively used pier, warehouse or terminal facility, which may be indis- 
pensable to its operations or the source of large revenue which would be interrupted or 
lost in the event of a serious fire, whereas, for a much less important building or 
facility, it might be entirely impractical to adopt the same type of construction. In 
the former case, fire-resistive construction may be essential to prevent not only the fire 
loss in the property itself, but possibly much larger losses through interruption of 
business, and the large expense which might be necessary to provide temporary facilities. 

It might also be impractical to adopt permanent, fire-resistive construction for a 
building intended to meet a need or requirement of uncertain duration. However, it 
should be borne in mind that a building constructed to fill a need of uncertain duration, 
may find valuable permanent use later in another service if it is of suitable construction. 

If for any reason it is not deemed desirable to make a building fire-resistive 
throughout, consideration should always be given to protect it against its greatest fire 
hazards, whether they be from exposure, u.sc or occupancy. 



Buildings 291 



Conclusions 

(1) Details of design or the class of materials used in building construction have a 
large effect upon fire insurance rates, on both buildings themselves and on their contents. 

(2) The saving through reduction in fire insurance rates may not, in itself, justify 
the increased initial cost to bring it about. However, the added cost for fire-resistive 
construction is often justified far beyond any saving which may result from insurance 
considerations alone. 

(3) In determining the degree of fire-resistive construction to be employed in 
buildings, each building should be studied carefully, giving consideration not alone to 
the insurance rate on the building itself, but also to the importance of the building as a 
continuous operating or revenue-producing unit, its contemplated service life, and the 
effect upon the insurance rate placed upon its contents. 

(4) Where circumstances prevent the incorporation of fire-resistive construction to 
the extent warranted by the conditions involved, care should be exercised to meet the 
most important and immediate hazards, and, wherever possible, to allow in the original 
design for the subsequent addition of further safeguards as conditions may warrant or 
make possible. 

(5) Plans for railway buildings and for their location should have the benefit of 
the criticism of the insurance and fire prevention departments of a railway before they 
are finally approved. 

Appendix D 

(5) DIFFERENT TYPES OF PAINT AND THEIR 
ECONOMICAL SELECTION 

A. C. Irwin, Chairman, Sub-Committee; G. A. Belden, J. N. Grim, A. T. Hawk, C. D. 
Horton, A. B. Stone, A. L. Sparks, F. R. Judd. 

The economical selection of paints must depend on comparative data as to durability 
and cost. Such data are scarce. Haphazard "tests" give very Httle dependable informa- 
tion. Lack of uniformity of the conditions under which exposure tests have been made, 
as well as the absence of standard methods or requirements for exposure and a still 
greater lack of standards of judging kinds and degrees of failure make available test 
data practically valueless. 

Correlation of data from tests is impossible unless the defects observed are clearly 
defined. Uniform terminology and method of rating are first requisites to the assembly 
of worth-while information. 

Definitions 

(1) Color (White Surfaces) is the designation of a comparison of the whiteness 
of the surface under consideration with that of an ideal white surface. 

(2) Color (Other Than White Surfaces) is the designation of the change in the 
spectral characteristics (color) from that of the original surface. 

(3) Gloss is the property that makes possible a description as mirror-like, flat or 
some intermediate degree of lustre. 

(4) Chalking is manifested by the presence of a loose powder, evolved from the 
film itself, at or just beneath the surface. 

(5) Checking is manifested by breaks in the film, which do not extend entirely 
through the finish under consideration. 



-^92 Buildings 

(6) Cracking is manifested by breaks extending through the finish under 
consideration. 

(7) Flaking is the detachment of small pieces of film without exposing the surface 
to which the finish under consideration was applied. 

(8) Scaling is the detachment of small pieces of rilm exposing the surface to 
which the finish under consideration was applied. 

(9) Blistering is manifested by the detaching and raising of unbroken areas of 
the finish from the underlying surface. 

(10) Peeling is manifested by a pulling away or falling away of large areas of 
film from the surface to which the finish under consideration was applied. 

RECORDING DATA 

In addition to identifying defects, they must be rated in some standard scale for 
comparison. The numerical system with zero for complete failure and 10 for perfect 
or absence of failure provides sufficient ratings for comparative purposes and also for 
indicating trends. A more general system of rating consists in the use of the terms 
perfect, slight failure, intermediate failure, bad failure, complete failure. The general 
system may be subdivided to show trends by relating the general terms to a group of 
numbers in the numerical system. Thus — 

Descriptive Numerical 

Rating Rating 

Perfect 10 

Slight failure 7, 8, 9 

Intermediate failure 4, 5,6 

Bad failure 1, 2, 3 

Complete failure 

INSPECTION FOR RECORD 

(1) Color (White Surfaces). — Compare with ideal white surface. Examine for 
yellowing, darkening, mottling, dirt collection, mould growth, etc. Record most 
prominent cause. 

(2) Color (Other than White Surfaces). — Compare with sample of original 
paint. Examine for fading, yellowing, darkening, mottling, dirt collection, mould growth, 
etc. Record most important of these factors. 

(3) Gloss. — Examine without preliminary washing, polishing or other modification 
of the surface. 

(4) Chalking. — Examine for loose powdered material by rubbing the surface. 
Distinguish between accumulation of dirt and powdered paint coating. 

(5) Checking. — In addition to examination by the unaided eye, use a magnifying 
glass of at least 10 magnifications to detect incipient checking. Indicate whether 
magnification is necessary to identify this defect. 

(6) Cracking. — Use magnifying glass to distinguish between cracks and checks. 

(7) Flaking. — Indicate whether flaking extends to the original surface or is 
limited to finish coat or to repaint coat. 

(8) Scaling. — Check for paint antagonism. 

(9) Blistering. — Check for unusual condition of original surface. 

(10) Peeling. — Include loosened film not entirely detached. 



Buildings 293 



ftAitiioAO ros 

GKNKRAL PURPOSE Of 1 



INSKCTCD BY- 



(B) Probable permanence of business. 

(C) Continual or intermittent service and operation. 

(D) Kind of goods handled. 

(E) Local requirement and building restrictions. 

Where permanent needs are questionable, wood frame buildings of ordinary con- 
struction, properly insulated, may adequately serve the purpose. 

For smaller buildings, where very low temperatures are not required, insulated 
wood frame construction, similar to that used in refrigerator cars, may be sufficient. 



EXPOSURE RECORD 



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■ffigt G— Gaod I— IntmxMllaW Fr—Po»r PCC— Pocrwt C«nd. ConMlvabK Ab— Aluant S— Slight B— Sad CF— Comp. F«llur« 



EXPOSURE AND PAINTING DETAIL 



10IT10N AND PRIPARATION < 
OTECTION OF BACK 



'LICATION MITHOO ( 
1YIN0 CONDITIOn 1 



Buildings 293 

FORM FOR RECORD 

The attached report form is offered as a convenient means for the accumulation of 
data for comparison of exposure tests. The figures in horizontal lines indicate the period 
in months after exposure when inspections are made. 

Conclusions and Recommendations 

1. There are insufficient data available to allow definite conclusions as to the 
economical selection of different types of paints. 

2. Since the railroads are large users of paint, standard exposure tests should be 
made and results recorded to accumulate sufficient information for definite conclusions. 

3. For uniformity it is recommended that exposure tests be made at an angle of 
45 deg. and with a southern exposure. 

Appendix E 

(9) DESIGN OF SMALL COLD STORAGE PLANTS FOR 
RAILWAY USE 

A. L. Sparks, Chairman, Sub-Committee; E. K. Mentzer, O. G. Wilbur, C. D. Horton. 

(I) GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

Small cold storage plants or rooms for receiving and holding perishable goods, until 
distributed to jobbers and retailers, are built in connection with freight stations, 
unloading platforms, team tracks and on spur tracks. 

Such plants are constructed to provide facilities for handling shipments of goods to 
or from localities where suitable facilities for receiving and distributing of such goods 
are not otherwise available. 

They are also used for unloading of perishables from refrigerator and other cars 
in order to release equipment. 

(II) OPERATION 

They are either operated by carriers as other station facilities or leased to outside 
parties for the handling of their products. 

They are often used as holding rooms for fruit, vegetables and produce being 
collected in small quantities for shipment in carload lots. 

They are used for: 

Distributing stations for brewery products. 
Receiving stations for dressed poultry, eggs and fish. 
Distributing stations for meats and packing house products. 
Receiving and distributing stations for cheese and dairy products. 
Receiving and distributing stations for fruits and vegetables. 

(Ill) DESIGN 
The type of construction depends on — • 

(A) Amount of traffic involved. 

(B) Probable permanence of business. 

(C) Continual or intermittent service and operation. 

(D) Kind of goods handled. 

(E) Local requirement and building restrictions. 

Where permanent needs are questionable, wood frame buildings of ordinary con- 
struction, properly insulated, may adequately serve the purpose. 

For smaller buildings, where very low temperatures are not required, insulated 
wood frame construction, similar to that used in refrigerator cars, may be sufficient. 



294 



Buildings 



Walls constructed of wood studs, sheathed inside and outside with tongue and 
grooved material applied in two or more layers, separated by 1 inch X 2 in. nailing 
strips both inside and outside, are sometimes used. 

Insulating sheets or quilts, var>-ing in quality from ordinary building paper to 
sheets of aluminum, hair felt, composition, boards, mineral wool and other similar mate- 
rials, are often inserted between the layers of wood to increase the efficiency according 
to the temperature requirements. 

Floors and ceilings of similar construction are used, but floors are generally of 
concrete in order to provide proper sanitation. 

The air spaces between layers of material must be completely sealed against all 
circulation of air if low conductivity of heat is required. This often causes dry rot and 
rapid decay, which can be partially relieved by waterproofing the inside before the cork 
or other cold storage insulation is applied, or by use of naturally durable woods such 
as red cypress and redwood. 

Frame constructed walls are not recommended where cheese, cured meats and other 
products attractive to insects or vermin are to be stored. 

Hollow tile is sometimes used for wall construction, but is not recommended except 
where the walls are thoroughly waterproofed and plastered both inside and outside 
and where the passage of air through hollow spaces is avoided. 

Brick walls with concrete floors are used in the more permanent buildings and are 
generally more satisfactory in economy of operation. 

The walls are generally plastered inside and waterproofed before the cork or other 
insulation is applied. 

Concrete floors are recommended, constructed first with a sub-floor of sufficient 
strength to sustain all imposed loads, waterproofed and covered with not less than 
4 in. of insulation and a top floor of concrete not less than 3 in. thick. Faulty refrig- 
eration is sometimes caused by improperly insulated floors, as concrete on solid fill is a 
conductor of heat and cold. 

In masonry construction waterproofing is essential to moisture control. 



(IV) INSULATION 

Heavy insulation is not necessary for the storage of fruit and vegetables, but pro- 
vision is required for uniform temperatures, above freezing, for both summer and 
winter and where bananas are held for ripening, provisions are required for humidifying 
and heating. 

The control of humidity is necessary for general storage for the reason that some 
goods require higher humidity than others, and a working knowledge of these differences 
is essential to successful operation of a plant. 

Insulating requirements differ for the storage of various commodities, depending 
upon the temperatures required. Authorities differ on the temperatures required, but 
they are approximately as follows: 



Apples 32 deg 

Bananas 56 deg 

Berries 35 to 40 deg 

Beer in Barrels 33 deg 

Beer in Bottles 45 deg 

Butter 20 to 30 deg 

Cream 32 to 40 deg 

Eggs 30 to 35 deg 

Fish 20 to 25 deg 

Flowers 36 deg 



Game 10 to 20 d 

Grapes 30 to 32 deg 

Ice Cream IS deg 

Meats 34 deg 

Mellons 35 deg 

Milk 35 deg 

Oranges 32 deg 

Poultry 28 deg, 

Vegetables 34 deg 



Buildings 295 

On the basis of thermal conductivity of cork, thickness of insulation recommended 
for various temperatures is as follows: 

45 deg. and above 2 in. thick 

35 to 45 deg 3 in. thick 

20 to 35 deg 4 in. thick 

5 to 20 deg 5 in. thick 

— 5 to +5 deg 6 in. thick 

—20 to —5 deg 8 in. thick 

Several types of insulating material are used, as vegetable cork, rock wool, vegetable 
fibre, wood fibre, aluminum, hair felt and other proprietary materials, all of which have 
different qualifications and conductivity ratings, depending upon the make. 

"The Refrigerating Data Book", issued by the American Society of Refrigerating 
Engineers, is an authority on the relative insulating values of the various materials. 

Where cork or other insulation is applied directly to underside of roof slab, there 
should be not less than 1 inch of roof insulation laid on top of slab before roofing 
material is applied. 

Where cork or other insulation is applied on wood framed ceilings, the space between 
joists should be left open for free circulation of air to prevent rapid decay of wood. 
Insulated walls and ceilings should be plastered with Portland cement or special mastic 
plastering. 

(V) PARTITIONS 

Self-supporting vegetable cork, 4 in. or more in thickness, plastered both sides, may 
be constructed without frame or other backing for support where desirable. 

Specifications for the application, anchorage and bonding of materials are furnished 
by the manufacturers of insulation. 

To prevent temperature loss, insulation must be made continuous around walls, 
floors and ceilings, and the insulation should be completely plastered with not less than 
Yi inch of Portland cement, plaster or other dense, hard, smooth-surfaced coating. 

(VI) REFRIGERATION AND EQUIPMENT 

Refrigeration is provided either by ice stored in overhead bunkers or by mechanical 
plants, which may be located inside or outside of cold storage room, as desired. Ice is 
seldom used except in plants where goods are held in storage for a short time. 

Where rooms are cooled with ice, provision must be made for a continuous circula- 
tion of air up around the ice and down again, and generally fans are necessary for 
circulation in large rooms. Extra height is required in order to provide head room under 
ice bunkers and to provide for drainage and clearance for tracks where monorail 
equipment is installed. 

The control of temperatures is difficult where ice is used. 

Mechanical refrigeration with automatic control provides uniform temperatures. 

The cold air is generally supplied by small blower units or diffusers, or by brine 
pipes where low temperatures are required. 

Special consideration should be given to condensation. Where pipes are used, they 
should preferably be suspended from ceilings and provided with drip pans, except in 
rooms where condensation is not objectionable. 

Refrigerator doors insulated with solid slab cork should be used, and special 
consideration should be given to gaskets and weather strips. 

To provide for trucking, doors should generally be not less than 4 feet wide and, 
where necessary, should have head jambs constructed for the running of monorail carriers. 

They should have heavily constructed frames secured to heavy wood bucks. 



206 Buildings 

The backs should run from floor to ceiling and should not depend upon the 
insulated wall for support. 

Where barrels are stored or trucks are used, the doors and jambs should be lined 
with steel. 

Storage rooms where barrels are stored should be provided with heavy bumper rails 
or concrete curbs, and special consideration should also be given to the impact and 
severe wear by beer barrels on floor surfaces. 

The electric lighting should be provided with vapor-proof lamps and telltale lights 
at switches outside the doors to indicate when lights are on. 

In storage rooms where very low temperatures arc required, vestibule doors or 
anterooms should be provided. 



Appendix F 

(11) STOCKPENS 

L. H. Laffoley, Chairman, Sub-Committee; E. A. Harrison, A. T. Hawk, C. D. Horton, 
J-. J. Hurley, F. R. Judd, G. A. Rodman. 

LOCATION 

Stockyard facilities are used in the operation of the railroad for the collection, 
loading and unloading of livestock. 

They consist of one or more units, known as stockpens, usually of one car capacity, 
and vary in size from one small pen and loading chute at some obscure siding where 
only an occasional car is loaded, to the large collective, holding and feed yards, w^here 
trainloads are handled frequently. 

LAYOUT 

Stockyards, consisting of one or more pens, built of sixteen-foot fence units and of 
sizes generally 48' X 16', 48' X 32' or 32' X 32' are so arranged as to facilitate the 
handling of livestock from wagon or truck or stock driven on the hoof to cars by alleys, 
an arrangement of gates and a wing-shaped loading alley with chutes. 

In stockyards having several pens, the alley serving the pens is provided with gates 
across it, so located that the movement of livestock may be controlled to any definite 
pen or pens, to the loading chute or for sorting. 

The alleys are usually 10 feet wide and the chutes are so spaced as to minimize the 
switching of cars, allowing the loading at one time of as many cars as there are chutes. 

CONSTRUCTION 

The principal units used in stockpen construction are: 

(a) Fences 

(b) Gates 

(c) Loading chutes and platforms 

(d) Floors 

(a) Fences 

The fence is the major part of stockyard construction and may be divided into two 
classes (a) exterior or main fence, (b) interior or partition fence, either class being of 
the open or closed type. 



Buildings 297 

Although several different types of fence are to be found in use, the wood boards on 
wood posts which has been in vogue since the early days of railroading is still the 
usual standard of construction. 

Fences are built about six feet high, using ten foot posts set four feet in the ground 
and spaced four to six feet apart, five foot four inches being the most common spacing 
to give three panels to a sLxteen-foot bay. 

The fence consists of five or six, two by six or two by eight boards, sometimes 
spaced closer at the bottom and wider at the top. Where pens are u^ed primarily for 
small animals, such as sheep or hogs, the fence may be lower in height and built of 
lighter boards. 

A running board is often placed on the top of the posts to facilitate stock handlers 
in inspecting stock without entering the pens. 

For partition or interior fences, where the posts are on the inside of the pens, it is 
good practice to place a chafing board, usually a two by eight or two by ten about 
three feet from the ground to prevent stock from crowding against the fence boards and 
loosening them. 

(b) Gates 

Gates are generally buCt with the same number and size of laterals as the fence 
boards to which it corresponds. 

To these laterals are fastened three verticals, one of which, in the case of ten foot 
gates, on the hanging side is extended upward to receive a diagonal crossbrace or hanger 
and at the same time provide space for two or three hinges as may be required. 

The fence posts on either side of this type of gate are often extended to provide a 
ten foot vertical clearance under the timber cap by which they are joined. 

In smaller gates, vertical numbers and adjacent fence posts are all kept the same 
height as the fence and two hinges are used. 

Gate hardware consists of lug bolts through the fence gate posts and strap hinges 
bolted to the gate. 

The usual fastening is a hook with an eyebolt or staple. 

(c) Loading Chutes, Gates and Platforms 

Loading chutes lead either from a pen or from the alley or runway. They should 
be of sturdy construction with a three-inch inclined plank floor provided with wood 
cleats spaced at 12-in. centers. 

The floor incline should not be greater than one foot in four. 

The width of the chute is usually between four and five feet, the sides being of 
two inch plank similar to the main fence in construction and height. 

A walkway from twelve to twenty inches wide should be provided on one or both 
sides of the chute on the outside and extending the full length of same; this is usually 
bracketed to the posts and provides a working space for the men in handling stock 
through the chutes. 

At points where double deck cars are loaded and unloaded, double chutes are pro- 
vided, one for car floor height, the adjoining one for double deck height. With this 
type of double chute, the upper and lower decks of the same car are loaded at the 
same time. 

An alternative type is where a section of the floor may be raised or lowered by 
means of cable and pulley to suit either level but with this type only one level can be 
loaded at one time. 



2Q8 Buildings 

Loading Chute Gates 

These gates serve a twofold purpose, (a) of closmg the end of the chute and 

(b) as wings to close the space between the chute and the stock car when loading or 
unloading. 

They are similar in design and construction to the other gates and of a width to 
suit the chute and platforms. An iron brace fastened to the upper part of the gate is 
provided to prevent the stock from pushing the free end of the gate when used as a 
wing guide. 

Loading Platform 

These platforms are usually built the same width as the chute and sixteen to twenty 
feet long. The top is about four feet above top of rail, i.e., at car floor level and the 
outside edge of the platform should not be less than eight feet from center line of track. 

(d) Floors 

Stockyard floors should be so constructed as to provide that the pens are reasonably 
dry. 

This is usually accomplished by the use of earth or gravel of sufficient depth 
properly compacted and graded, to provide proper drainage. 

Ordinary stockyard surface drainage is generally secured by placing the floor of the 
pens at a higher elevation than the surrounding ground and sloping it toward the 
outside fences. 

Tile drains are sometimes necessary in the larger feed and rest yards, and when so 
provided, sufficient catch basins or manholes must be installed to ensure easy cleaning 
of sewer lines. 

Other points or services which deserve attention are water supply, feed supply, 
sheds, scales and lighting. 

WATER SUPPLY 

Where water is not available from local sources, a small elevated tank is usually 
installed in close proximity to the yard. 

Water is supplied to the tank from a well, being elevated either by means of 
windmill or preferably by some type of mechanical pump. 

Pipe lines are usually 1 in. to 1^ in., according to the number of outlets required. 

It is good practice to place the hydrants so that each will serve two pens by the 
use of a short section of hose. 

Water troughs are made of wood, galvanized iron or concrete. 

Wood water troughs are made of 2-in. plank, usually 12 in. wide, 10 in. deep and 
from 12 to 16 feet long. 

The wood trough, however, due to the heavy maintenance required because of 
shrinkage etc., is now largely being replaced by galvanized iron or concrete, the latter 
having the advantage of requiring no form of fastening after once being placed. 

FEED YARDS 
Where feeding is done, hay barns and grain storage are provided and in the pens 
hay racks and feed troughs are built on both sides of the partition fences to facilitate 
the handling of fodder and feed. 

SHEDS 
Sheds are provided as local conditions require; usually about one-third of the pens 
are protected with sheds which generally cover one half of the pen. 
The fences forming the sheds are usually of tight board construction. 



Buildings 



299 



SCALES 

Scales for weighing stock are generally p-ovided in the larger yards. They are of 
not less than 4 ton capacity with 8' X 14' platform with suitable approach guides, gates 
and frames. Scales are usually set in a concrete pit. 

LIGHTING 

Where current is available, electric lighting is used, as loading and unloading stock 
is frequently done at night. 

Lights should be located at the loading and receiving chutes, pens and also at 
convenient points to light up the alleys and approach driveways. 

PAINTING 
Where untreated timber is used all woodwork should be given a coat of whitewash. 



Appendix G 

(13) OUTLINE OF COMPLETE FIELD OF WORK OF 
THE COMMITTEE 

O. G. Wilbur, Chairman, Sub-Committee; A. B. Stone, W. T. Dorrance, F. R. Judd, 
A. L. Sparks. 



BUILDINGS 



1. Building Structures 



Air and rail service buildings 

Air-compressor houses 

Baggage buildings 

Buildings for trainmen 

Buildings on piers 

Bus terminal buildings 

Cinder pits and cinder handling 

facilities 
Coal thawing plant 
Coaling stations 
Cold storage buildings 
Commissarial buildings 
Dwellings 
Express buildings 
Fences and railings 
Fire protection facilities 
Freight houses 
Garages 

Gas-compressor houses 
Grain elevators 
Grain warehouses 
Greenhouses 
Hay houses 
Hose houses 
Hospitals 

Hotels and restaurants 
Ice houses and icing facilities 
Mail buildings 
Office buildings 
Oil houses 
Passenger and baggage tunnels 



Platforms, freight and passenger 

Power and heating plant buildings 

Power substation buildmgs 

Produce buildings 

Recreation buildings and facilities 

Roadway buildings 

Sand houses and towers 

Scale houses 

Sheds 

Shops and enginehouses 

Signal buildings 

Stables 

Station signs 

Station stairways and foot bridges 

Stations, freight and passenger 

Stock yards and pens 

Store houses 

Teamways and pavements 

Telegraph and communication 

buildings 
ToDet buildings 
Tool houses 

Transfer houses and platforms 
Waiting rooms and shelters 
Warehouses 

Wash and locker rooms 
Watch houses and towers 
Water station buildings 
Wharves, docks and piers 
Yard offices 
Y.M.C.A. buildings 



300 



Buildings 



2. Specifications 

3. Design 

4. Substructure and Foundation 

(A) Bearing values of soils 

(B) Piles — various classes 

(C) Substructure walls, piers and caissons 

5. Superstructure 

(A) Material, fabrication and construction methods 
a — Structural frame c — Roof 

b — Exterior walls d — Floor system 

6. Interior Finish 

(A) Material and methods of application 

a — Wall finish c- 

b — Millwork and cabinet d- 

work 

7. Roofing 

(A) Material and methods of appHcation 
a — Roof covering 

8. Insulation 

(A) Material and methods of application 

9. Waterproofing 

10. Hardvirare 

(A) Rough hardware 

11. Painting 

(A) Material and methods of application 

12. Mechanical Equipment 



e — Openings 

f — Chimneys and smoke 
stacks 



-Partitions 
-Accoustical treatment 



b — Flashing 



(B) Finished hardware 





(A) Plumbing 

(B) Heating 

(C) Lighting and wiring 

(D) Elevators, escalators, chutes 

and conveyors 


(E) 
(F) 
(G) 
(H) 
(I) 


Air conditioning 
Refrigeration 
Cranes, hoists, etc. 
Fire protection 
Ventilation 


13. 


Platforms 








(A) Materials 

(B) Wearing surfaces 


(C) 
(D) 


High and low platforms 
Ramps 


14. 


Sewers and Drainage 








(A) Types 


(B) 


Materials 


15. 


Paving 








(A) Types 

(B) Materials 


(C) 


Wearing surfaces 


16. 


Sheds 

(A) Train sheds 

(B) Cover sheds 

a — Canopies attached to buildings 
b — Umbrella sheds 
c — Butterfly sheds 

(C) Snow sheds 






17. 


Clearances 






18. 


Maintenance and Maintenance Records 






19. 


Insurance and Appraisals 






20. 


Furniture and Furnishings 






21. 


Building Specialties 







REPORT OF COMMITTEE XV— IRON AND 
STEEL STRUCTURES 



G. A. Haggander, Chairman, • 

James Aston, 

P. S. Baker, 

F. E. Bates, 

J. E. Bernh rdt, 

A. J. Buehler, 

A. W. Carpenter, 

C. H. Chapin, 

O. F. Daxstrom, 

R. P. Davis, 

Shortridge Hardesty, 

C. S. Heritage, 

Otis E. Hovey, 

F. A. Howard, 

J. B. Hunley, 



Jonathan Jones, 
W. S. Lacher, 
P. G. Lang, Jr., 

B. R. Leffler, 
H. S. Loeffler, 

C. H. Mercer, 
P. B. Motley, 
F. J. Pitcher, 
Albert Reichmann, 
H. T. Rights, 

0. E. Selby, 
T. C. Shedd, 
C. S. Sheldon, 

1. L. Simmons, 
C. E. Sloan, 



R. A. Van Ness, 

Vice-Chairman; 
S. M. Smith, 
G. L. Stale Y, 
H. C. Tammen, 
G. G. Thomas, 
G. H. Tinker, 
G. H. Trout, 
F. E. Turne\ure, 
F. P. Turner, 
H. T. Welty, 
W. G. Williams, 
A. R. Wilson, 
W. M. Wn-soN, 

Committee. 



To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

1. Revision of Manual. 

The Specifications for Movable Railway Bridges should be revised to be consistent 
with the revision of the Specifications for Steel Railway Bridges.— Progress in study. 
No report. 

2. Application of and specifications for fusion welding and gas cutting for steel 
structures, collaborating with ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel (Appendix A). 

3. Design for rivet heads for steel structures. — Progress in study. No report. 

4. Stresses in wire ropes bent over sheaves. — Progress in study. No report. 

5. Different grades of bronzes to be used for various purposes in connection with 
iron and steel structures. — Progress in study. No report. 

6. Design of expansion joints involving iron and steel structures. — Progress in 
study. No report. 

7. Design of tension members and connections in which rivets develop tension. — 
Progress in study. No report. 

8. Effect of proposed increase in vehicular weights on highway bridges. — No report. 

9. Review specifications for overhead highway bridges of the Association of State 
Highway Officials insofar as they relate to steel construction, conferring with that 
association. — Progress in study. No report. 

10. Rules and Organization, reviewing subject-matter in Chapter XH in 1929 
Manual and Supplements thereto relating to Iron and Steel Structures. — Withdrawn. 

11. Outline of complete field of work of the Committee (Appendix B). 

The Committee on Iron and Steel Structures, 

G. A. Haggander, Chairmi.n. 



Bulletin 391, November, 1936. 



301 



302 Iron and Steel Structures 

Appendix A 

(2) APPLICATION OF AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR FUSION 
WELDING AND GAS CUTTING TO STEEL STRUCTURES, COL- 
LABORATING WITH A.S.T.M. COMMITTEE A-1 ON STEEL 

G. H. Tinker, Cliairman, Sub-Committee; James Aston, P. S. Baker, J. E. Bernhardt, 
A. J. Biihler, A. W. Carpenter, C. H. Chapin, R. P. Davis, Otis E. Hovey, F. A. 
Howard, Jonathan Jones, P. G. Lang, Jr., F. J. Pitcher, Albert Reichmann, H. C. 
Tammen, G. G. Thomas, H. T. Welty, A. R. Wilson, W. M. Wilson. 

Your Committee reports on the application of fusion welding to steel structures. 
It is recommended that this report be accepted as information and that study be con- 
tinued on the balance of the subject. 

THE APPLICATION OF FUSION WELDING TO STEEL STRUCTURES 

Introduction 

Until recently specifications for steel bridges forbade or discouraged the use of 
welding. Because of the advance in the knowledge and art of welding, particularly arc 
welding, the production of filler metal of a superior grade, and the development of 
fluxed electrodes, reliable welds may now be secured and definite results obtained by 
qualified welders working under careful procedure control. 

Process 

Gas welding and cutting have been in use for a number of years, practically every 
railway maintenance organization being provided with the requisite equipment and hav- 
ing crews familiar with its use. The gas process has the advantage of requiring lighter, 
less expensive, and more easily transported equipment than the arc process. It has 
the disadvantages of slower operation and requiring the heating of a larger amount 
of the base metal. It should not be used for welding parts while under stress as there 
may be danger of permanent distortion. Arc welding should be used for work of 
considerable magnitude. 

At present arc welding usually is done with direct current, but the use of alter- 
nating current is increasing because of its greater availability. 

Materials 

In the early days of the use of steel for structures it was thought that steel could 
not be welded successfully. As technique improved, particularly after the advent of 
gas and electric welding, the early difficulties were overcome. As the carbon content 
increased, new technique had to be developed. The new specifications of the American 
Welding Society limit the welding of structural steel to base metal with a maximum 
carbon content of 0.25 per cent. Steel with higher carbon content and various alloy 
steels may be welded, but the technique and the filler metal for some of them still are 
in the experimental stage. Cast steel, cast iron and wrought iron may be welded, a 
slightly different filler metal and method of operation being required for each. The 
strength of a wrought iron plate cannot be developed readily by a fillet weld because 
of the fibrous nature of the iron. 

Filler metal may be of various compositions, the basis for acceptance being its 
physical properties and the properties of the resulting welds. At the present time there 
does not seem to be any reason for a specification for chemical composition, but for 
information and future use a record should be made of all the kinds of rod used together 
with the location of their welds in the structure. 



Iron and Steel Structures 303 

Filler metal is supplied in the form of wire rod, bare, washed, or covered with 
various organic and mineral compositions. The object of the covering is twofold: 
(1) by shrouding the arc air is excluded from the molten metal, and (2) a coating of 
slag is deposited on top of the bead. The first is of benefit in producing a denser and 
cleaner deposit; the second in prolonging the time of cooling, thus having a slight 
annealing effect. The washed rod deposits a slag but does not shroud the arc. Another 
effect of shrouding is to prevent dissipation of heat, thereby increasing the rate of deposi- 
tion of the metal. Welds made with covered rods are stronger and more ductile than 
those made with bare rods but the danger of undercutting is greater. 

Types of Welds 

Welds are of two types, butt welds and fillet welds. Butt welds resist deformation 
by direct tension or compression. Fillet welds resist deformation by shear. A fillet 
weld transverse to the line of stress resists partly by shear and partly by tension and 
therefore is stronger than an equal area of longitudinal fillet weld. The relation between 
resistance to shear and to tension is the same for filler metal as for base metal, hence 
a butt weld is stronger than an equal area of fillet weld. Many Bridge Engineers are 
reluctant to approve the use of butt welds in tension. A weld does not function by 
adhesion. The filler metal is fused with and becomes a part of the base metal. Welds 
fail not by separation from the base metal but by rupture of either the filler metal or 
the base metal. Tests show that the ordinary ratio of tension to shear in metals holds 
for welds. 

Stresses 

Welding as applied to steel structures being a comparatively new development, it 
has been necessary to verify the properties of welds and the behavior of welded 
joints by tests of small and large specimens. Investigators at various institutions have 
made many tests, mostly of the effect of static loads. There still is a large field for 
research. 

Enough tests have been made to establish the strength of welds under static loads. 
Studies of the effect of impact and of repeated and reversed loads have been made, 
some in the United States but more in Germany. More tests and studies are needed. 
The specifications of the American Welding Society determine the working units for welds 
by formulas developed from the results of endurance tests. 

Locked-up Stresses 

Due to the nature of the process of welding, small areas of base metal are heated 
to the fusion point and adjacent areas to a lower temperature. This heating causes 
expansion and the subsequent cooUng causes shrinkage of the base and filler meta's. 
The stresses resulting are sometimes of considerable magnitude. The effect of these 
locked-up stresses on the load-carrying capacity of the welded member has been in- 
vestigated to some extent and some tests of full-size columns showed that the load- 
carrying capacity was not reduced. Much additional investigation in this field is needed. 

Locked-up stresses can be reduced by certain stress-relieving procedures. Heat 
treatment is used in shop practice for some types of structures, but is generally not 
feasible for field welding. Peening the weld will relieve the stress in the weld to some 
extent but does not relieve the stress in the member. Locked-up stresses may be avoided 
to some extent if the parts are free to move during the process of welding. In this 
case the parts or the member as a whole may be distorted as a result of expansion and 
contraction. Distortion may be minimized by employing a sequence of welding pro- 



304 Iron and Steel Structures 

cedure that will equalize the distribution of heat and also permit the parts to cool 
before the further application of heat. 

Concentrated Stress 

Abrupt changes of section are points of concentrated stress. Change from one 
section to another should be gradual. The end of a weld should be tapered off either 
by filling the crater or by planing. 

Economy 

Any economy of welding over riveting usually is in the saving of material. Where 
the cost of material is high and that of labor low, the welded structure may be the 
cheaper. This applies particularly to new construction. In the repair or reinforce- 
ment of existing structures the case is somewhat different. The saving of material is 
important, but the advantage of working without interfering with traffic or taking the 
structure out of service, or even without removing parts, may overbalance any increasrd 
cost of material. 

The fabricating shop should be especially equipped for welding. The reduction in 
the use of machine tools and power will be offset to some extent by the use of w.:!ding 
equipment and electric current. Joints should be designed especially for welding. Parts 
may be directly connected without connecting-flanges and splice plates. There is a sav- 
ing of section by the omission of rivet holes. There may be situations where the use 
of gusset plates and connecting angles will serve to reduce the concentration of stress. 

Qualification and Tests 

The specifications of the American Welding Society prescribe tests for welders to be 
made before the beginning of a job and during the progress of the work. These test? 
are for the purpose of demonstrating the ability of the welder to make acceptable welds 
and to check any tendency toward carelessness as the work proceeds. 

Tests of materials also are prescribed to show the weldability of the base metal 
and the suitability of the filler material. 

These tests should be made and the records kept for all work of n;agnitude or 
importance. For small jobs the expense of such tests might equal the cost of the work 
otherwise. Engineers probably will rely on their knowledge of the ability of the 
welder and the characteristics of the materials gained from previous experience. 

Inspection 

Various methods of inspection have been developed. The study is not finished. 
Possibly the most definite knowledge of the character of the finished weld is obtained by 
the use of X-ray apparatus. Such apparatus can be used for shop work but at the pres- 
ent time it is expensive. Some shops producing certain types of structures make routine 
use of X-ray examination. Some use has been made of this method on field work, but 
generally the equipment so far devised is not practical for field use. 

The stethoscope has been found useful for inspection on some structures but the 
most generally applied method is visual inspection. Visual inspection requires men 
trained to know the qualities of welds and generally capable themselves of making good 
welds. It is important that there should be enough trained inspectors to cover the job 
and to keep the work of all the welders under practically continual observation. 

New Construction 

There are in the United States a number of all-welded raDway and highway bridges 
now in service, including railway bascule and highway swing bridges. These are all 



__^ Iron and Steel Structures 305 

of moderate length of span. In building work welding has been used more extensively. 
There are a large number of good-sized office and factory buildings of all-welded con- 
struction. In other countries the number of exam^ples of all-welded construction is 
greater, most of the bridges being for highway loads. The continuous plate girder 
bridge is a favorite type for all-welded construction. The Vierendeel truss also is adapted 
to such construction. 

Repair and Reinforcement of Existing Structures 

By far the greatest use of welding as applied to railway bridges and structures, 
both in the United States and abroad, is for repairs and strengthening. Many railroads 
have welding outfits and permanent crews at work continually, while many contracting 
firms make a specialty of such work. Repair work usually involves some strengthen- 
ing. The structure merely may be restored to its original strength, but it usually 
happens that some section will be added so that the load carrying capacity of the 
structure is increased. 

Some of the items of repair and strengthening may be noted briefly: 

Cracks in flange angles are repaired by vee-ing and butt-welding. A short triangular 
plate should be added at each end of the crack to prevent its extension. 

A corroded stifi^ener angle may have its bearing area restored or increased by weld- 
ing a plate to the outstanding leg or by flame-cutting away a portion of the corroded 
leg and butt-welding a plate in place of the removed portion. New stiffeners may be 
added. They may be flats instead of angles and need not be milled to fit the flanges. 
Bearing is best secured by welding a short plate across the outside edge of the stiffener 
and to the flange. A good stiffener is a "T" with the stem of the "T" fillet-welded 
to the web. If bearing is not required, the stiffener should be cut short. 

Corroded lacing bars may be flame-cut from the member and new bars welded in 
place without removing the rivets. 

New sole plates may replace old ones by welding to the edges of the flanges. The 
use of countersunk rivets will thereby be avoided. Water may be excluded from open 
holes by welding in a rivet punching. Holes should not be filled with weld metal be- 
cause they would be points of large stress concentration. 

A broken or cut-back corroded anchor bolt may have a piece of rod welded to the 
end and a nut welded on the rod. 

Cover plates may be added to girder flanges to increase the section modulus of 
the girder. If there is no traffic, cover plates on the top flange should be successively 
narrower and those on the bottom flange successively wider to permit downhand welding. 
If traffic is to be maintained, usually it is cheaper to make the top cover plates of a 
deck girder wider and weld overhead. If the flange is wide it may be necessary to 
place slot welds between the fillet welds. If there are rivets in the flange, holes large 
enough to contain the rivet heads should be punched in the plate. If the plate requires 
and intermediate weld a fillet weld may be run around the perimeter of the hole and 
the balance of the hole containing the rivet head filled with plastic cement if it is so 
situated as to hold water. The abrupt change of section at the end of a plate is a 
point of concentrated stress. This may be lessened by tapering the plate, ending with 
a curve. Plates should be clamped tightly to the flange while the weld is being made 
and both edges should be welded simultaneously in short stretches. 

Flange rivets, splice plate rivets, and beam connection rivets may be reinforced by 
fillet welds along the edges of the plate or angle. Beam connections may be reinforced 
by adding shelf angles or brackets if clearance allows. 



306 Iron and Stec'l Structures 

Girder webs may be reinforced by butt-welding plates between the flanges and 
fiUet-welding to the web. Special care is required in planning a sequence of we'ding 
that will minimize distortion. Slot welds may be required. 

Protection of floor members against brine corrosion may be secured by tack-welding 
thin sheets over the tops of flanges and to the webs of floor beams. 

Gas-corroded overhead bracing may be repaired by cutting out the corroded parts 
and welding new sections in place. Corroded laterals and lateral plates may be replaced 
without cutting out flange rivets. Chord and web members may be reinforced by adding 
web plates of cover plates. Pairs of tension members may be made to resist compression 
by welding diaphragms between them or connecting them by battens or lacing bars. 

Worn pins may be wedged and welded. The bearing area may be increased by 
welding additional pin plates to the member. Loose eye-bars may be cut and shortened. 
In this way two bars of a pair may be made to take equal stress. Elaborate methods 
for handling such problems have been developed by welding specialists. 

Corroded rivet heads may be built up by welding, thereby avoiding the removal 
and redriving of the rivets. It should be recognized that this is not a means of rein- 
forcing the rivet but only of preventing further reduction by corrosion. The clamping 
effect of a driven rivet cannot be restored by welding on a new head. 

Building up imperfect castings and filling cavities in castings by welding now is an 
accepted practice. Broken machine parts may be repaired without dismantling the 
machine if the break is accessible. Worn and broken gear teeth may be restored. 
Broken gear teeth in the operating girder of a bascule bridge have been so repaired 
without interfering with the operation of the bridge. Where a large section of tooth 
is broken out studs may be inserted, the weld metal built up around the studs, and 
the tooth finished to exact section by grinding. 

The welding of castings usually causes embrittlement. For that reason castings, if of 
considerable size and subject to stress, should be annealed after welding. 

The foregoing examples give an idea of the great, variety of repair and reinforce- 
ment work that may be accomplished by the application of fusion welding. In most 
cases not only is the actual cost less than for riveted work but the non-interference with 
traffic makes for convenience and economy. The time required usually is less; in many 
cases riveted repairs would involve the removal of the member from the structure and 
its subsequent replacement, while welding avoids this. 

Welding is desirable in residential and business districts, where the noise of riveting 
is objectionable. 

In most cases it is not necessary to provide temporary supports for the track or 
structure, or to relieve the member of dead load stress. Loading tests have shown 
by strain gage measurements that the added material takes its proportionate share of 
the live load. Below the yield point strain is proportional to stress, therefore both old 
and new metal are equally stressed by the live load. However, there are situations 
where it may be advisable to relieve the member from stress while making the weld. 
Tests on small specimens have shown that under heavy direct tension or compress'on 
a large weld, particularly if at right angles to the line of stress, may weaken the mem- 
ber so that it will fail by stretching or buckling while hot. Fillet welds transverse to the 
Hne of stress may decrease the fatigue resistance. 

At the temperature of fusion the metal is molten. The saving characteristic of 
electric arc fusion is that the area affected at one time is small and the effect is for a 
few seconds only. Gas welding does not have these favorable characteristics and hence 
should not be used for welding members under stress. 



Iron and Steel Structures 307 

Another feature that should be kept in mind is the difference in the ways riveted 
joints and welded joints act. A riveted joint functions partly by friction and slips 
slightly before the rivets come into full bearing. In a welded joint no such slipping can 
take place. The welded joint is stiffer than the riveted joint and therefore more 
affected by secondary stresses. Where a joint is partly riveted and partly welded 
this difference in manner of functioning should be taken into consideration. The speci- 
fications of the American Welding Society assume that all of the dead load is carried 
by the rivets and all of the live load by the weld. More experimental work is necessary 
to verify this. 

Conclusion 

It is apparent that the practice of welding is in advance of theory and somewhat 
ahead of exact knowledge. There is a large field for research and experimental work 
and a great deal is being done in all parts of the world. So much knowledge is now 
available that there need be no hesitation in applying welding in repairs and reinforce- 
ment. All-welded work should be adopted only after a thorough study, both technical 
and economic. 

Consistent specifications should be adopted and rigidly enforced. Qualified opera- 
tors and experienced inspectors should be employed. It is particularly necessary that 
the work be designed and the sequence of welding operations be outlined by a competent 
engineer experienced in fabricating welded steel structures. 

The "Specifications for Design, Construction and Repair of Highway and Railway 
Bridges by Fusion Welding" of the American Welding Society for 1936, cover in deta'l 
the materials, equipment, processes, workmanship, and inspection of gas and arc weld- 
ing as applied to bridgework, new or old. These specifications may be obtained from 
the American Welding Society, 33 West 39th Street, New York City. 



Appendix B 

(11) OUTLINE OF THE COMPLETE FIELD OF WORK 
OF THE COMMITTEE 

R. A. Van Ness, Chairman, Sub-Committee; P. S. Baker, F. E. Bates, J. E. Bernhardt, 
A. W. Carpenter, W. S. Lacher, H. S. Loeffler, P. B. Motley, H. T. Rights, C. S 
Sheldon, S. M. Smith, G. H. Tinker. 

(I) Types of Structures 
(a) Fixed Bridges 

1. Simple spans 





2. Continuous spans 




3. Arches 




4. Rigid frames 




S. Cantilevers 


(b) 


Movable Bridges 




1. Swing 




2. Lift 




3. Bascule 




4. Floating 




5. Ferry aprons 


(c) 


Towers and Bents 




1. Viaduct 




2. Flood light 




3. Transmission 



^08 Iron and Steel Structures 



(d) Turntables 

1. Center bearing 

2. Three point bearing 

(e) Transfer Tables 

(f) Steel Frames of Buildings 

1. Office 

2. Shop 

3. Station 

4. Freight houses 

5. Warehouse? 

6. Engine houses 

7. Grain elevators 

8. Power houses 

(g) Terminal Structures 

1. Ore docks 

2. Coal docks 

3. Car dumpers 

4. Coaling stations 

5. Cinder pits and conveyors 

6. Scales 

(h) Steel Bearin2 Piles 

(i) Steel Cofferdams and Caissons 

(j) Masts, Signal Bridges and Telltales 

(k) Tanks 

(1) Cranes and Hoists 

1. Fixed 

2. Movable 

3. Locomotive 

(m) Fabricated Steelwork in Other Structures. 



(II) Specifications 


(a) 


Design 


(b) 


Materials 


' (c) 


Fabrication 


(d) 


Erection, including equipment 


(e) 


Welding 


(III) 


Maintenance of Structures 


(a) 


Protection from the Elements 




1 . Drainage 




2. Waterproofing 




3. Paints 




4. Other protective coatings 


(b) 


Field Inspection 


(c) 


Rating 


(d) 


Repair 


(e) 


Strengthening 


(0 


Methods of Renewal 



or covermgs 



(IV) Development 

(a) Research 

1. Service experience 

2. Service tests 

3. Laboratory and field investigation 

4. Mathematical analysis 

5. Interpretation 

(b) Behavior of Structures Under Live Load and Impact 

(c) Behavior of Structural Members and Connections 

(d) Properties of Materials 

(e) Effects of the Elements on Materials. 

Your Committee recommends this report be accepted as information. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE XVII— WOOD PRESERVATION 

C. F. Ford, Chairman; W. R. Goodwin, R. S. Belcher, Vice- 

Wm. G. Atwood, L. B. Holt, Chairman; 

Z. M. Briggs, G. R. Hopkins, F. D. Mattos, 

Walter Buehler, H. E. Horrocks, L. J. Reiser, 

C. S. Burt, R. S. Hubley, Dr. Henry Schmitz, 

G. B. Campbell, R. P. Hughes, L. B. Shipley, 

H. R. Condon, M. F. Jaeger, O. C. Steinmayer, 

Dr. VVm. F. Clapp, Dr. A. L. Kammerer, G. C. Stephenson, 

E. A. Craft, Edward Kelly, T. H. Strate, 

H. R. Duncan, A. M. Knowi.es, W. A. Summerhays, 

E. B. FuLKs, A. J. Loom, Dr. Hermann von Schrenk, 

Committee. 

To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

(1) Revision of Manual. Progress in study — no report. 

(2) Service Test Records for Treated Ties (Appendix A). Progre.-s report. 

(3) Piling Used for Marine Construction (Appendix B). Progress report. 

(4) Effect of preservative treatment by use of — (a) creosote and petroleum, 
(b) zinc chloride and petroleum. Progress in study — no report. 

(5) Destruction by termites and possible ways of prevention (Appendix C). 
Progress report. 

(6) Effect on preservative in treated ties in track due to blowing off locomotives 
on line of road, collaborating with Committees XIH — Water Service, Fire Protection 
and Sanitation; XXII^ — Economics of Railway Labor, and XXVII — Maintenance of Way 
Work Equipment (Appendix E). Progress report. 

(7) Incising of all forest products material. Progress in study— no report. 

(8) Investigations being made for the determination of toxicity value of creosote 
and creosote mixtures. Progress in study— no report. 

(9) Outline of complete field work of the Committee (Appendix D). Progress 
report. 

The Committee on Wood Preservation, 

C. F. Ford, Chairman. 

Appendix A 

(2) SERVICE TEST RECORDS FOR TREATED TIES 

W. R. Goodwin, Chairman, Sub-Committee; Z. M. Briggs, G. B. Campbell, E. A. Craft, 
L. B. Holt, R. S. Hubley, Edward Kelly, A. J. Loom, T. H. Strate, W. A. Summerhays. 

The table of tie renewals per mile maintained on various roads has been revised to 
include data for 1935. Reports of special test tracks are submitted on the following 
roads: 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 

Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 

Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific at Hartford, Wis. and Madison, Wis. 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 

Northern Pacific 

Union Pacific 

The above is offered as a progress report. 



Bulletin 391, November, 1936. 

309 



310 



Wood Preservation 



STATEMENT SHOWING VARIOUS SPECIAL TESTS AS OF 

DECEMBER 31, 1935 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 

Year Original Total Per cent Ties Average 

Station In- Number Ties Removed Life to 

serted Inserted Removed from Track 12/31/35 

Sawn Douglas Fir Creosote 

Barstow, California 1910 12,910 12,406 96.10 16.66 

Sawn Beech Creosote 

Justiceburg, Texas 1911 307 82 26.71 21.68 

Smithshire, Illinois 1912 386 53 13.73 22.03 

Marceline, Missouri 1912 99 19 19.19 22.85 

Tecumseh, Kansas 1912 161 161 100.00 16.52 

Newton, Kansas 1912 157 30 19.11 22.48 

Hewn Engelmann Spruce Creosote 

Pinta, Arizona 1928 858 None 0.00 7.00 

Sawn Engelmann Spruce Creosote 

Pinta, Arizona 1928 1,031 None 0.00 7.00 

Sawn Western Yellow Pine 50 per cent Creosote 50 per cent Petroleum 

Texico-Lubbock, Texas 1913 8,259 242 2.93 21.77 

Hewn Southern Yellow Pine 7 Pounds Mixture 70 per cent Creosote 
30 PER cent Petroleum 
Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1923 27,603 13 0.05 12.00 

Saffordville, Kansas 1923 12,917 244 1.89 12.00 

Saffordville, Kansas 1924 107 None 0.00 11.00 

Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1925 54 None 0.00 10.00 

Sawn Southern Yellow Pine 7 Pounds Mixture 70 Per Cent Creosote 
30 Per Cent Petroleum 
Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1923 11,791 2 0.02 12.00 

Sawn Red Oak 7 Pounds Mixture 70 Per Cent Creosote 30 Per Cent Petroleum 
Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1923 1,042 None 0.00 12.00 

Hewn Gum 7 Pounds Mixture 70 Per Cent Creosote 30 Per Cent Petroleum 

Saffordville, Kansas 1924 152 None 0.00 11.00 

Hewn Southern Yellow Pine Zinc Chloride 

Newton, Kansas, EB 1904 6,357 6,357 100.00 13.25 

Newton, Kansas, EB 1905 9,251 9,218 99.64 13.50 

Turner-Holliday, Kansas __ 1918 4,638 4,123 88.90 12.69 

Sawn Southern Yellow Pine Zinc Chloride 

Newton, Kansas, EB 1904 2,517 2,505 99.52 13.51 

Newton, Kan.sas, EB 1905 40 40 100.00 12.87 

Turner-Holliday, Kansas.. 1918 673 492 73.11 12.28 

Hewn Southern Yellow Pine Creosote 

Clements, Kansas 1904 165 159 96.36 19.65 

Ponca City, Oklahoma 1904 190 129 67.89 24.27 

Perry, Oklahoma 1904 27 27 100.00 23.04 

Marceline, Missouri 1905 304 304 100.00 , 14.55 

Melvern, Kansas 1906 24,224 17,490 72.20 24.08 



Wood Preservation 



311 



STATEMENT SHOWING VARIOUS SPECIAL TESTS AS OF 
DECEMBER 31, 1935— Continued 



Ties 


Average 


'ed 


Life to 


ack 


12/31/35 


; 


25.83 


1 


24.24 




24.11 


i 


21.15 


) 


21.23 


i 


21.23 


t 


17.72 


) 


16.10 




14.87 


> 


15.93 


> 


21.39 


) 


22.68 


I 


19.63 


i 


16.67 


5 


21.48 


} 


21.26 


i 


21.29 


i 


21.60 


i 


17.84 


i 


16.20 



Newton, Kansas 

Chillicothe, Illinois, 



1913 
1926 



147 
335 



None 



58 



9 
3 

6 

4 

39.46 

0.00 



16.71 



23.57 



22.27 



22.48 
21.16 
21.87 
17.78 
16.94 



15.81 
20.42 



25.87 
24.95 
22.52 

23.47 
22.77 
20.84 
20.23 
21.75 
9.00 



Wood Preservation 



311 



STATEMENT SHOWING VARIOUS SPECIAL TESTS AS OF 

DECEMBER 31, 1935— Continued 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 

Year Original Total Per cent Ties Average 

Station In- Number Ties Removed Life to 

serted Inserted Removed from Track 12/31/35 
Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1909 106 3 2.83 25.83 

St. John-Sylvia, Kansas -._ 1910 40,867 14,860 36.36 24.24 

Lewis, Kansas 1910 13,636 5,037 36.94 24.11 

Justiceburg, Texas 1911 1,460 640 43.84 21.15 

Newton, Kansas, EB 1913 149 62 41.60 21.23 

Texico-Lubbock, Texas 1913 100,556 14,509 14.43 21.23 

Walton, Kansas 1917 10,845 935 8.62 17.72 

Turner-Holliday, Kansas ._ 1918 5,806 1,190 20.50 16.10 

Chilocco, Oklahoma 1919 10,268 1,860 18.11 14.87 

Chilocco, Oklahoma 1919 3,262 129 3.95 15.93 

Sawn Southern Yellow Pine Creosote 

Marland, Oklahoma 1904 275 258 93.82 21.39 

Perry, Oklahoma 1904 348 332 95.40 22.68 

Garnett, Kansas 1905 383 350 91.38 19.63 

Argonia, Kansas 1905 572 545 95.28 16.67 

Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1909 69 26 37.68 21.48 

St. John-Sylvia, Kansas _,_ 1910 9,564 5,971 62.43 21.26 

Texico-Lubbock, Texas--- 1913 161,792 23,199 14.34 21.29 

Newton, Kansas, EB 1913 151 27 17.88 21.60 

Walton, Kansas 1917 1,362 74 5.43 17.84 

Turner-Holliday, Kansas .. 1918 994 131 13.18 16.20 

Sawn Southern Yellow Sap Pine Creosote 

Justiceburg, Texas 1911 376 296 78.72 16.71 

Sawn Southern Yellow Heart Pine Creosote 

Justiceburg, Texas 1911 374 26 6.95 23.57 

Hewn White Oak Creosote 

Justiceburg, Texas 1911 375 116 30.93 22.27 

Hewn Red Oak Creosote 

Justiceburg, Texas 1911 225 58 25.78 22.48 

Texico-Lubbock, Texas 1913 171 31 18.13 21.16 

Newton, Kansas 1913 150 10 6.67 21.87 

Walton, Kansas 1917 4,347 254 5.84 17.78 

Turner-Holliday, Kansas.. 1918 2,769 38 1.19 16.94 

Sawn Red Oak Creosote 

Plevna, Kansas 1907 52 51 98.08 15.81 

Justiceburg, Texas 1911 281 110 39.15 20.42 

Hewn Gum Creosote 

St. John-Sylvia, Kansas... 1909 1,329 58 4.36 25.87 

St. John-Sylvia, Kansas... 1910 13,072 488 3.73 24.95 

Justiceburg, Texas 1911 362 78 21.55 22.52 

Sawn Gum Creosote 

Hutchinson, Kansas 1907 392 272 69.39 23.47 

Hutchinson, Kansas, M.L.. 1907 230 136 59.13 22.77 

Plevna, Kansas 1907 262 226 86.26 20.84 

Justiceburg, Texas 1911 338 159 47.04 20.23 

Newton, Kansas 1913 147 58 39.46 21.75 

Chillicothe, Illinois 1926 335 None 0.00 9.00 

A 



312 Wood Preservation 



STATEMENT SHOWING VARIOUS SPECIAL TESTS AS OF 

DECEMBER 31, 1935— Continued 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 

Year Original Total Per cent Ties Average 
Station In- Number Ties Removed Life to 

serted Inserted Removed from Track 12/31/35 

Sawn Gum 7 Pounds Mixture 70 Per Cent Creosote 30 Per Cent Petroleum 

Saffordville, Kansas 1923 2,766 12 0.43 12.00 

Saffordville, Kansas 1924 145 None 0.00 11.00 

Chillicothe, Illinois 1926 329 None 0.00 9.00 

Hewn Southern Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 70 Per Cent Creosote Coal- 
Tar Solution 30 Per Cent Petroleum 

Chillicothe, Illinois 1925 2,104 None 0.00 10.00 

Chillicothe, Illinois 1926 2,424 None 0.00 9.00 

Hewn Cottonwood 5 Pounds Creosote 
Lucy, New Mexico 1923 75 None 0.00 12.00 

Sawn Cottonwood 5 Pounds Creosote 
Lucy, New Mexico 1923 75 2 2.67 11.87 

Hewn Cottonwood 7 Pounds Mixture 50 Per Cent Creosote 50 Per Cent 

Petroleum 
Lucy, New Mexico 1923 75 None 0.00 12.00 

Sawn Cottonwood 7 Pounds Mixture 50 Per Cent Creosote 50 Per Cent 

Petroleum 
Lucy, New Mexico 1923 75 None 0.00 12.00 

Hewn Southern Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 50 Per Cent Creosote 50 Per 

Cent Petroleum 

Saffordville, Kansas 1924 8,300 18 0.22 11.00 

Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1928 363 None 0.00 7.00 

Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1929 26,697 None 0.00 6.00 

Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1930 131 None 0.00 5.00 

Sawn Southern Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 50 Per Cent Creosote 50 Per 

Cent Petroleum 
Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1927 24 None 0.00 8.00 

Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1928 3,181 None 0.00 7.00 

Mission-Hutchinson, 

Kansas 1929 5,894 None 0.00 6.00 

Sawn Gum 8 Pounds Mixture 50 Per Cent Creosote 50 Per Cent Petroleum 
Saffordville, Kansas 1924 141 1 0.71 10.99 

Sawn Western Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 45 Per Cent Creosote 55 Per 

Cent Petroleum 
Pinta, Arizona 1928 2,267 6 0.27 7.00 

Sawn Western Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 45 Per Cent Creosote 55 Per 

Cent Petroleum Steamed 2 Hours 20 Pounds 
Pinta, Arizona 1928 439 None 0.00 7.00 

Sawn Western Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 45 Per Cent Creosote 55 Per 

Cent Petroleum Steamed 2 Hours 30 Pounds 
Pinta, Arizona 1928 451 None 0.00 7.00 



Wood Preservation 313 



STATEMENT SHOWING VARIOUS SPECIAL TESTS AS OF 
DECEMBER 31, 1935— Continued 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 

Year Original Total Per cent Ties Average 
Station In- Number Ties Removed Life to 

serted Inserted Removed from Track 12/31/35 

Hewn Southern Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 45 Per Cent Creosote 55 Per 

Cent Petroleum 
Pinta, Arizona 1928 1,853 None 0.00 7.00 

Hewn Engelmann Spruce 8 Pounds Mixture 45 Per Cent Creosote 55 Per Cent 

Petroleum 
Pinta, Arizona 1928 934 None 0.00 7.00 

Sawn Engelmann Spruce 8 Pounds Mixture 45 Per Cent Creosote 55 Per 

Cent Petroleum 
Pinta, Arizona 1928 1,210 None 0.00 7.00 

Hewn Western Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 25 Per Cent Creosote 75 Per 

Cent Petroleum 
Acomita, New Mexico 1924 998 1 0.10 10.99 

Hewn Southern Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 25 Per Cent Creosote 75 Per 

Cent Petroleum 

Acomita, New Mexico 1924 999 None 0.00 11.00 

Whiteface, Texas 1925 558 None 0.00 10.00 

Boise City, Kansas 1925 500 None 0.00 10.00 

Hewn Gum 8 Pounds Mixture 25 Per Cent Creosote 75 Per Cent Petroleum 

Boise City, Kansas 1925 253 None 0.00 10.00 

Whiteface, Texas 1925 254 None 0.00 10.00 

Sawn Western Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 25 Per Cent Creosote 75 Per 

Cent Petroleum 
Pinta, Arizona 1928 503 None 0.00 7.00 

Sawn Western Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 25 Per Cent Creosote 75 Per 

Cent Petroleum Steamed 2 Hours 20 Pounds 
Pinta, Arizona 1928 447 None 0.00 7.00 

Sawn Western Yellow Pine 8 Pounds Mixture 25 Per Cent Creosote 75 Per 

Cent Petroleum Steamed 2 Hours 30 Pounds 
Pinta, Arizona 1928 456 None 0.00 7.00 

Hewn Ohia Untreated 
Stafford, Kansas 1910 132 127 96.21 19.56 

Sawn Ohia Untreated 
Stafford, Kansas 1910 108 105 97.22 20.79 



314 Wood Prcservat i o n 

THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD COMPANY 

Windsor-Blanchester Test Ties 

Report for Year 193S — 25 Years' Service 
History of Test 

The Windsor-Blanchester tie test section is located in the westward main track 
one mile west of Blanchester, Ohio, on the Ohio Division. 

The ties were placed March, 1911. As the renewals for the period ending March, 
1936 had been completed when the recent inspection was made, this report covers 
25 years of service. 

Tables describe the kinds of ties, methods of treatment, and conditions of service. 

Purpose of Test 

(1) To determine the value of various kinds of preservative treatments compared 
with the untreated white oak tie. 

(2) To determine the value of red oak treated ties compared with treated ties of 
other woods (gum, beech, maple, elm, etc.). 

Conditions of Test 

Age Test ties were placed March, 1911. Renewals for period to March 

1936 are complete. This report, therefore, covers 25 years' service. 

Traffic Average gross tons per year 5,000,000 

Climate Average annual rainfall is 41.4 inches. 

Temperature range — average 25 years: 

High 96.3° Fahr. 

Low — 5.8° Fahr. 

Maintenance Maintenance conditions have been uniform for all ties in the test 
and are normal for main line tracks in gravel ballast territory. 

Derailments 

Two derailments have occurred within the limits of this test. The first was in 
1913 and was confined to the Timber Asphalt Group. Fifteen ties were damaged to the 
extent that it was necessary to remove them from track and eliminate them from the test. 

The second derailment occurred in January 1929, damaging 588 ties in the Straight 
Creosote Red Oak Group and 204 in the Card Process Other Woods Group. Fifty-three 
Red Oaks and thirteen Other Woods were so badly damaged that they were removed 
from track and eliminated from the test. The average life of the other damaged ties 
will be reduced as a result of the fibers of the wood being crushed, which will make 
them more susceptible to decay. 

The following statement gives the ties damaged: 

Treatment 

and Ties Ties 

Kind of Wood Placed Damaged 

(January 4, 1929) 
Straight Creosote 

Red Oak 873 584 

Other Woods 252 4 

(January 4, 1929) 
Card Process 

Other Woods 1219 204 

(1913) 

Timber Asphalt 

Red Oak 1001 102 

Average Life 

The average life to date for the different woods in the various groups are given in 
the following statement: 



Wood Preservation 



315 



Age of Tie Test — 25 Yeaps 

Ave. Life 
Treatment Ties to date 

and Ties in Removed to Date of ties 

Kind of Wood Placed Test No. Per Cent in test 

NOTE NOTE 

Untreated 

White Oak 757 757 751 99.2 10.2 

Straight 

Red Oak 873 820 170 20.7 24.0 

*Other Woods 252 252 128 50.8 19.6 

Card Process 

Red Oak 1125 1125 634 56.4 20.8 

*Other Woods 1219 1205 867 71.9 18.3 

Timber 

A CpTT AT X 

Red Oak 984 969 964 99.5 10.7 

Note. — The difference between "Ties Placed" and "Ties in Test" is due to elimination 
from test of ties account of removals from derailments. 
* Other Woods — Beech, Hard Maple, Gum and Elm. 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD COMPANY 

Herring Run Tie Test — Special Report — 1935 
End of 21 Years' Service 
Introductory 

The Herring Run test tie section locates in the eastward main track at Herring Run, 
Md. on the Baltimore division, about seven miles east of Baltimore, Md. 

Eighty-five per cent of the test was installed in November, 1914, and the remainder 
in August, 1915, in cooperation with the Forest Service of the United States Department 
of Agriculture. 

The development to date, as set forth in the accompanying report, indicates the 
total service life of the untreated ties and the trend of what is to be expected in 
service life from the treated. 

Purpose of Test 

The purpose of the Herring Run test is to determine the economic value of various 
kinds of preservative treatments, and incidentally, to note the life of red oak trated ties 
compared with red oak ties untreated. 

Conditions of Test 
( 1 ) Time : 



(2) Traffic: 

(3) Rainfall: 



( 4 ) Tern per at ure : 



(5) Maintenance: 



All ties in test except Section 14 were installed in November 
1914. Section 14 was placed in August 1915. Test, therefore, 
is now completing its twenty-first year. 

An average of 16,718,000 gross tons per year has been handled 
over this track. 

The average annual rainfall has been 41.6 inches. This is, no 
doubt, sufficient to have caused leaching of soluble preservatives. 

Mean average, January 35.5°; mean average, July 77.7°; 
extremes, 8.3° to 99.4°. 

Maintenance conditions have been uniform over entire test. 
Track on entire test raised and ties respaced for 39 ft. rails 
during summer of 1926. Track from tie to tie 1916 is pick- 
tamped, from tie 1916 to east end of test, machine tamped. 
Track on entire test raised in 1929 and 1933 and machine 
tamped. 



.^6 



Wood Preservation 












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Wood Preservation 



317 



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318 



Wood Preservation 



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Wood Preservation 



319 



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eoto — lo 



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320 



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t-K3C0U5 



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to->*co^ 



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£ S 3 c 
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Wood Preservation 



321 



CO ^ CC CO 




WOiCOC^ 



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322 



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323 



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50 per cent 

50 per ce 
50 per cent 

50 per ce 
50 per cent 

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Butter 
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Red oa 
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Wood Preservation 



325 



ISLAND 



Special Report of Ties 


in Test Sec 


tiona 


- Pall Inapecti 


on 1 9 3 


5. 


(Creosoted Ties "Lowry" Prooeaa - 1907 to 191£ Inolu 


aive) 








Kind 




-H^o. 


Df Tiea- 


Per 
Cent 


Avarag© 
life Yts. 


Estiaatsd 
Average 


In 


Eemaln- 






of 




sort- 


ing in 


Re- 


Fad 


Life Yrs, 


Divisions 


Location 


Ties 


Year 


ed 


Track 


moved 


1935. 


-^-,— 


C.H.l)ak. 


Clarkaville. la. 


S.Cak 


1967 


545 


i;oi 


4S 


24.8 


—30 


C.R.Dalc. 


Clarkaville. la. 


Sum 


1907 


99 


4^ 


65 


£fe.8 


26,6 


Illinois 


Tiskilwo. 111. 


R.Oak" 


ld08 


514 


60 


85 


21.8 


iiJ.4 


la.Uinn. 


Altoona, la. 


" 


" 


477 


329 


31 


23.9 


3,^,6 


iiisaonri 


Princeton, Mo. 


" 


" 


£15 


- 


100 


17.8 


17.8 


C.R.Dak. 


iSly, la. 


" 


" 


1178 


501 


48 


£2.0 


£9,3 


uo. 


Clarkaville, la. 


" 


" 


1641 


631 


62 


22.2 


£7,0 


". 


West Bend, la. 


" 


" 


149 


78 


48 


22.0 


29.3 


Neb. Col. 


Pairbury, Hebr. 


" 


" 


60E 


ZOO 


41 


23.9 


30.3 


Do. 


Ooodland. Kane. 


" 


" 


87 


81 


8 


26,6 


i* 


Total - 


B.Oak 


1908 


4763 


z!5m 


S5 


2^.1 


IT.F 


Illinois 


Tiakilwa, 111. 


Gum 


14(56 


71 


■■ 10 


■ ■ TS ■ 


, ^^^,g . . 


63. .i 


Miasotixi 


ii.DssMoinea.Ia. 


" 


" 


99 


43 


67 


22.2 


27.5 


C.R.Dak. 


Ely, la. 


" 


" 


391 


U3 


70 


19.6 


25.7 


Do. 


Clarkaville, la. 


" 


" 


95 


43 


53 


22,1 


26.4 


" 


Weat Bend, la. 


n 


" 


887 


637 


29 


23,6 


32,9 


Neb. Col. 


Pairbury. Hebr. 


" 


" 


U4 


37 


68 


20.4 


86.0 


Total - 


Sum 


ISOfi 


16V} 


■"555 


~~W 


■ as.i 


2i,6 


lUinoia 


Tiakilwa, 111. 


R.Oak 


190^ 


1326 


478 


64 


■ 21.1 


£F,Vk 


la. Minn. 


Altoona, la. 


" 


" 


1445 


1126 


23 


23.4 


32.9 


Missouri 


Princeton, Mo. 


" 


" 


399 


42 


90 


20,4 


21.8 


C.R.Dak. 


JSly, la. 


" 


" 


971 


509 


48 


22.4 


28.2 


Do. 


Clarkaville, la. 


" 


" 


1590 


829 


48 


22.4 


26.8 


Heb.Col. 


Pairbury, Nebr. 


n 


" 


321 


252 


£2 


24.7 


33.3 


Do. 


Soodland, Kana. 


" 


" 


1118 


1011 


10 


£5.4 


# 


Kansas 


Topeka. Kana. 


" 


" 


921 


289 


69 


21,3 


26,0 


fotal - 


S.Oak 


190i> 


5(591 


45SS 


44 


22.5 


■ sBrj 


Illinois 


Tiakilwa, 111. 


Sum 


190$ 


58 


27 


60 


■21.1 


■ 8'7'.'9 ■ 


la, Minn. 


Altoona, la. 


" 


" 


63 


58 


7 


26.3 


# 


Missouri 


E.DesMoines.Ia. 


" 


" 


596 


189 


68 


20«1 


£5.0 


C.R.Dak. 


Ely, la. 


" 


" 


126 


37 


70 


20,7 


24.7 


Do, 


West Bend, la. 


" 


" 


539 


424 


22 


23.9 


2?.Z 


El P.Am. 


Dalhart. Tex. 


" 


" 


894 


698 


22 


24,3 


33,2 


Total - 


Sum 


1909 


■"gS^'f 


1433 


jy 


'sJS.fi 


215", cT 


Misaouri 


E.DeaUoines.Ia. 


Pine 


1909 


364 


U3 


69 


20.7 


26.0 


C.R.Dak. 


Kly, la. 


" 


" 


£14 


115 


47 


22.8 


28,8 


Heb.Col. 


Soodland, Kans. 


" 


" 


136 


108 


21 


25.0 


33, a 


El P.^. 


ijalhart. Tex. 


" 


" 


165 


126 


24 


2^.9 


32.5 


Total - 


Pine 


1909 


579 


TSS" 


48 


?.2.6 


" I^JT" 


Illinois 


Tiakilwa, 111. 


E.Oak 


1910 


2638 


1526 


■ 47 


21.8 


zi,\ 


Ia.Minn. 


Altoona. la. 


" 


" 


583 


536 


8 


24.2 


H 


Missouri 


Princeton, Mo. 


" 


" 


997 


199 


80 


19,6 


22.5 


C.R.Dak. 


Ely, la. 


" 


" 


2343 


1465 


37 


22.3 


£8.7 


Do. 


Clarkaville, la. 


" 


■• 


1473 


919 


38 


22.4 


£8.7 


Heb.Col. 


pairbury, Nebr. 


" 


" 


1721 


1401 


19 


£3.6 


32,4 


atJ^KCT. 


aidon. Mo, 


" 


" 


4129 


2533 


39 


£2.1 


28.4 


Kansas 


Topeka. Kana. 


" 


" 


437 


U9 


73 


20.1 


23, S 


Total - 


R.Oak 


1910 


14521 


5715' 


4(5 


"TaTI — 


£8 .A 


Illinois 


Tiakilwa, 111. 


Sum 


1910 


55 


Si 


40 


21,2 


28.4 


Misaouri 


E.DesUoines.Ia. 


" 


" 


309 


105 


66 


19.1 


24.2 


C.R.Dak. 


Ely, la. 


" 


" 


159 


70 


56 


20.2 


26.7 


DO. 


West Bend. la. 


" 


" 


279 


226 


19 


23,5 


32.4 




Total - 


Gum 


1910 802 


433 


u 


2T,~Ci — 


"""SV--;' ■-"■ 



Estimated average life 
f#- Estimated average life 
ar« leas tttan ten per cent 



based on Poreat Produotsi 
cannot be determined wben 



Laboratory Ci-.^tpo 



326 



Wood Preservation 



.BOCK 



ISLABD 



LIHE3- 



Spool al H«port of Ties 


In Tee 


t Seo 


tlons 


- Pall 


Inspectlon 1935. 




(Creoeotsd Ilea "Icrais" J^roci'sa 


- ;907 to 1° 


1£ Ino: 


us ive) 








Kind 




-IIo. c 


t Tiec- 


i'er 
Cent 


Avertige 
Life Yrs. 


iiatlmated 
Average 


In 


Jieivaiu- 






of 




sort- 


Ing in 


Ke- 


End 


Life Yrs. 


Dlvlal one 


Lcoatlon 


Ties 


Year 


ed 


Traok 


noved 


1935. 


* 


MlsaoTiri 


E.Des Uolnaa, la. 


Pine 


Isio 


■ X66 


96 


38 


22.2 


26.7 


C.B.Bak. 


iSly, la. 


" 


" 


108 


56 


48 


22.7 


27.1 


Do. 


Oast Bond, la. 


" 


" 


57 


52 


9 


24.4 


# 


Neb. Col. 


Jfalrbury, Nebr. 


•* 


" 


231 


205 


11 


24.2 


35.7 


Co. 


Woodland, Kans. 


" 


" 


7E7 


651 


11 


24.6 


35.7 


Kansas 


Topeka. Kans. 


" 


" 


256 


78 


70 


20.5 


23.8 


Total - 


J?lne 


1910 


1^34 


11S8 


E'6 


23.4 


30.6 


Illinois 


TlBkllwa, 111. 


a.Oak 


1911 


1099 


6(,3 


49 


20.9. 


25.6 


la.Mlim. 


Altoona, la. 


" 


" 


763 


697 


28 


23.3 


29.2 


lllsBonrl 


frlnoeton, Mo. 


" 


'! 


1803 


476 


74 


20.9 


22.2 


C.E.Dai. 


Bly, la. 


" 


" 


2256 


1726 


25 


22.4 


30.0 


Do. 


West Bend, la. 


" 


" 


89 


77 


24 


22.8 


30.0 


Neb. Col. 


Fslrbury, Hebr. 


" 


" 


51 


45 


10 


23.0 


# 


Do, 


Soodlsjid, Kans. 


" 


" 


105 


102 


3 


23.8 


f# 


Total - 


a. Oak 


1911 


6166 


3665 


41 


21.8 


26.9 


la, sunn. 


iiltoona, la. 


a urn 


1911 


'299 


267 


11 


23.1 


34.2 


Missouri 


Princeton, Mo. 


" 


" 


707 


219 


70 


19.7 


22.8 


C.R.DSi. 


Ely, la. 


" 


" 


244 


187 


46 


21.4 


26.3 


Neb. Col. 


?alrbury, Nebr. 


" 


" 


67 


18 


73 


17.5 


22.4 


Total - 


H.Oak 


1911 


1417 


691 


5k 


m?r- 


25.B 


Illinois 


Tisicii»a, 111. 


i'lna 


1911 


6d 


■■ 31 


55 


15.6 


24. V 


Missouri 


Ji.Deallolnes, la. 


" 


" 


56 


32 


43 


20.8 


26.6 


O.K. Dak. 


Claiksville, la. 


" 


" 


1013 


882 


13 


23.1 


33.3 


Do. 


West Bend, la. 


" 


" 


809 


755 


7 


23.3 


# 


He'o.Col. 


Ifairbury, Nebr. 


" 


" 


1496 


1304 


13 


23.0 


33.3 


Do. 


Goodland, Kans. 


" 


" 


1603 


1311 


19 


23.0 


31.1 


Kansas 


Topeka, Kans , 


" 


" 


146 


61 


45 


22.3 


26.3 


Total - 


I'ino 


ISll 


5198 


4396 


IS' 


23.(5 


32.0 


Illinois 


Tlskllwe, 111. 


K.Oak 


IS IS 


■ W4 


X20" 


Si 


21.6 


26.4 


la. Minn. 


Altoona, la. 


" 


" 


750 


659 


12 


20.9 


32.4 


UisaouTl 


frlnoeton, Mc. 


" 


" 


331 


75 


78 


16.5 


20.9 


Do. 


E.DasUolnas.Ia. 


" 


" 


5449 


4211 


23 


22.0 


29,1 


C.B.Dak. 


iSly, la. 


" 


" 


465 


392 


16 


23.1 


30.6 


Nob. Col. 


Goodland, Kans. 


" 


" 


83 


80 


4 


22.8 


# 


STKCT. 


Eldon. Mo, 


" 


" 


2416 


i8120 


13 


22.0 


31.9 


Total - 


a. Oak 


1912 


^iJBB' 


1651 


21 


21.7 


BTS 


Illinois 


Tiakilwa, 111. 


Gun 


li512 


■6Y6 


460 


S2 


21.2 


27.3 


Ula sour i 


S.DesMolnea, la. 


" 


" 


1253 


908 


28 


21.3 


28.0 


C.R.Dnk;. 


iSly. la. 


" 


" 


1232 


774 


38 


20.9 


26.4 


fotal - 


Gun . 


is;^ 


55161 


'AUZ 


SS 


21.1 


27.3 


C.S.lJak. 


JSly, la. 


Plna 


1S12 


U& 


240 


Si ■ 


21.^ 


L1.1 


Do. 


C larks vUle, la. 


" 


" 


1037 


926 


11 


22.3 


32.8 




West Bend, la. 


" 


•? 


711 


679 


5 


22.6 


# 


Neb.Col. 


Palrbury, Hebr, 


• 


" 


1370 


1187 


14 


22.2 


31.5 


Do. 


Soodland, Kans. 


" 


" 


536 


46 6 


13 


22.6 


31.9 


Kansas 


Topeka, Kana. 


" 


" 


253 


92 


65 


17.8 


22.5 


El f .^. 


Dalhert, Tex. 


" 


" 


25E 


.lee 


27 


21,5 


£8.4 


Total - 


Pin© 


TsIS 


4512 


—mr 


17 


i'z„6 


aa'.o 1 



SPECIAI. TIE 
Miasonrl Carlisle. 



liSW I . IHE 



5578 5307 4.6 



J£.»J- 



i - Estimated average life based on Forest Produots Laboratory Curve. 
if#- Bstimated average life oannot be determined nhen renewals to 
data aro less tli&n ten per cent. 



Ml 



Wood Preservation 



327 







-BOCK 




ISLAUD 


LIKEB. 






Speoial Hoport 


of Tiea in Teat 


Sections 


- ^aU Inspection 1936. 




(Creoaoted 


Tlea "HeupinK" Prooeaa - 1908 t 


D 1912 Inoluaive) 






Kind 




-Ho. of Tiea- 


Per 
Cant 


Average 
Life Yra. 


i^at imated 
Average 


In 


Kemain- 






of 




aert- 


Ing In 


Ke- 


£nd 


Life Yra. 


DlTisions 


Location 


Tl0 8 


Year 


ed 


Track 


moTed 


1935. 


f 


i"l P. An, 


McLean, Tex, 


G\an 


ldo6 


264 


62 


69 


20 .1 


25.9 


Ul t.Am. 


McLean, Tex. 


Vine 


1908 


1819 


476 


74 


16.9 


25.0 


Southern 


Chloo. Tex. 


" 


" 


710 


145 


60 


16,9 


24.3 


fotal- 


nae 


1508 


^529 


631 


75 


ie:? 


25.0 


Ark. La. 


01a, Ark. 


d.6ak 


1909 


"Tir 


104 


86 


19.0 


22.6 


O^ilahczDS 


Yukon. Okla. 


" 


n 


e49 


13 


98 


17.2 


17.3 


Total- 


H.Oak 


1909 


TSTT 


"TTf 


5"2 


16.1 


2I.3 


irk. La. 


Ola, Ark. 


dujn 


1§09 


■ 60 


11 


66 


16.0 ■ 


22.6 


Do. 


Leola, ATi.. 


" 


" 


385 


54 


86 


16.0 


22. 6 


Oklahoma 


Yukon, Okla. 


" 


" 


546 


145 


74 


20.5 


24.0 


Do. 


Okarohe. Ok, 


" 


" 


71 


37 


46 


22.6 


26.2 


Total- 


Sum 


1909 


1(58^ 


247 


77 


19.0 


23.6 


Ark. La. 


Ola irk. 
Leola, Ark. 


i'lne 


1S09 


Y6T2 


94 


91 


17.1 


21.6 


uo. 


" 


" 


1324 


96 


93 


15.6 


20.8 


Oklahoma 


Yukon, Okla. 


" 


" 


1566 


25 


99 


14.6 


15.3 


DO. 


Okarohe, Ok. 


» 


" 


380 


46 


68 


16.6 


22.2 


Southern 


i;hioo, Tex. 


" 


" 


2386 


654 


73 


18.9 


24.3 


!Cotal- 


Pine 


Id 09 


6'6M 


915 


Sf 


l6.9 


82.4 


Ksnaaa 


Topeka.Kana. 


S.6ak 


1916 


1237 


394 


69 


20. 6 


24:0 


Ark. La. 


Ola. Ark. 


" 


" 


68 


4 


94 


17.4 


19.7 


lotal- 


K.(5ak 


1910 


1365 


39B 


VO 


20.4 


23.6 


Ark, La. 


Leola, Ark. 


Gum 


19 10 


60 


8 


90 


14.3 


21.0 


Oklahoma 


Okarohe, Ok. 


" 


" 


73 


41 


44 


21.9 


27.7 


iStal- 


(run 


191(5 


153 


49 


66 


15.0 


24.0 


Kansaa 


Topaka.Kana. 


tine 


I9l0 


Soi 


155 


vo 


20. V 


23.5 


Ark. La. 


03s, Ark. 


" 


" 


430 


34 


92 


16.8 


20.5 


DO. 


Leola, Ark. 


" 


" 


1861 


75 


96 


14.1 


16.5 


OklahODs 


Yukon, Okla. 


" 


" 


1003 


35 


97 


16.8 


17.6 


So. 


OJmrohe.Ok. 


" 


" 


749 


296 


*i^ 


20.0 


25.0 


Total- 


Pine 


1910 


4644 


591' 


6Y 


16.5 


21.5 


Kaaaaa 


Topeka.Kana. 


fi.'Ca'k 


19 ll 


864 


216 


76 


19.0 


22.0 


Bl P.iun. 


UoLean.Tex. 


" 


" 


517 


346 


33 


21.6 


26.5 


Oklahoma 


Yukon, Okla. 


" 


" 


416 


13 


97 


14. T 


17.1 


Do. 


Okarohe, Ok. 


" 


" 


149 


58 


61 


20.7 


24.0 


Tital- 


B.Oak. 


l91l 


1946 


657 


66 


16.6 


zS.'G 


Ark. La. 


Ola, iirk. 


Gum 


1911 


66 


2& 


65 


19.1 


23.5 


Oklahoma 


Okarohe. Ok. 


" 


" 


146 


84 


43 


21.2 


26.6 


Total- 


Gum 


1911 


21'2 


107 


50 


20:1 


25.6 


Kansas 


Topaka.Kana. 


Pine 


1911 


180 


85 


5^ 


20.6 


25.S 


Ark. La. 


Ola, Ark. 


" 


" 


5031 


431 


92 


16.5 


19.6 


Do. 


Leola, Ark. 


" 


" 


277 


22 


92 


14.6 


19.6 


Oklahoma 


Yukon, Okla. 


" 


" 


1406 


36 


96 


15.3 


16.0 


Do. 


Okarohe, Ok. 


" 


" 


977 


301 


70 


19.1 


22.6 


Southern 


Chico. Tax. 


" 


" 


29 §^ 


875 


58 


19.6 


24.5 


Total- 


Pino 


1911 


992^ 


lVE2 


8^ 


1T.1 


21:8 


El U.Am. 


Uo'Leaii.Tez. 


H.Oak 


lyii; 


1B"2' 


64 


66 


17,5 ' 


23.4 


Oklahoma 


Yukon, Okla. 


" 


" 


373 


19 


95 


14.9 


17.7 


Total- 


H.Oak 


1912 


See 


83 


6i" 


15.7 


20.1 


Oklahoma 


Okarohe.Ok. 


Gun 


191S 


■ 26S 


136 


33 ■ 


20. 9 


27.3 


gl l^oAm, 


DalhartjTax. 


Pine 


191S 


566 


317 


u 


20.0 


' 25.6 


Ark. La. 


Ola, Ark. 


M 


" 


614 


45 


93 


15.4 


18.4 


Do. 


Leola, Ark. 


" 


" 


1761 


205 


69 


14.3 


19.6 


Oklahoma 


Yukon, Okla. 


" 


7 


1579 


82 


95 


14.5 


17.7 


Do. 


Okarohe, Ok. 


« 


"i' 


1426 


548 


62 


18.2 


23.0 


Southern 


Chloo. Tex. 


" 


" 


946 


349 


63 


19.3 


22.7 


Total- 


Pine 


1912 


ee^s 


1546 


W ■ 


16.4 


20.9 


t - Eatims 


itad average 1 


li?e has 


ed on 


IfoTes 


t Pro due 


ta' lal) 


oratory &« 


rve. 



Bote: "duping" treated tiea covered by this report were more or less 
dan ayad by rallwear pri or to app li cation of tie platea. 



328 



Wood Preservation 



Northern Pacific Railway Company 

Record Test Track No. 1-A 

Location Mile Post 89, near Rice, Minn., to Milepost 103^, near Gregory, Minn. 
In Eastward Main Track on St. Paul Division. Ties laid in Spring of 
1917. Established as Record Test Track January 10, 1922. 

Ties 44,159 Hewed Minnesota Tamarack. 

Treatment Brainerd Tie Treating Plant, December, 1916. Air Seasoned. Bored and 
adzed for 90-lb. rail. Treated by Lowry Process, 6^ lb. per cubic foot 
with Creosote-Coal Tar Solution 80 per cent Creosote and 20 per cent 
Refined Coal Tar. 

Analysis of Preservatives 

Spec. Gravity at 38° C 1.074 

Water 000 

Distillation: 

210° 1.1% 

235 10.7 

270 28.6 

315 15.2 

355 18.7 

Residue 25.6 Soft Paste 

Track Originally 90-lb. rail with N.P. standard angle bars and 7" X 9" tie 

plates. Average gravel ballast about six inches under the ties. In 1923 
about three and a half miles of washed gravel from Darling Pit was placed 
on the East end of this track. In 1928 four miles (M.P. 93^ to 97i/^) 
were relaid with 100-lb. rail and 7^" X 10^" tie plates. 

Renewals No renewals up to 1928. 

1928 — 1 tie account decay. Showed signs of having been partially 

decayed when treated. 

1929 — 239 ties account derailment. 

1930 — No renewals. 

1931 — 3 ties account decay. 

1932 — No renewals. 
1933^ No renewals. 

1934 — No renewals. 

1935 — 214 Decay at rail base caused by mechanical wear. 
1936 — 1785 Decay at rail base caused by mechanical wear. 



Total — 2242 Ties renewed, 5.08 per cent after 19 years. 

Average life of ties removed — 18.1 years. 
Date of last inspection — October 1, 1936. 



Wood Preservation 



329 



Northern Pacific Railway Company 
HEMLOCK TEST TRACK 



Designated by U.S. Forest Service as Project L-214. 

Location Between milepost 120 and Milepost 121+2350. Westward main track, 
West end of Missoula yard; 400 ties east and 1,400 ties west of Cemetery 
crossing, Missoula, Mont., Rocky Mountain Division. 

Ties 1,800 (summary by species shown below)- Treated at Paradise, Mont., 

and placed in track February, 1910. 1910 dating nail driven in each tie. 

Treatment At Paradise Tie Treating Plant, February, 1910. Air Seasoned, not bored, 
adzed or incised. Lowry Process. 6^4 lb. per cu. ft. Creosote coal-tar 
solution. SO per cent No. 1 Creosote and 20 per cent refined coal tar. 

Track Ties originally laid without tie plates. 7-in. by 9-in. tie plates applied 

within first two years. In 1926, track relaid with 100-lb. rail and 7^-in. 
by 10%-in. N.P. plates. Ballast is ordinary pit-run gravel and drainage is 
not considered good. 

Summary by Species and Record of Renewal 

Annual inspections and reports made since 1917 when, on account of 
derailment, the first tie was removed. Positive identification of ties by 
species made in 1928 in cooperation with U.S. Forest Products Laboratory 
proved as shown below. The 49 ties replaced previously had been reported 
as Western Hemlock. 

Identification Ties Average 

of 1910 Ties Laid Total Per Years 

Remaining in 1928 1910 17 24 26 28 29 32 33 34 35 36 Ties Cent Per Tie 

Western Hemlock 1072 1 1 4 43 26 49 28 43 29 42 266 24.81 22.27 

Western Larch 436 S 9 8 18 9 11 63 14.45 23.44 

Douglas Fir 166 6 4 1 5 3 19 11.44 22.79 

True Fir 102 14 1 6 4 1 26 25.49 21.50 

Spruce 18 5 3 1 9 50.00 20.44 

White Pine 2 None 

Ponderosa Pine 3 None 1 1 33.33 26.00 

Aspen 1 None __i: 

Total 1800 1 1 4 43 59 61 42 68 47 58 384 21.33 22.40 

Six ties removed prior to 1928 were broken by derailments. Others all 

removed account decay hastened by damage from past derailments and 

mechanical wear at rail base. 

21.33 pej- cent renewals after 26 years. 

Average life of ties replaced, 22.4 years. 



330 



Wood Preservation 



CO O 

w 



JO 0) 



01 V 



2:^ 



.S'O 








^1 


O 13 






".a 


^Tl 


>»4J 


C C 


S" 


•s " 


> 


fe 






W H 



a . eg 

■6 -'tsS 
OS 5f s Ea 

"t3 <u 



p a, ooiH 



o a 



wPh 



--1?f 


So 


go 


°-r 


g^£ 




feci J. 


ji^ 


^J3 & 


- ' - ' 






•* -^iJ 


CO 00 



OS 

CO -C tj 

S " o 

o " J^ 

^ - S 

O >« 3 

iJ dP3 



■2- g 

S'o >" 

OrS O 

2 S «i 

& 

tCTi; o 
0601J 



in 3 

dm 



<CIt3 tCiS 



2g 



S'rt 



^'3 



am « m 
St; ja . 



a, 1- 
I- 



00 hj 



2^ 



(VMH 

"b 

00 hJ 



oov-3 



OTI 

— 0) 



dJ O (I' CQ 



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334 Wood Preservation 



Appendix B 

(3) PILING USED FOR MARINE CONSTRUCTION 

Wm. G. Atwood, Chairman, Sub-Committee; C. S. Burt, Wm. F. Clapp, H. R. Condon, 
G. R. Hopkins, H. E. Horrocks, M. F. Jaeger, Dr. A. L. Kammerer, A. M. Knowles, 
F. D. Mattos. 

The Committee submits its report herewith on the present condition of the long- 
time test pieces under its observation, together with such other pertinent information 
as it has obtained during the year. 

Tropical Timber 

Since there are no reports this year from other sources than the Panama Canal all 
such records will be found in the report from the Canal. 

PANAMA CANAL 

Through the courtesy of Colonel C. S. Ridley, Governor of the Panama Canal Zone, 
the Committee is able to submit the following report from that area: 

"In connection with the annual inspection of timbers undergoing test for resistance 
against marine borers at Balboa, C. Z., please be advised that the 1936 inspection was 
performed by James Zetek on September ISth and under date of September 26th he has 
submitted the following report with the attached photographs and reprint from the 
Nautilus. 

'In previous reports mention was made of the various marine growths present on 
these timbers. Most of these forms have little direct relation to the teredo, limnoria, 
or pholad problem, except that some of these species reduce the amount of surface 
exposed to limnoria attack. In case of the teredo, the outer opening is so small that the 
encrusting life can have little effect. It is rare to find oysters completely covering 
the timber. If oysters cover any teredo holes, such teredos will die. As to pholads, 
the outer openings are likewise small, though larger than those of the teredo. 

'It is interesting to note the great variety of marine growth found. Most of these 
are attached to the surface of the timbers, and in most cases cause no damage to the 
wood. Among these are certain algae, sponges, bryozoans, hydroids, the brachiopod 
Discinisca cumingii, tunicates (ascidians), certain of the marine worms and bivalve mol- 
lusks such as oysters, Anomia peruviana, etc. Of sponges several species are found and 
usually the growth is luxuriant. Among the worms are representatives of the Polynoidae, 
Nereidae, Terebellidae, Serpulidae, and tube dwelling oligochaetes of the clas Gephyrea. 
Sometimes the gastropod moUusks of the family Vermitidae are found attached in num- 
bers. Other forms of life are not definitely attached, but move about, and are therefore 
variable in both species and number. Of these the gatsropod mollusks of the genera 
Phyllonotus, Thais, Anachis, Cypraea, Latrius Triumphis, Cantharus, Vitularia, Crepidula, 
Crucibulum, etc., are frequently found. Chitons are also present. Brittle stars are 
frequent visitors. 

'A recent paper on the Sponges by Dr. M. W. Laubenfels will be of interest (A 
Comparison of the shallow water sponges near the Pacific end of the Panama Canal 
with those at the Caribbean end, Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, Vol. 83, No. 2993, July 31, 
1936). 

'I am now able to definitely place the two pholad mollusks which burrow in these 
timbers. The Pholadidae are a very difficult group of bivalves and the entire family is 
in need of careful revision. The larger of our two pholads is Martesia striata L. The 
smaller, more globose one, is a new genus and species which R. A. McClean and I 
recently described as Hiata infelix (The Nautilus, XLIX, No. 4, April 1936, pp. 110-111). 
A copy of this paper is attached to the original of this report. 

'As to the limnoria problem, a special effort was made to determine if all of the 
surface damage is due to limnoria, or if we also have Sphaeroma, which in some regions 
causes severe damage. All of the forms seen were limnoria, and no Sphaeroma were 
found, nor was there any work suggestive of Sphaeroma. 



Wood Preservation 



335 



'The dominant teredo was Neobankia zeteki Bartsch. Lack of time prevented an 
extensive examination of all the teredos found in the samples cut from the timbers; 
however, the several hundred seen were of the above species. 

'Only the Goodale Process tests (No. 1720) were closed at this time. Several others 
are definitely failures and could have been closed at this time. 

'A-Untreated Timbers 

'Anoura, No. 1609-2, Conepia sp., Dutch Guiana, 8" X 8" X 24", submerged Sep- 
tember 13, 1923. Very little marine growth on sides and ends. Gribble damage as be- 
fore, the amount of surface worn away about J^ inch. Both pholads present in fair 
number. Teredos apparently not very numerous, confined close to surfaces and small in 
size. Otherwise the timber is very sound. Most of the surface damage is due to gribble. 

'Basra Locus or Angelique, No. 1612-3, Dicorynia paraensis Bentem, Dutch Guiana, 
8" X 8" X 24", submerged September 13, 1923. Very little marine growth on surfaces. 
Gribble damage not severe. Teredos appear to be small in size and confined close to 
surfaces, and in number appear more numerous than in Anoura. Both pholads present. 
Most of the damage is due to pholads. 

'FoENGO, No. 1608^, Parinarium ? campester Aulb., Dutch Guiana, 8" X 8" X 24", 
submerged September 13, 1923. Abundant marine growth, especially sponges on ends 
and sides. Both pholads present, very numerous. Gribble damage not severe. Teredos 
small, confined close to surfaces. 

'Sponse Hoede, No. 1610-5, Licania macrophylla Bentham, Dutch Guiana, 
8" X 8" X 24", submerged September 13, 1923. Abundant marine growth especially of 
sponges, ascidians and oysters. Both pholads plentiful. Gribble damage not severe. 
Sections were cut in 1932 and 1933. Another 3" section was cut this year. It shows 
a very sound interior with few teredos, these very small and confined close to the sur- 
faces. On the four sides there were 52 pholad holes, mostly Martesia striata. 

'Manbarklak, No. 1613-7, Eschwilera longpipes Miers., Dutch Guiana, 8" X 8" X 24", 
submerged September 13, 1923. The specific name I believe is correct but other species 
of Eschwilera (E corrugata) and Lecythis ollaria are also called Manbarklak. Abundant 
marine growth, especially sponges, oysters and ascidians. Gribble damage small. Teredos 
appear to be small, few in number and confined close to the surfaces. Both pholads 
present and these do most of the damage. 




Fig. 1. — Malabayabas — 13 Years' Exposure. 



336 



Wood Preservation 



'Malabayabas, No. 1618-9, Tristania decorticata Merr., Philippine Islands, 
12" X 12" X 13" submerged September 13, 1923. A very heavy timber, very hard. 
Considerable marine growth, especially of sponges. Gribble work light. Both pholads 
plentiful. Teredos few in number, small and confined close to the surfaces. Section cut 
in 1933 showed the timber to be sound within. Cut face this year was in good shape 
except for a few pholad cavities. Another section 2 in. thick was cut this year. It 
shows few very small teredos close to the surfaces and only a few pholad cavities. The 
timber is very sound. On drying in the sun it checked considerably and these checks 
show in the photo (Fig. 1). 




Fig. 2. — Kajol Lara — 11 Years' Exposure. 



'Kajol Lara, No. 1615-11, Metrosideros sp., Celebes, 6^" X 6^" X 30", submerged 
October 26, 1925. Much marine growth. Gribble very light. Both pholads present. 
Teredos appear to be small and close to surfaces, not abundant. A 3 in. section was 
cut this year. It shows the timber to be exceptionally sound even close to the surfaces. 
Teredos do not penetrate more than Y^ inch (Fig. 2). 

'Kajol Malas, No. 1616-12, Parastemon urophyllum, Sumatra, 6" X 6" X 30", sub- 
merged October 26, 1925. Considerable marine growth. Gribble work comparatively 
light. Both pholads present, not abundant. Teredos few in number, small, all close to 
surfaces. Sections cut in 1932 and 1934, and another 3 in. section cut this year. It 
shows the timber to be very sound. 

'Kolaka, No. 1637-13, Celebes, 6" X 6" X 30", submerged April 15, 1932. Not 
much marine growth this year. Very little gribble damage. Pholads few in number. 
Teredos small, close to surface, not plentiful. Timber very sound. 

'Alcornoque, No. 1617-14, Dimorphandra mora B. & H., Panama, 6" X 6" X S3", 
all heartwood, submerged November 22, 1927. Very little marine growth. Gribble 
work very light. Both pholads present, limited numbers. Teredos do not seem to be 
plentiful and the timber appears to be very sound. 

'Brush-Box, No. 1625-22, New South Wales, 6" X 6" X24", submerged April 19, 
1929. Very little marine growth, mostly oysters. Gribble work light. Both pholads 
present, not plentiful. Teredos not very numerous, generally very small. Sections were 
cut in 1931 and 1934. Another 2-inch section was cut this year. Except for the very 
limited teredo work (none over 3/16 inch diameter) the timber is in very good shape. 



Wood Preservation 



337 



Greenheart, No. 1638-23, Nectanda rodioe, Demarra, light brown heart, 
8" X 8" X 31", submerged July 18, 1932. Much marine growth especially on the lower 
end from which section was cut last year. Gribble work very light. Pholads rather 
plentiful. Teredos appear to be more numerous than last year but the timber is not as 
yet honeycombed. As a test it is a failure but because of the interest shown in teredo, 
it is thought best to leave these timbers in the test plot at least another year or two. 

'Greenheart, No. 1640-26, Nectanda rodioe, yellow heart, Demarra, 8" X 8" X 31", 
submerged July 18, 1932. Much as last year and apparently more teredos. Gribble work 
light. Pholads not very plentiful. See 1935 report. 

'Greenheart, No. 1639-24, Nectanda rodioe, Demarra, dark brown heart, 
8" X 8" X 31", submerged July 18, 1932. Much marine growth, especially sponges. 
Gribble work light. Teredo picture shows increase over last year. A 3-inch section was 
cut and shows a large number of teredos, some ^ inch in diameter, but no pholads in 
this section (Fig. 3). 







"0 



Fig. 3. — Greenheart- 
Exposure. 



Years' 



Pholads more 
Timber sound 



'Turpentine Wood, No. 1621-25, Syncarpia laurifolia, New South Wales, 
6" X 6" X 33", submerged, April 19, 1929. Considerable marine growth. General ap- 
pearance not different from last year. Pholads not very plentiful. Gribble work light. 
Timber except for the Hmited teredo and pholad damage, is in very excellent shape. 

"Turpentine Wood, No. 1621-27, Syncarpia laurifolia. New South Wales, 
6" X 6" X 33", submerged April 19, 1929. Much as the preceding one. 
plentiful but teredo limited in size and number. Gribble work light. 
otherwise. 

'Teak, No. 1643-18, grown at Summit, C.Z., Tectona grandis L., 2" X ^Vs" X 36", 
submerged April 15, 1936. Some marine growth on the surfaces, especially oysters. No 
pholads seen and no definite signs of teredo found. Gribble work nil. 

B — Treated Timbers 

'Amarhlo, No. 1630-30. Chlorophora tinctores, Panama, treated with AREA No. 1 
coal tar creosote, 9^" X 12^" X 9', one end scarfed after treatment. Much marine 
growth of all sorts all over the timber. General appearance the same as last year except 
that the pholads are more plentiful. A section was cut along the scarfed face, about 
8" wide and 2" thick. See photos which show a fair number of rather large teredo 
burrows. Amarillo is not resistant to teredo and when creosoted acts much like any 
other creosoted timber. Scarfing after treatment exposes wood not as heavily impregnated 
as that nearer the surface. 

'C.W.S. A-17, No. 1707-10, creosote 19 lb. per cu. ft., 5 in. diameter X 20 in., 
submerged August 25, 1931. Considerable marine growth. Much gribble damage espe- 
cially in the end, more than last year. A section was cut this year and shows 8 
teredos, some }i inch in diameter, mostly in the center where the impregnation was not 
good. This test should be closed next year. 

'C.W.S. B-17, No. 1708-15, Creosote plus 0.71 per cent methyl arsenious oxide, 
28 lb. per cu. ft., 6^" diameter X 20", submerged August 25, 1931. Marine growth not 



338 Wood Preservation 



abundant. More gribble damage, especially to end than last year. No section was cut 
and I was unable to determine positively whether teredos were present. The timber 
appears to be quite sound. 

'C.W.S. D-17, No. 1710-17, creosote plus 2.5 per cent dinitrophenol, 20 lb. per 
cu. ft., S" diameter X 20", submerged' August 25, 1931. Much marine growth especially 
oysters. Surfaces not in bad shape. Last year a 4" section was cut and a few live 
teredos were found in the sapwood. This end is worse this year with much more 
evidence of gribble action. 

'Panama Canal Copper Cement Paint, Creosoted Fir, No. 1714-29, ends only 
coated with the paint. Size 3" X 12" X 30", submerged April 20, 1933. Much marine 
growth. Considerable gribble work. No section was cut because the general appearance 
indicated soundness (which does not eliminate the possibility of some teredos). 

'As above except untreated Almendro, P.C. stock, No. 1718-34, size 6" X 6" X 30", 
submerged April 20, 1935. Much marine growth. A section cut last year had four 
teredos, largest of these 1.4 inch in diameter. The timber appears to have more teredos 
this year and as it is a failure it should be closed next year when a careful examination 
can be made. 

'Also as above except untreated Greenheart, P.C. stock. No. 1719-35, size 
6" X 6" X 30", submerged April 20, 1933. Much as last year. Section cut last year 
had one teredo, so that the toxic cement paint gives no added protection. 

'Goodale Process, No. 1720-16, 7 pieces on the same rack, received from Dr. Wm. F. 
Clapp of Boston. Submerged April 27, 1936. Numbers 2, 3, 10, and 11 were 
4" X 6" X 8" and Numbers 18, 21 and 22 were 2" X 4" X 18". All are pressure treated 
180 lb., and the end result is supposed to be an insoluble toxic salt in the cells of the 
wood. Only five months exposure and ALL are decided failures. Such as are not 
thoroughly honeycombed would be in another month or two. All 7 Closed. 

'So far there has been no evidence of chelura in this locality.' " 

A further report, dated October 5th, reads as follows: 

"Under date of October 1, 1936, Mr. Zetek has submitted the following, supplementary 
to his 1936 report on the condition of the timbers in the marine borer tests in the Canal 
Zone." 

'Herewith brief report on the marine wood boring Crustacea, supplementary to my 
1936 report on the condition of the timbers in the marine borer tests at Balboa, C.Z.' 
'Only three species are known to be of economic importance. These are: 
Order Isopoda, Family Limnorhdae, Limnoria lignorum (Rathke) 

Family Spheromidae, Sphaeroma destructor Richardson 
Order Amphipoda, Family Cheluridae, Chelura terebrans Phil. 

'In so far as our tests are concerned, only Limnoria lignorum is at present involved. 
Neither Sphaeroma nor Chelura have so far been found. 

^Limnoria cannot withstand low salinity nor silting. Sphaeroma on the other hand 
can live in waters of low salinity. Sphaeroma is found from Florida and Venezuela, and 
from the New England coast. If it occurs in Panama, it would be more likely on the 
Atlantic side. 

^Chelura terebrans is very destructive in Europe and recently has been found along 
the New England coast. It often practically drives out Limnoria. 

'There seems to be much interest of late m the Chelura-Sphaeroma distribution and 
if these two genera should be found here, it will in all probability be on the Atlantic 
side. I would suggest that several timbers be submerged both at Balboa and some- 
where on the Atlantic side for the express purpose to furnish abundant crustacean 
material for study. When these are removed I should be advised. 

"Mr. Zetek's suggestion will be adopted and a report on the timbers included in the 
subsequent years reports." 

CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE SPECIMENS 
Series No. 1 

No. 1 — 1 per cent solution of ammoniacal copper carbonate. 

Only two specimens remain under test of those submerged in 1925. The one at 
San Juan, P.R. shows heavy teredo and limnoria attack and the San Francisco Bay 
specimens show attack by limnoria and bankia. 



Wood Preservation ^^^ 



No. 2 — 1 per cent diphenylamine chlorarsene in creosote. 

Test pieces at San Juan show a slight limnoria attack while those in San Francisco 
Bay and at the Puget Sound Navy Yard are in good condition after 11 years. 

No. 3 — 0.75 per cent diphenylamine chlorarsene and O.S per cent phenyldichlorarsene 
in fuel oil. 

All test pieces have been destroyed except those in San Francisco Bay and those 
show heavy attack by limnoria and bankia. 

Series No. 2 

Test specimens were treated at the Edgewood Arsenal in 1931. Controls were 
treated with AREA No. 1 creosote and the other specimens with the same creosote to 
which was added varying proportions of methylarsenious oxide, diphenylamine chlorar- 
sene, and dinitrophenol. Similar series were prepared using the same chemicals with 
fuel oil as the carrier. 

These test pieces were submerged under the direction of the Corps of Engineers at 
Fort Tilden, N. Y.. and Castle Pinckney, S. C, by the Bureau of Lighthouses at San 
Juan, P. R., by the Panama Canal at Miraflores, the Southern Pacific Company in San 
Francisco Bay, by the Bureau of Yards and Docks of the Navy Dept. at the Naval Air 
Station at Pensacola, Fla., the Puget Sound Navy Yard at Bremerton, Wash., the Pearl 
Harbor Navy Yard at Pearl Harbor, H. I., and the Cavite Naval Station at Cavite, P. I. 

The test at Cavite has been closed because of the heavy attack by pholads. 

The creesoted pieces at all stations are showing attack by both crustacean and 
molluscan borers through the ends of the pieces which were not properly treated but 
there has been little or no attack in the creosoted section of the timber. There is, so 
far, no indication that the chemicals added to the creosote have had any effect. 

The oil treated pieces which depended entirely on the toxicity of the chemicals have 
been attacked. Those at Fort Tiden and in San Francisco Bay show very light attack 
but at most of the other stations the attack varies from heavy to complete destruction. 

S.^N Fr.\ncisco Bay Tests 

Barrett Manufacturing Co. Material 

These test pieces were treated with creosotes especially prepared under the direction 
of Dr. von Schrenk and S. L. Church and were placed under test in January 1923. 
Information is contained in previous reports as to the materials used for impregnation. 
The test is for the purpose of finding out the effect of changes in the composition of 
creosote on the service life of the timber. There are 32 different specimens and after 
13 years' submersion there has not been sufficient attack to make it possible to draw any 
conclusions. The untreated control pieces have been replaced several times because of 
heavy attack. 

Marine Test Piles 

The following tables 1-A to 1-D, give the 1936 condition of four sets of test piles 
driven in 1919 and 1920 at Seattle, Wash., Tiburon on San Francisco Bay, San Pedro 
and San Diego. Each set originally consisted of seven piles as follows: 

3 old creosoted fir piles, originally driven in 1890 Table 1-A 

1 " » " " " " " 1901 " 1-B 

2 new freshly creosoted fir piles " " 1919-20 " 1-C 

1 " untreated fir pile " " 1919-20 " 1-D 

The untreated piles were destroyed in three or four years, leaving six piles in 
each set. 

The set at San Diego was exposed for test by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railway Co. in their wharf No. 63 until this wharf was dismantled in 1925. After being 
repaired these piles were redriven by the Southern Pacific Company at Long Beach, 
Cal., and the test continued. 

Test Piles — Table 1-A 
Creosoted fir piles from Southern Pacific Company Old Long Wharf, Dock "A", 
Oakland, originally driven in 1890, pulled in 1919 and redriven elsewhere. Exposed to 
marine borer attack 46 years to date. 



340 



Wood Preservation 



Redriven for Test 



1936 Inspection 



Mark 
A 6 
A 8 
A 32 



Date 

1920 
1920 
1920 



A 19 1919 



A 28 
A 29 


1919 
1919 


A 5 


1890- 
1919 


A 20 


1890- 
1919 


A 34 


1890- 
1919 


A 2 
A 2 


1890- 
1920 
1925 


A 7 

A 7 
A 33 

A 33 


1890- 
1920 
1925 
1890- 
1920 
1925 



Railroad Location Remarks Borers 

NP Ry Seattle No sign of live teredo Teredo 

NP Ry Seattle No sign of live teredo and 

NP Ry Seattle No sign of live teredo Limnoria 

Very little teredo action is shown but there is con- 
siderable Limnoria action between high and low tide 
NWP RR Tiburon Pile is checked between the tide lines. Teredos have 

entered in two places. Also evidence of Limnoria. Teredo 

Pile leaning to the north but no noticeable change Limnoria 

since 1935. Bankia 
NWP RR Tiburon Condition good. No evidence of borer attack. do 

NWP RR Tiburon Condition good. No indication of borer attack. All 

tags in place. do 

SP San Pedro Pile has 16 ft. of water at low tide. Limnoria work- 

ing above copper plate placed over three small holes Limnoria 
1 H" deep located at low tide. 

SP San Pedro 24 ft. of water at low tide. do 

Good condition, no change. 

SP San Pedro Two holes 3" deep, filled with asphaltic cement in 

1927 and covered by copper plate. 16 ft. water at low 
tide. No change, condition good. do 

AT&SF San Diego Pulled in 1925. Redriven Long Beach do 

SP Long Beach 14 ft. water at low tide. Holes of 1925 repaired. do 

Destroyed by Str. Wapama 8-8-33 

AT&SF San Diego Pulled in 1925. Redriven Long Beach do 

SP Long Beach Holes of 1925 repaired. No change, condition good. do 

AT&SF San Diego Pulled in 1925. Redriven Long Beach. do 

SP Long Beach 14 ft. water at low tide. Holes of 1925 repaired, no 

change, condition good. do 



Test Piles— Table 1-B 



Creosoted fir piles from Southern Pacific Company Old Long Wharf, Dock "E", 
Oakland; originally driven in 1901; pulled in 1919 and redriven elsewhere; exposed to 
marine borers 35 years to date. 



Redriven for Test 



1935 Inspection 



E 42 1919 NWP RR Tiburon 



E 38 1919 SP 



Mark Date Railroad Location Remarks 

E 46 1920 NP Ry Seattle No sign of live teredo but considerable Limnoria ac- 

tion between high and low tide. 

Checked in a few places between tide lines. Marine 
borers have entered in a few places. Holes repaired 
Jan. 1925 by filling with petrolastic cement and cov- 
ering with copper plate. Plate replaced in 1935. 
Filled holes in good condition. No new attacks. 
San Pedro 22 ft. water at low tide Slight Limnoria attack in 
1923 at low water, also 1929 and 1932. Cavity 1 }i" x 
3" X 2" deep 2 ft. below high water, repaired 
with hot asphalt, sand and cement and covered with 
copper plate March 1933. Below plate 50 per cent of 
surface eaten off by Limnoria from i o inch to ■* ( inch 
and several feet below low water. Patched place in 
good condition no visible change since 1935 inspec- 
tion. 
1920 AT&SF San Diego Pulled in 1925 and redriven Long Beach. 
1925 SP Long Beach Light attacks at low water in 1927 and 1929. Borers 

2 ft. below high water 1929 to 1934. 25 per cent of 
pile eaten off by Limnoria in 1935. Inspection of 1936 
shows no change. 14 ft. of water at low tide. 



E 50 
E 50 



Borers 
Bankia 
Limnoria 
Teredo 
Bankia 

and 
Limnoria 



Limnoria 



Limnoria 



Wood Preservation 341 



Test Phes— Table 1-C 
Freshly creosoted fir piles exposed to marine borer attack for 15 years to date. 

Driven for Test 1936 Inspection 

Mark Date Railroad Location Remarks Borers 

47 1920 NP Ry Seattle No sign of teredo attack. Some Limnoria action be- Bankia 

tween high and low tides. Limnoria 

48 1920 do do Check near bottom showed teredo sign, also small 

check 15 ft. above bottom, Nov. 1933. Not serious. do 

No live teredo. Considerable Limnoria action be- 
tween high and low tide. 

43 1919 NWP RR Tiburon Condition good. No attack. Teredo 

44 1919 do do Condition good. No attack. Bankia 

Limnoria 

40 1919 SP San Pedro Ground exposed at low tide. No attack. Limnoria 

41 1919 do do Ground exposed at low tide. No attack. do 

51 1920 AT&SF San Diego Pulled in 1925. Redriven Long Beach. do 

52 1920 AT&SF San Diego Pulled in 1925. Redriven at Long Beach. Limnoria 
52 1925 SP Long Beach 14 ft. water at low tide. Some holes in 1925 repaired. 

No sign of attack since. 

NEW ENGLAND MARINE BORER ATTACK 

The Marine Piling Investigation conducted by the New England Committee, under 
the direction of A. H. Morrill, Chief Engineer, Boston & Maine Railroad, has been 
actively continued during the past year. The value of the data obtained from the use 
of test boards has resulted in a considerable increase in the number of boards being 
operated in the area from Norwalk, Conn., to Newfoundland. The New Haven Railroad 
has also maintained test boards in New York State at the entrance to the East River 
and the Erie Railroad is continuing to maintain two boards in Newark Bay. The 
number of boards in active operation has increased from 79, in February 1935, to 152, 
in October 1936. Twenty additional boards are soon to be submerged along the Con- 
necticut Coast, which with the boards operated by private corporations and not directly 
under the supervision of the New England Committee, will bring the total to 
approximately 190. 

The test board was originally designed to act more or less as a trap to secure mate- 
rial for laboratory study, to obtain more accurate information in connection with 
breeding seasons, length of Hfe, the rate of destruction and other little known factors in 
the life history of marine borers. The boards have fulfilled these requirements and 
have been of great value in demonstrating clearly for the first time the correct solution 
for many previously disputed problems. 

The increase in the number of boards has been due to some extent to the desire to 
obtain more accurate information concerning the fauna and flora existing beneath marine 
structures where it had been suspected that one or more of the marine borers might be 
present. While it is possible that a few teredo, bankia, limnoria or chelura, might be 
existing in the piling or cribbing without appearing in the test boards, it has been 
demonstrated innumerable times that no measurable attack can occur without its being 
recorded in the test boards. Divers' examinations and the pulling of piles have shown 
that the rate of marine borer activity in the timbers has been very accurately recorded 
in the test boards. 

The test boards are therefore being increasingly used as a form of insurance to 
provide advance information of any marked increase in the activity of any of the 
destructive organisms. 

Wharf Inspections. — Because of the increase in destruction in recent years in the 
wharves in New England harbors due to the action of marine borers, careful inspections 
of piling beneath many of the important structures have been made. 

It is obvious that specific cases of severe destruction can rarely be cited because 
of the possible influence on property values. It can, however, be stated that over 
100,000 piles have been examined by divers trained in this particular work, and several 
thousand samples have been obtained for laboratory study. Each individual pile in 
some of the larger wharves in Boston harbor has been examined three times in as many 
years. The records of these inspections demonstrates without exception a measurable 
and rapidly rising increase in destruction due to marine borer attack. The rate of 
increase, the organisms responsible and other data resulting from these inspections check 
closely with the indications of the test boards submerged beneath these structures. 

In one of the large whar\'es in East Boston where marine borer attack has neces- 
sitated extensive and costly replacements, a diver's inspection, completed in October 1936, 



342 Wood Preservation 



indicates that practically all remaining untreated piling has lost an inch or more in 
diameter since the previous inspection in the fall of 1935. 

When, recently, the temporary bridge at Fore River, Quincy, Mass., was removed, it 
was found that the piling which had been in service only two years had lost an average 
of more than one inch in diameter. 

Service Records. — As a result of the inspections mentioned above, it has been pos- 
sible to record valuable information in connection with the material used in replace- 
ments. Several hundred new piles which have been treated with various retentions of 
creosote and varying percentage solutions of creosote — coal tar have been tagged, and 
in addition the exact location of the piling, the date of placing has been recorded. In 
addition several test installations of special concrete, cast iron and other pile splices 
have been made. Two damaged piles have been provided with protection by means of 
a proprietary protective casing of concrete. This method has been used successfully in 
southern waters, its value in northern waters will be indicated by the service record of 
these piles. 

Exposure Tests. — Timbers treated with various grades of creosote have been sub- 
merged under the direction of the New England Committee, in the harbors of Portland, 
Me., Boston, New Bedford and other harbors. Greenheart, Manbarklak and other 
timbers are also under test. 

Testing Stations (New England). — The testing station established by the New 
England Committee at the State Pier at New Bedford has been discontinued. The test 
boards from this pier in 1935 showed only a light attack compared to that of previous 
years. It appeared that the placing of a large number of creosoted piles in this struc- 
ture was the cause of this reduction in borer activity because there was no apparent 
decrease in the attack in other structures in the harbor. 

All material under test was moved to Newport, R. I., and resubmerged under the 
care of the Public Works Officer at the Naval Training Station. More than 200 treated 
tests together with a number of specimens of metals and materials to which protective 
coatings have been applied are under observation. 

Testing Grounds (Tropical).— A number of test stations have been established in 
the West Indies and Central and South America with the assistance of the United Fruit 
Company, the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, the Standard Fruit Company and 
others. It is not intended to continue to operate all these tropical and semi-tropical 
stations, but it is hoped that where attack is found to be most severe and destructive 
organisms most abundant, that one or two permanent testing grounds may be established. 
At these points accelerated tests may be carried on with duplicates of the specimens 
at Newport. 

Associated Organisms. — Much study has been given to the problem of predicting 
attack by study of the associated organisms. Progress is being made out because it is 
found that much biological judgment has to be used this method cannot safely be used 
except by a trained biologist and he has to take many factors into account. Certain 
encrusting organisms are undoubtedly associated with the borers but even if they are 
present, their physical condition has to be taken into account as well as other char- 
acteristics. It has been hoped for a long time that this method of predicting attack 
could be so simplified that it could be used by a well informed Engineer but this is 
not yet possible. 

The New England Committee has published two "Progress Reports" which give full 
information regarding methods and materials used in the study and also the results 
obtained at each test station occupied. Report No. 1 has 209 pages and No. 2 has 249. 
The intensity of attack has varied ever since the committee study was started. The 
conditions since the last report to this Association have been as follows: 

Chelura Terebrans. — The study of the test boards has revealed an interesting 
factor in the life cycle of chelura terebrans. In March 1936 this species completely dis- 
appeared from the test boards at all of the stations at which it had been abundant. This 
suggested that if some unfavorable factor was responsible, it must be very widespread 
to the extent that the area from Boston, Mass., to New London, Conn., was affected. 
No trace of chelura could be found on any of the test boards for four months. On 
August 1, 1936, specimens appeared in the blocks at Newport, R. I., and on August 3 at 
Nantucket, Woods Hole and South Boston. In a very short period of time at all the 
stations where chelura had previously been recorded, large numbers had reappeared. In 
October 1936 the species was found to be as numerous and destructive as before. The 
disappearance of chelura during this period may prove to be connected with the breeding 



Wood Preservation 343 



habits since a large proportion of the females examined in August were found to be 
gravid. 

LiMNORiA. — The test boards continue to show that the limnoria attack is increasing 
in practically every location where it is found. This is particularly true at Portland, 
Me., and Boston, Mass. 

Untreated piling removed from a temporary bridge at Fore River, Mass., after a 
service of slightly less than two years showed the result of an exceptionally severe 
attack. In 1923, test boards had shown comparatively few limnoria. Many of the piles 
mentioned above showed attack an inch in depth, which would mean a two-inch loss in 
diameter. 

A special test board removed from the water on November 1, after being submerged 
for three months in East Boston, contained many living limnoria tunneling at a depth 
of half an inch. 

Teredo navalis on the other hand has been less active during the summer of 1936 
than in the previous years. In Plymouth, New Bedford and many other locations, 
where in 1934 and 1935 heavy sets of teredo were found on test boards, in 1936 the set 
was comparatively very light. The resulting destruction will consequently be greatly 
reduced. At Searsport and Portland in Maine, in Lynn and Boston, Mass., no sets 
have been recorded during the 1936 breeding season. 

A study of the available salt water temperature records indicates a lower average 
temperature in Boston and Plymouth, Mass., and Portsmouth, N. H. It is possible that 
this decrease in teredo navalis activity may be due to unfavorably low temperatures. 

It can be stated, however, that along the entire New England coast the rate of 
destruction due to limnoria has, on the average, shown a marked increase. Chelura 
attack may be said to have remained approximately the same in 1936 as in 1935. 
Teredo navalis has shown a decided decrease in numbers due to very light sets where 
previously heavy sets had occurred, and to a complete absence of surviving embryos in 
1936 where light sets had occurred in 193S. 

SEA ACTION COMMITTEE 

Institution of Civil Engineers — England 

The first report of this committee was issued in 1920 and "Interim Reports" in 

pamphlet form have been issued annually since that date. In 1935 the "Fifteenth 

Report" was issued. This report is a comprehensive summary of the work done and 

results obtained in the fifteen years work. 

The investigations of the committee were designed to secure information with regard 
to the four principal materials used for marine construction purposes as follows: 
"1 — ^The Preservation of Timber 
2 — The Corrosion of Steel and Iron 
3 — The Preservation of Steel and Iron 
4 — The Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete" 

The study of the first subject was carried on along similar lines to those followed 
by the Chemical Warfare Service and other investigators in the United States. The 
English investigators, however, used alcohol as a carrier for the various chemical toxics 
as well as fuel oil which was the material used in this country. Both used creosote as 
well. The English test specimens were widely distributed for test among important 
Empire ports, having diverse water conditions. 

The conclusions of the committee are as follows: 

"1. Within the range of the experiments, no process for the preservation of timber 
was found more satisfactory than that of impregnation with creosote*; the efficacy of 

Summary* 

The Panama Canal tests continue to show the high resistance of several of the 
tropical timbers under test. So far as is known, no advantage has been taken of this 
information by engineers responsible for wharf construction. 

Because of the imperfect treatment of the Chemical Warfare tests pieces it appear? 
probable that these pieces will be destroyed before anything is learned as to whether the 
chemicals added to the creosote have given added protection. 

The Pacific Coast tests still fail to yield any information as to the relative value of 
the different creosotes and while the old Southern Pacific piles begin to show some 
attack it is not yet serious. The oldest of these piles are nearly 50 years in service. 



.U4 Wood Preservation 



this process depended on the completeness with which the penetration of the creosote 
into the timber had been effected. 

"2. With the soft-wood timbers usually employed in dock and harbor engineerinp: 
there was the well-known difficulty in obtaining penetration of creosote by the usual 
processes. 

"3. It was found that satisfactory penetration of the creosote into the timber was 
obtained when the timber had been previously incised. The depth of the penetration 
was governed by the depth of the incisions. 

"4. In some cases it was found that there was a danger of injuring the timbers 
if the depth of incisions exceeded ^ inch. 

"S. The best results were obtained when the incising immediately preceded the 
creosoting. 

"6. Some hardwood timbers used in marine constructions readily absorbed creosote 
when treated by the usual processes. 

"7. Creosoting by the Bethell or similar processes was found a convenient and 
generally satisfactory method of impregnation. 

"8. It was not found that the process of creosoting by the methods described 
affected the strength of the timber to any material degree, though when a high tem- 
perature (150 C.) was adopted in the Griffith process some reduction in strength was 
observed. 

"9. The arsenical compound, chloro-dihydrophenarsazine, commonly known as 
'D.M.', proved very deadly to teredo when in the state of free swimming larvae. It 
was readily inserted into the timber by being added to the creosote during the ordinary 
process of creosoting. Although concentrations of this compound to the extent of 
5 per cent have been added to the creosote, no definite increase in the preservative 
qualities of the creosote became apparent, since the controls impregnated with creosote 
only were also fuUy protected during the course of the experiments. 

"10. Experiments with crude mineral oil as a vehicle for the poison showed that 
the oil alone conferred no protection, but indicated that when D.M. was dissolved in it, 
it was efficient for such distance as the D.M. penetrated. 

"11. The experiments did not definitely show creosote to be efficient in the case of 
crustaceans such as limnoria, though it appeared to have some useful effect against 
chelura. 

"12. Merely painting the surface of the timber with the preservatives was found to 
be quite ineffectual. 

"13. Crude napthalene proved less efficient than creosote. The activity of creosote 
seems to depend not on the phenols but on the hydrocarbons of high boiling point, less 
volatile than napthalene." 

The method of preparing and testing the various ferrous specimens has been fully 
described in the reports of this Committee. The conclusions of the English Committee 
as a result of the ten year testis are as follows: 

"1. The maximum differences in resistance to corrosion by the various metals were 
shown in the aerial and fresh water tests. In the half tide, and more particularly in 
the complete-immersion tests in sea water, the metals behaved more alike. 

"2. On the whole there appeared little to choose between the wrought irons and 
the ordinary carbon steels used in this research in their mean resistance to the various 
types of corrosion studied. The carbon steels proved superior to the wrought irons in 
their resistance to aerial corrosion, whilst in fresh water there was nothing to choose. 
In the half-tide tests the wrought irons were slightly superior and in the complete- 
immersion tests in sea-water the wrought irons were decidedly superior to the steels. 

Steel high in sulphur and phosphorus but low in manganese (0.22 per cent C, 0.10 
per cent S, 0.07 per cent P, 0.34 per cent Mn) proved erratic in its resistance to corrosion. 

"4. Increasing the carbon content of ordinary steel from about 0.24 to 0.40 per cent 
did not appreciably affect the resistance of the metal against corrosion. 

"S. The presence of mill scale accentuated in a marked manner the tendency to 
localized corrosion and pitting. This was evident under all conditions of exposure to 
which the metals were exposed. 

"6. The cast irons resisted aerial corrosion exceedingly well, comparing favorably 
with the best of the alloy steels tested in this research. They also resisted fresh water 



Wood Preservation 345 



reasonably well. In the half-tide and complete-immersion tests in sea water corrosion 
frequently penetrated to the middle of the bars through pores and casting flaws. The 
extent of penetration was only ascertainable by fracture of the bars. 

"7. The addition of 0.6 and 2.2 per cent of copper to mild carbon steel markedly 
increased the resistance of the metal to aerial and fresh-water corrosion. This advan- 
tage, however, did not appear to be maintained in the half-tide and complete-immersion 
tests in sea-water. 

"8. High chromium steel of the type containing about 13.6 per cent of chromium 
satisfactorily resisted atmospheric and fresh water corrosion. In the half -tide and com- 
plete-immersion tests in sea water the test bars suffered serious localized corrosion with 
frequent perforation. This refers to bars tested both with their mill scale on and when 
ground and polished. 

"Q. The addition of 3.75 per cent nickel to 0.31 per cent carbon steel enhanced 
markedly its resistance to aerial and fresh water corrosion. In the half-tide and com- 
plete-immersion tests the nickel steel, however, whilst losing decidedly less in weight, 
manifested a tendency to deeper localized corrosion which reduced the advantage of the 
nickel content. 

"10. Steel containing 36.6 per cent of nickel proved highly resistant to all forrns 
of corrosion. It was the most resistant of all the materials tested. Steel of this 
composition also showed comparative freedom from pitting. 

"11. Placing dissimilar metals in contact did not lead to any pronounced results in 
the aerial tests. In all other tests it was found that: 

(a) Ordinary mild steel in contact with wrought iron was partially preserved 
at the expense of the wrought iron. 

(b) Chromium steel and high nickel steel in contact with ordinary carbon steel 
were protected from corrosion at the expense of the latter. 

"12. Cold working of the bars by bending did not lead generally to any appreciable 
increase in their total corrosion." 

The report on the methods of preparation and testing of the paint tests are too 
voluminous for quotation but the conclusions were as follows: 

"1. It was found that steel plates which have once been exposed to corrosion 
should be thoroughly cleaned by sandblasting or otherwise prior to the application of 
the protective coat. Painting on top of mill scale was found to be unsatisfactory as 
compared to painting on steel from which the scale had been removed; it resulted in 
greater loss of weight and deeper pitting. Removal of scale by corrosion in sea water 
was however unsatisfactory. 

"2. Multiple coats of paint generally afforded better protection than single coats. 

"3. The use of litho-oil as a vehicle with iron oxide gave encouraging results In 
the aerial and half-tide tests. 

"4. The dilution of 96.5 per cent of iron oxide pigment with about 12^ per cent 
of kaolin, silica or mineral white exerted no appreciable effect on the protective power 
of the paint. 

"5. On the whole there was little to choose between the different iron oxides tried. 

"6. Red and white lead paints proved rather superior to iron oxide in the aerial 
and half-tide tests, but somewhat inferior in the complete immersion tests. 

"7. In general, red lead containing 65 per cent of Pb304 proved slightly superior to 
that with a higher PbsO* content. 

"8. Red lead paints proved somewhat superior to white lead paint in the aerial 
and half-tide tests. In the complete-immersion tests the reverse was true, while mixtures 
of red and white lead gave intermediate results. 

"9. Lead chromate paint yielded promising results. 

"10. An anti-fouling paint containing oxides of copper and zinc gave results inferior 
to those obtained with the iron oxide paint in the complete-immersion tests. 

"11. Galvanizing proved very successful with a coating of about 20 oz. of zinc per 
square yard. 

"12. Coal tar gave excellent results and proved, under all circumstances, much 
better than iron oxide and lead paints. 



346 Wood Preservation 



"13. Coal tar from horizontal retorts was superior to that from vertical retorts, 
whether applied hot or cold. It was improved by the addition of slaked lime. 

"14. Bituminous solution gave poor results in the serial tests but excellent results 
in the half-tide and complete-immersion tests. 

"15. Oil paint was satisfactorily applied to a tarred surface after the latter had 
been first treated with three coats of shellac." 

The studies of the Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete have been carried on for a 
shorter time and less valuable results have, as yet, been obtained. The most important 
fact so far demonstrated is a clear indication that the addition of puzzolanas to both 
high early strength and normal Portland cements adds materially to the durability. 

Conclusions 

It is recommended that this report be received as information and the subject 
continued. 

Appendix C 

(5) DESTRUCTION BY TERMITES AND POSSIBLE WAYS 
OF PREVENTION 

Dr. Hermann von Schrenk, Chairman, Sub-Committee; Wm. G. Atwood, E. A. Craft, 
F. D. Mattos, W. A. Summerhays. 

The Sub-Committee on Termites this year can make only a progress report. 
While numerous instances have been reported to the Committee, none of them present 
anything radically different from similar attacks referred to in previous reports of the 
Committee. One outstanding case, however, deserves notice. 

The Committee is indebted to R. S. Belcher, of the Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railway, for the very interesting photograph given herein showing the destruction of a 
12 X 12 inch Douglas fir post removed from the outbound freight house at China Basin, 
San Francisco, Cal. Unfortunately, there is no authentic record as to exactly when this 
timber was placed, but it is believed that it has been functioning for about twelve years. 
The reason for publishing this photograph is to call attention to the extremely effective 
manner in which termites will destroy the inside of a structural member. The three 
sections shown represent successive pieces from the bottom towards the top of the post 
and show how the termites operate. They first attack the springwood and as they 
progress, the entire wood is hollowed out until there is practically nothing left. Note 
how they carefully avoid the heartwood which remains in the interior of the lower 
lefthand photograph looking like a small round post and also how they avoid all the 
knots. See Fig. 1 and 2. 

The above is offered as a progress report. 



I 



Wood Preservation 



347 





Fig. 1. — Damage Done By Termites. 



348 



Wood Pre?ervation 





Fig. 2. — Damage Done By Termites. 



Wood Preservation 349 



Appendix D 

(9) OUTLINE OF COMPLETE FIELD OF WORK OF 
THE COMMITTEE 

C. F. Ford, Chairman, Sub-Committee; the Committee as a Whole. 

1. Preservative Treatment of Wood 

(1) Adaptability of woods for preservative treatment. 

(2) Effect of structure of wood upon its permeability. 

(3) Relation of amount of preservative and depth of penetration to resistance 
against decay. 

(4) Effect of preservatives on the inflammability of woods. 

(5) Diagrams — Rate of seasoning of ties. 

(6) Fungi which live on structural timber. 

(7) Comparative value of types of treatment. 

(8) Choice of treating process. 

(9) Weight of air dried woods. 
(10) General provisions. 

2. Preparation and Handling of Wood Before and After Treatment 

(1) Grouping. 

(2) Stacking. 

(3) Seasoning. 

(4) Adzing, boring and framing. 

(5) Care of wood after treatment. 

3. Preservatives — Specifications 

Creosote. 

Creosote — Coal Tar Solution. 

Zinc Chloride. 

4. Treating Processes — Specifications 
Creosote and Creosote Coal Tar Solutions. 

(1) Full-Cell process. 

(2) Lowry " 

(3) Rueping " 

(1) Zinc Chloride 

(2) Zinc Chloride and Creosote Card process. 

(3) Zinc Tannin. 

5. Measuring and Sampling Creosote 

(1) Volume correction table. 

(2) Water in creosote. 

(3) Standard method of sampling concrete in tank cars. 

(4) Simplified method for taking samples of creosote in tank cars. 

(5) Methods of accurately determining absorption of creosote. 

6. Specifications for Creosote Analysis 

(1) Wate?. 

(2) Insoluble in benzol. 

(3) Specific gravity. 

(4) Distillation. 

(5) Specific gravity at 38 deg. 15.5 deg. C. of creosote fractions. 

(6) Float test. 

(7) Coke residue. 

(8) Standard methods for the determination of tar acids in creosote. 



350 Wood Preservation 



7. Methods of Chemical Analysis of Zinc Chloride 

(1) Preparation and standardization of solutions. 

(2) Determination of insoluble or basic zinc chloride. 

(3) Determination of zinc. 

(4) Estimation of iron and alumina. 

(5) Determining the strength of zinc chloride solution. 

(6) Directions for the use of Iodine Potassium Ferricyanide Starch reaction test 
for determining zinc chloride. 

(7) Determination of zinc in timbers. 

8. Douglas Fir — Specifications for Preservative Treatment 

(1) Artificial seasoning. 

(2) Air seasoned. 

9. Forms for Reporting Inspection 

10. Boring of Bridge and Switch Ties for Spikes Before Treatment 

11. Service Test Records of Structural Timber, Including Piling 

12. Preservatives 

(1) Relation of amount and depth of penetration to resistance against decay. 

(2) Use of crude petroleum. 

(3) Use of petroleum tar creosote. 

(4) Use of wood creosote. 

(5) Use of water-gas tar creosote for ties. 

(6) Use of zinc chloride petroleum. 

(7) Sodium fiouride. 

(8) Directions for determining penetration in wood. 

13. Miscellaneous 

(1) Curves showing average life of ties. 

(2) Comparative value of treatments for ties. 

(3) Leaching tests, zinc chloride treatment. 

(4) Creosoted versus zinc treated ties, line of demarcation. 

(5) Value of treatment of ties. 

(6) Curve-tie renewals in relation to average life. 

(7) Factors governing for maximum service life of zinc chloride treatment. 

(8) Factors governing tie renewals per mile of track in any one year. 

(9) Use of coal tar in creosote. 

(10) Protection of piles against marine borers. 

(11) Treatment to be used for Atlantic and Gulf Coast Marine Piling. 

(12) Marine piling investigation Pacific Coast. 

(13) Mechanical protection of piles against marine borers. 

(14) Steaming— effect on woods (W. K. Hatt). 

(15) Strength of ties treated with crude oil. (W. K. Hatt) 

(16) Strength of treated timber. 

(17) Preservative treatment of white oak ties. 

(18) Preservative treatment of tropical timbers for ties. 

(19) Termites — Destruction and possible ways of prevention. 

(20) Definitions of terms used in wood preservation. 

(21) Creosoted water tanks. 

(22) Service test of treated ties — annual progress report. ♦ 

(23) Effect of preservative treatment. Progress in study. 

(a) creosote and petroleum. 

(b) zinc chloride and petroleum. 

(24) Effect on preservative in treated ties in track due to blowing off locomotives 
on lines of road. Progress in study. 

(25) Incising of all forest products. Progress in study. 

(26) Investigations being made for the determination of toxicity value of creosote 
and creosote mixtures. Progress in study. 



Wood Preservation 



3S1 




Frank Cummings Shepherd 



352 Wood Preservation 



jFranb Cwmmingss ^i)cpf)erb 
A MEMOIR* 

Frank Cummengs Shepherd, son of Joseph Choate Shepherd and Martha Colby 
Shepherd, was born on December 31, 1870, at Gloucester, Mass., and died on August 6, 
1935. He came from an old New England family, for many years outstanding in the 
development and activities of Massachusetts. His grandfather was a farmer, and for a 
time was in the contracting business, largely road construction, constructing the first 
road built between Gloucester, Mass., and Rockport, Mass. His grandmother was an 
artist of much skill. 

Mr. Shepherd's father, a soldier in the Civil War, ran away from home to join 
Company G of the 8th Massachusetts Volunteers. He was the youngest man to go 
from Gloucester. Later he owned and conducted a grocery and provision business in 
Gloucester. From his father, Mr. Shepherd may have inherited his interest and skill in 
things military, for it is recorded he played an outstanding part in the activities of the 
High School Cadets, becoming Adjutant of the Regiment. Following his graduation 
from the Gloucester High School in 1888, he entered the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, from which he graduated in 1892. 

Mr. Shepherd was an Engineer of broad experience. Prior to entering the em- 
ployment of the Boston and Maine, he was connected in engineering capacities with the 
following: 

1. At Charlestown, Boston, Mass., in the construction of a large water main of 
the Metropolitan Water Works under the Mystic River. 

2. At Boston, in the construction of the first section of the Tremont Street Sub- 
way between Sollay Square and Park Street and, later, in the construction of the 
Boylston Street Subway. 

3. At Portsmouth, N. H., in the construction of a dry dock at the United States 
Navy Yard. 

4. In Boston, as Superintendent of the Street Cleaning Department. 

5. In New York, as Resident Engineer in the construction of the Grand Central 
Terminal in 1902 and 1905. 

6. With J. G. White Co. of New York in construction of foundations for the City 
Investing Building and in the construction of power plants in Canada and Georgia. 

7. With Stewart Bros., in the construction of the Barge Canal at Oneida River, 
New York. 

Mr. Shepherd entered the employment of the Boston and Maine Railroad in April, 
1912, serving as Construction Engineer and Engineer of Construction from April, 1912 
to February, 1914. During this period the railroad was engaged in the physical re- 
habilitation of the property and he had charge of the planning, estimating and designing 
of many large improvements, among which the following were completed under Mr. 
Shepherd's supervision: ^ 

1. The construction of a 9J4 mile extension of the Connecticut River Railroad, 
leased by the Boston and Maine, from Hinsdale, N. H., to Brattleboro, Vt., including 
yard rearrangement at Brattleboro, elimination of grade crossings, a new freight yard 
and a new passenger station at Brattleboro. 

2. The construction of many sections of second main track. 

3. The elimination of many large grade crossings. 

4. The construction of new freight classification yards, together with enginehouse, 
coaling, sand and water facilities at numerous places, including Mechanicville, N. Y., 
where the Boston and Maine makes interchange with the Delaware & Hudson Railroad. 

5. Construction of new interlocking plants, new passenger stations, turntables, 
freight houses, etc. 

6. The construction and improvement of shop facilities, particularly that of a new 
motive power and car shop layout at Billerica, Mass. 

• Memoir prepared by R. S. Belcher, C. S. Burt, W. F. Cummings, E. A. Craft, O. C. Steinmayer 
and Dr. Heimann von Schrenk, 



Wood Preservation 353 



In 1914, Mr. Shepherd was appointed Valuation Engineer. In this capacity he 
organized and carried through the work of his Company in connection with the Federal 
Valuation of Railroads by the Interstate Commerce Commission. He was one of the 
real pioneers in valuation work and an outstanding authority on valuation. 

In 1917, he was made Principal Assistant Engineer and in 1920, Assistant Chief 
Engineer, in which capacity he acted until 1926. During this period Mr. Shepherd made 
an investigation of the use of treated ties and timbers, resulting in the building of a 
timber treating plant at Nashua, N. H., for the treatment of railroad ties, timbers, and 
piling, and in addition, miscellaneous material for commercial use. 

He was advanced to Chief Construction Engineer in 1926, and while in this posi- 
tion, had supervision of the construction of new coal handling facilities at the Railroad's 
wharf properties in Boston and the construction of a new passenger station and 
auditorium in Boston. 

Mr. Shepherd was appointed Consulting Engineer in 1927, and served in that 
capacity until his death in 1935. As Consulting Engineer, he had charge of all engineer- 
ing matters connected with the Railroad's relations with public authorities. 

About 1934, teredo, limnoria and other marine borers gave evidence of their pres- 
ence in New England waters and under his direction and chairmanship, a committee was 
formed to investigate and study the situation, this committee including representatives 
of the various railroads, city and state departments, and commercial concerns interested. 
With characteristic energy and efficiency, Mr. Shepherd got this work underway, and 
under his direction a great deal of valuable information has been collected. 

Mr. Shepherd was a member of: 

Boston Society of Civil Engineers New England Railroad Club 

American Society of Civil Engineers (Past-President — 1927-1928) 

American Railway Engineering Association New England Marine Piling Investigation 

(Chairman — Wood Preservation Committee) (Chairman) 
American Wood Preservers' Association 

(Second Vice-President) 

(Member — Executive Committee) 

He was the recipient of the Desmond Fitzgerald Medal from the Boston Society of 
Civil Engineers for the best paper presented before the Society for the year 1925. The 
subject of the paper was: "The Preservative Treatment of Ties on the Boston and 
Maine Railroad". 

Mr. Shepherd was admitted to membership in the American Railway Engineering 
Association, September 12, 1916, was made a member of Committee XVII — Wood 
Preservation in 1924, served as Vice-Chairman of that Committee in 1925 and 1926, and 
as Chairman from 1927 to 1935. He was also a member of Committee XXVI — Stand- 
ardization from 1927 to 1935, and a member of the Special Committee on Waterproofing 
Railroad Structures from 1933 to 1935. 

While keenly interested in such sports as baseball, football and polo, Mr. Shepherd 
only actually took up golf. He was a member of the Commonwealth Country Club of 
Chestnut Hill, Mass., and was active in the government of the Club. He was exceed- 
ingly fond of reading and had an excellent library. 

On June 8, 1897, he married Alice M. Elwell at Newton, Mass., who with their 
son, Thomas Elwell Shepherd, three grandchildren and a sister, Ella Shepherd, survives. 

A man of broad experience, keen judgment, fairness and kindliness in his dealings, 
he endeared himself to all with whom he came in contact. A sense of personal loss has 
been felt by his associates who remain to mourn the loss of a loyal friend and a lovable 
companion. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE XXII— ECONOMICS OF 
RAILWAY LABOR 



F. S. ScHWiNN, Chairman; 
Lem Adams, 
L. L. Adams, 
C. W. Baldridge, 

H. B. B.ARRY, 

W. R. Bennett, 
F. J. Bishop, 
W. H. Brameld, 
W.C.Brown, 
H. A. Cassil, 
J.I. Catherman, 
Armstrong Chinn, 



G. W. Curtis, 
W. O. Frame, 
K. H. Hanger. 
W. S. Hanley, 
H. H. Harsh, 
A. C. Harvey, 
Elmer T. Howson, 
C. A. Johnston, 

H. E. KiRBY, 

C. R. Knowles, 
G. M. Magee, 
J. B. Martin, 



G. M. O'Rourke, Vice- 
chairman; 
J. S. McBride. 
F. N. N\t;, 
J. A. Par ant, 
P. T. Robinson, 
F. H. Rothe, 
Wm. Shea, 
H. M. Stout, 
J. B. Trenholm, 
W. H. Vance, 
C. R. Wright, 

Committee. 



To the American Railway Engineering Association: 

Your Committee respectfully reports on the following subjects: 

1. Revision of Manual. Progress in study — no report. 

2. Analysis of operations of railways that have made marked progress in the re- 
duction of labor required in maintenance of way work (Appendix A). Progress report. 

3. Economics of methods of weed killing. Progress in study — no report. 

4. Organization of forces and methods of performing maintenance of way work 
(Appendix B). Progress report. 

5. Out-of-face renewal of track in view of the increasing life of basic units of track 
construction. Progress in study — no report. 

6. Economies in labor to be effected through increased capital expenditures 
(Appendix C). Progress report. 

7. Economies in track labor to be effected in the maintenance of joints by welding 
and the use of reformed bars (Appendix D). Progress report. 

8. Effects of recent developments in maintenance of way practices on gang organ- 
ization (such as use of heavier rail, treated ties and labor-saving devices which make 
practicable small section forces, and conducting the major part of maintenance work with 
extra gangs). Progress in study — no report. 

9. Comparative costs of maintaining track on various kinds of ballast (Appendix 
E). Progress report. 

10. The effect of higher speeds on the labor cost of track maintenance (Appendix 
F). Complete and presented as information. 

11. Rules and Organization, reviewing subject-matter in Chapter XII in 1929 
Manual and Supplements thereto pertaining to Economics of Railway Labor. No report 
— subject withdrawn. 

12. Outline of complete field of work of the Committee (Appendix G). Complete, 
with recommended conclusions for publication in the Manual. 

The Committee on Economics of Railway Labor, 

F. S. ScnwoNN, Chairman. 



Bulletin 391, November, 1936. 



355 



356 Economics of Railway Labor 



Appendix A 

(2) ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONS OF RAILWAYS THAT HAVE 
MADE MARKED PROGRESS IN REDUCTION OF LABOR 
REQUIRED IN MAINTENANCE OF WAY WORK 

H. A. Cassil, Chairman, Sub-Committee; Lem Adams, F. J. Bishop, W. H. Brameld, 
J. I. Catherman, W. O. Frame, Elmer T. Howson, H. E. Kirby, J. B. Martin, 
J. A. Parant, F. S. Schwinn, Wm. Shea, J. B. Trenhohn, C. R. Wright. 

Following the completion of the report on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, submitted 
in 1934 and printed on pages 348 to 353, inclusive, of Vol. 36 of the Proceedings, the 
Norfolk & Western Railway was selected as the next road to be studied. For many 
years that railroad has recognized the economy resulting from improvement of its road- 
bed and track structure and has consistently followed the policy of investing a liberal 
share of its earnings in such improvements. After the relinquishment of Federal control 
in 1920, this policy called for expenditures for maintenance of way and structures wh ch 
increased to a maximum of $16,413,152 in 1926. In that year the operating revenues 
also reached a peak of $120,409,038. These expenditures made possible a reduction of 
maintenance of way and structures expense in the succeeding years. In 1929 such expense 
had fallen to $14,838,067, although revenues were almost as great as in 1926. 

However, the reduction in the labor portion of this expense was proportionately 
greater than the total reduction. In 1927 it was found that labor expense could be 
somewhat reduced and in 1928 very marked reduction was possible. Some further re- 
ductions were made in 1929 and 1930 and, as a result of the improvements made up to 
that time, the drastic reduction in revenues which occurred in succeeding years could 
be met by an even greater proportionate reduction in the maintenance of way and 
structures expenses. 

In the Lehigh Valley study, the years 1915, 1916 and 1917 were used as a basis for 
comparison with later years up to 1929, inclusive. In the case of the Norfolk & Western, 
1923 has been used as a starting point for comparison with following years up to 1935, 
inclusive. As a matter of fact, the so-called test period of 1915, 1916 and 1917 was far 
from normal, owing to the disturbance of industrial and traffic conditions by the World 
War. This period was followed by Federal control. In the latter part of 1920 and 1921 
the first post-war depression occurred and in 1922 expenses were affected by strikes, so 
that 1923 is the first year that can really be considered normal since the beginning of 
the World War in 1914. 

It is the Committee's opinion that, as its studies are from time to time made on 
various roads, the pre-war period will have less and less importance, and that such 
studies should begin with the first normal year after the war and include the latest years 
for which statistics are available. This extends the period under study to include the 
years of depression, and allowa